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3. reported speech
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3. reported speech

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3. reported speech Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Reported speech - English GrammarStatements1) If the introductory sentence starts in the present (Susan says),there is no backshift of tenses in Reported speech.Example:Direct speech: Susan: "I work in an office."Reported speech: Susan says that she works in an office.
  • 2. Reported speech - English Grammar2) If the introductory sentence starts in the past (Susan said),There is often backshift of tenses in Reported speech. (see: Note)Example:Susan: "I work in an office."Susan said that she worked in an office.
  • 3. Reported speech - English GrammarStatements Backshift of tensesfrom toSimple Present Simple PastSimple PastPast PerfectPresent PerfectPast Perfectwill WouldProgressive formsam/are/is was/werewas/werehad beenhas beenhad been
  • 4. Backshift of tensesfrom toPeter: "I work in the garden."Peter said that he worked in thegarden.Peter: "I worked in the garden."Peter said that he had worked in thegarden.Peter: "I have worked in the garden."Peter: "I had worked in the garden."Peter: "I will work in the garden."Peter said that he would work in thegarden.Peter: "I can work in the garden."Peter said that he could work in thegarden.Peter: "I may work in the garden."Peter said that he might work in thegarden.Peter: "I would work in the garden."(could, might, should, ought to)Peter said that he would work in thegarden.(could, might, should, ought to)
  • 5. Backshift of tensesfrom toProgressive formsPeter: "Im working in the garden."Peter said that he was working inthe garden.Peter: "I was working in thegarden."Peter said that he had beenworking in the garden.Peter: "I have been working in thegarden."Peter: "I had been working in thegarden."
  • 6. If the sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it as well.Peter: "I worked in the garden yesterday."Peter said that he had worked in the garden the day before.Shifting of expressions of timethis (evening) that (evening)today/this day that daythese (days) those (days)now then(a week) ago (a week) beforelast weekend the weekend before / the previous weekendhere therenext (week) the following (week)tomorrow the next/following day
  • 7. Note:In some cases the backshift of tenses is not necessary, e.g.when statements are still true.John: "My brother is at Leipzig university.“John said that his brother was at Leipzig university. orJohn said that his brother is at Leipzig university.OrMandy: "The sun rises in the East.“Mandy said that the sun rose in the East. orMandy said that the sun rises in the East.
  • 8. Reported questionsIf you put a question into Reported speech there are some steps which are thesame like in statement: (changing of the person, backshift of tenses, changing ofexpressions of time).In Reported speech there is no question anymore, the sentence becomes astatement.Thats why the word order is: subject - verbQuestion without question words (yes/no questions):Peter: "Do you play football?"- Peter asked me whether (if) I played football.Question with question words:Peter: "When do you play football?"- Peter asked me when I played football.
  • 9. Reported commandsIf you put a command into Reported speech there are some steps which are the samelike in statements: (changing of the person, backshift of tenses, changing ofexpressions of time).The form is mostly: form of to tell + to + infinitive.Affirmative commands Negative commandsFather: "Do your homework."Teacher. "Dont talk to yourneighbour."Father told me to do my homework.The teacher told me not to talk tomy neighbour.
  • 10. Finish the sentences using Reported speech. Always change the tense,although it is sometimes not necessary.Example: Peter: "I clean the black shoes."Peter told me that ____________________________Answer: Peter told me that he cleaned the black shoes.1. John: "Mandy is at home."John said that2. Max: "Frank often reads a book."Max told me that3. Susan: "Im watching TV."Susan said to me that4. Simon: "David was ill."Simon said that5. Peggy: "The girls helped in the house."Peggy told me thatReported speech – simple statements - Exercise 1
  • 11. 6. Richard: "I am going to ride a skateboard."Richard said to me that7. Stephen and Claire: "We have cleaned the windows.“Stephen and Claire told me that8. Charles: "I didnt have time to do my homework."Charles remarked that9. Mrs Jones: "My mother will be 50 years old."Mrs Jones told me that10. Jean: "The boss must sign the letter."Jean said thatReported speech – simple statements - Exercise 1
  • 12. Finish the sentences using Reported speech. Always change the tense,although it is sometimes not necessary.Example: Peter: "I cleaned the black shoes yesterday."Peter told me that _________________________________Answer: Peter told me that he had cleaned the black shoes the daybefore.1. Emily: "Our teacher will go to Leipzig tomorrow."Emily said that ……………………………………………… .2. Helen: "I was writing a letter yesterday."Helen told me that ……………………………………………….3. Robert: "My father flew to Dallas last year."Robert told me that ……………………………………………… .4. Lisa: "Tim went to the stadium an hour ago."Lisa said that ……………………………………………… .Reported speech - statements with expressions of time – Exercise 2
  • 13. Finish the sentences using Reported speech. Always change thetense, although it is sometimes not necessary.5. Patricia: "My mother will celebrate her birthday next weekend."Patricia said that ……………………………………………………………..6. Michael: "I am going to read a book this week."Michael said to me that ……………………………………………………………..7. Jason and Victoria: "We will do our best in the exams tomorrow."Jason and Victoria told me that…………………………………………………….8. Andrew: "We didnt eat fish two days ago."Andrew remarked that ……………………………………………………………..9. Alice: "I spent all my pocket money on Monday."Alice complained that ……………………………………………………………..10. David: "John had already gone at six."David said that ……………………………………………………………..Reported speech - statements with expressions of time – Exercise 2
  • 14. Finish the sentences using Reported speech.Always change the tense, although it is sometimes not necessary.Example: Peter: "Clean the black shoes!"Peter told me _________________________Answer: Peter told me to clean the black shoes.1) Andrew: "Clean the blue bike!"Andrew told me ………………………………………………………………….2) Jessica: "Write a text message!“Jessica told me ………………………………………………………………….3) Nelly: "Help Peters sister!“Nelly told me ……………………………………... ………………………….4) Fred: "Wash your hands!“Fred told me ………………………………………….………………………….5) Anna: "Open the window!“Anna told me …………………………………………..……………………….Reported speech – commands – Exercise 3
  • 15. 6) Tom: "Come at 8!"Tom told me …………………………………………………………………7) Teacher: "Do your homework!"The teacher told me ………………………………………………………………….8) Doris: "Dance with me!"Doris told me ………………………………………………………………….9) Sabine: "Meet Sandy at the station!"Sabine told me ………………………………………………………………….10) Victoria: "Check your e-mails!"Victoria told me ………………………………………………………………….Reported speech – commands – Exercise 3
  • 16. Finish the sentences using Reported speech. Always change the tense,although it is sometimes not necessary.Example: Peter: "Dont clean the black shoes!"Peter told me _________________________Answer: Peter told me not to clean the black shoes.1. Karen: "Dont play football in the garden!"Karen told me2. Teacher: "Dont forget your homework!"The teacher reminded me3. Mike: "Dont shout at Peter!"Mike told me4. Yvonne: "Dont talk to your neighbor!"Yvonne told me5. Denise: "Dont open the door!"Denise told meReported speech – negation commands – Exercise 4
  • 17. 6. Marcel: "Dont sing that song!"Marcel reminded me7. Jane: "Dont watch the new film!"Jane advised me8. Walter: "Dont ring Romy on Sunday!"Walter told me9. Lisa: "Dont fly via Paris!"Lisa advised me10.Jamie: "Dont eat so much junk food!"Jamie reminded meReported speech – negation commands – Exercise 4
  • 18. Finish the sentences using Reported speech. Always change the tense,although it is sometimes not necessary.Example: Peter: "Did John clean the black shoes?"Peter asked me _________________________________Answer: Peter asked me if John had cleaned the black shoes.1. Christopher: "Do you want to dance?"Christopher asked me -------------------------------------2. Betty: "When did you come?"Betty wanted to know -------------------------------------3. Mark: "Has John arrived?"Mark asked me -------------------------------------4. Ronald: "Where does Maria park her car?"Ronald asked me -------------------------------------5. Elisabeth: "Did you watch the latest film?"Elisabeth asked me -------------------------------------Reported speech – questions – Exercise 5
  • 19. 6. Mandy: "Can I help you?"Mandy wanted to know -------------------------------------7. Andrew: "Will Mandy have lunch with Sue?"Andrew asked me -------------------------------------8. Justin: "What are you doing?"Justin asked me -------------------------------------9. Frank: "How much pocket money does Lisa get?"Frank wanted to know -------------------------------------10. Anne: "Must I do the shopping?"Anne asked -------------------------------------Reported speech – questions – Exercise 5
  • 20. Finish the sentences using Reported speech. Always change the tense,although it is sometimes not necessary.Example: Peter: "Did John clean the black shoes yesterday?"Peter asked me _________________________________________Answer:Peter asked me if John had cleaned the black shoes the day before.1. Mandy: "Are the boys reading the book?"Yesterday Mandy asked me -------------------------------------2. Jason: "Who gave you the laptop?"Yesterday Jason wanted to know -------------------------------------3. Robert: "Is Tim leaving on Friday?"Yesterday Robert asked me -------------------------------------4. Daniel: "Will it rain tomorrow?"Yesterday Daniel asked me ------------------------------------Reported speech – questions with expressions of time – Exercise 6
  • 21. 5. Jennifer: "Where do you play football today?"Yesterday Jennifer wanted to know -----------------------------------6. Nancy: "Why didnt Nick go to New York last summer?"Yesterday Nancy wanted to know -----------------------------------7. Barbara: "Must I do my homework this afternoon?"Yesterday Barbara asked me -----------------------------------8. Linda: "Did Max fly to London two weeks ago?"Yesterday Linda wanted to know -----------------------------------9. Grandmother: "Where are my glasses?"Yesterday Grandmother asked me -----------------------------------10. A man: "When does the train to Liverpool leave?"Yesterday a man asked me -----------------------------------Reported speech – questions with expressions of time – Exercise 6