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t he listA Companion to the Choosing the Right Plants Natural Lawn & Garden Guide a b ett er w ay to bea utif ul www.savingwater.org
Waterwise garden by Stacie CrooksDiscover a better way to beautiful!T his plant list is a new companion to Choosing the The list on the following pages contains just some of the Right Plants, one of the Natural Lawn & Garden many plants that can be happy here in the temperate Paciﬁc Guides produced by the Saving Water Partnership Northwest, organized by several key themes. A number of(see the back panel to request your free copy). These guides these plants are Great Plant Picks ( ) selections, chosenwill help you garden in balance with nature, so you can enjoy because they are vigorous and easy to grow in Northwesta beautiful yard that’s healthy, easy to maintain and good for gardens, while offering reasonable resistance to pests andthe environment. diseases, as well as other attributes. (For details about the GPP program and to ﬁnd additional reference materials,When choosing plants, we often think about factors refer to Resources & Credits on page 12.)like size, shape, foliage and ﬂower color. But the mostimportant consideration should be whether a site provides Remember, this plant list is just a starting point. The morethe conditions a speciﬁc plant needs to thrive. Soil type, information you have about your garden’s conditions anddrainage, sun and shade—all affect a plant’s health and, as a particular plant’s needs before you purchase a plant, thea result, its appearance and maintenance needs. better. By creating a plan and selecting plants wisely, you’ll avoid costly errors, reduce maintenance and enjoy a better way to a beautiful, healthy garden. page 1 www.savingwater.org
Wet Winter/Dry Summer PlantsThe following plants are some of the best at faring well in very wet winter soils—often due to slow drainage orconstant seepage—and dry summer soils. Plants with an asterisk* can even handle standing water; all will thrive withgood summer drainage. Refer to page 12 for additional resources to help you ﬁnd plants that match your garden’s conditions. Partial Shade Deciduous Evergreen Mature Tree Heights small up to 30 feet tall Shade medium 30 to 70 feet tallTrees Sun large more than 70 feet tallAcer circinatum vine maple small; great fall colorBetula albosinensis var. chinese red birch mediumseptentrionalisBetula nigra river birch largeBetula utilis var. jacquemontii himalayan white birch medium; gorgeous barkCrataegus laevigata and cultivars english hawthorn smallLiquidambar styraciﬂua american sweet gum largeMetasequoia glyptostroboides* dawn redwood large; deciduous coniferPinus contorta var. contorta shore pine largeQuercus palustris pin oak large Betula albosinensis var. septentrionalisShrubsAronia arbutifolia red chokeberry autumn berriesAronia melanocarpa black chokeberry autumn berriesAronia × prunifolia purple chokeberry autumn berriesBerberis darwinii darwin’s barberry dense habitBerberis thunbergii and cultivars japanese barberry ‘Rose Glow’ is a GPPCornus alba and cultivars* redtwig dogwood ‘Elegantissima’ is a GPPCornus stolonifera and cultivars* red osier dogwood twig color best in sunGaultheria shallon salal forms a thicketMyrica californica california wax myrtle birds like the berriesPhysocarpus opulifolius purpleleaf ninebark ‘Diabolo’ is a GPPPotentilla fruticosa shrubby cinquefoil long bloomtimeSambucus nigra and cultivars black elder ‘Gerda’ is a GPPSpiraea douglasii douglas’s spirea vigorous; forms a thicketSpiraea × vanhouttei bridal wreath spirea pretty white ﬂowers white berries; forms aSymphoricarpos albus snowberry thicket Berberis darwinii = a Great Plant Picks selection page 2 www.savingwater.org
Wet Winter/Dry Summer Plants Partial Shade Deciduous EvergreenPerennials, ShadeGrasses and More Sun semi-evergreen; brighterAcorus gramineus ‘Ogon’* gold variegated sweetﬂag in sunAnemone nemorosa wood anemone dormant in summerBergenia species and hybrids bold leavesBlechnum penna-marina alpine water fern in sun, needs more waterBlechnum spicant deer fern in sun, needs more waterCarex ‘Ice Dance’* variegated sedge vigorous groundcoverCarex oshimensis ‘Evergold’* variegated japanese sedgeErythronium revolutum pink fawn lily dormant in summerErythronium ‘Pagoda’ yellow fawn lily dormant in summer needs water until ﬂowerHemerocallis cultivars daylily buds developLuzula nivea snowy woodrush unusual texture best with occasionalLuzula sylvatica greater woodrush summer water best with occasionalOsmunda regalis and cultivars* royal fern summer water Acorus gramineus ‘Ogon’ best with occasionalPolystichum munitum western sword fern summer water best with occasionalPolystichum polyblepharum japanese tassel fern summer waterPolystichum setiferum Divisilobum best with occasional soft shield fern summer waterGroup and others semi-evergreen; out-Waldsteinia ternata barren strawberry competes many weeds spreading, self-seeding;Limnanthes douglasii poached egg plant dormant in summer Polystichum munitum = a Great Plant Picks selectionNOTES: page 3 www.savingwater.org
Moisture-Loving PlantsHere are a variety of plants that can thrive with moist or wet conditions throughout the year, including poordrainage. Plants with an asterisk* can even tolerate standing water. Refer to page 12 for additional resources to help you ﬁndplants that match your garden’s conditions. Partial Shade Deciduous Evergreen Mature Tree Heights small up to 30 feet tall Shade medium 30 to 70 feet tallTrees Sun large more than 70 feet tallAmelanchier canadensis serviceberry small tree or shrubBetula albosinensis var. septentrionalis chinese red birch mediumBetula nigra river birch largeBetula utilis var. jacquemontii himalayan white birch mediumLiquidambar styraciﬂua american sweet gum largeMetasequoia glyptostroboides* dawn redwood large; deciduous coniferNyssa sinensis* chinese tupelo mediumNyssa sylvatica* black gum mediumTaxodium distichum* bald cypress large; deciduous conifer Betula alboseninsis var. septentrionalisNOTES:ShrubsAronia arbutifolia red chokeberry autumn berriesAronia melanocarpa black chokeberry autumn berriesAronia × prunifolia purple chokeberry autumn berriesCalycanthus ﬂoridus carolina allspice interesting ﬂowersClethra alnifolia sweet pepperbush fragrant pink ﬂowersCornus alba and cultivars* redtwig dogwood ‘Elegantissima’ is a GPPCornus stolonifera and cultivars* red osier dogwood sun for best twig colorLonicera involucrata black twinberry forms a thicketMyrica californica california wax myrtle forms a thicketPhysocarpus opulifolius and cultivars ninebark ‘Diabolo’ is a GPPSalix discolor* pussy willow forms a thicketSalix purpurea* arctic willow forms a thicketSambucus nigra black elderberry ‘Gerda’ is a GPPSambucus racemosa red elderberry glossy red fruit forms a thicket; removeSorbaria sorbifolia false spirea suckers to restrict spreadVaccinium corymbosum high bush blueberry delicious fruit Physocarpus opulifolius = a Great Plant Picks selection ‘Diabolo’ page 4 www.savingwater.org
Moisture-Loving Plants Partial Shade Deciduous EvergreenPerennials, ShadeGrasses and More Sun golden variegated semi-evergreen; sun forAcorus gramineus ‘Ogon’ * sweetﬂag brightest colorAdiantum aleuticum western maidenhair fern usually sold as A. pedatumAstilbe (all)* astilbe in sun, needs more waterBlechnum spicant deer fern in sun, needs more waterCaltha palustris* marsh marigold yellow ﬂowersCarex ‘Ice Dance’* variegated sedge vigorous groundcoverCarex elata ‘Aurea’* bowles’ golden sedge sun for brightest colorCarex oshimensis ‘Evergold’* variegated japanese sedgeDryopteris wallichiana wallich’s wood fern tall, glossy frondsGunnera manicata giant rhubarb protect from drying winds ‘June’ and ‘Sum andHosta (all) Substance’ are slug- resistant GPPsIris ensata and cultivars* japanese iris gorgeous ﬂowersIris laevigata and cultivars japanese iris gorgeous ﬂowersIris versicolor blue ﬂag gorgeous ﬂowersLigularia dentata* golden groundsel avoid midday sun Carex ‘Ice Dance’Lobelia cardinalis cardinal ﬂower short-lived perennialLysimachia nummularia ‘Aurea’ * golden creeping jenny spreads quicklyMatteuccia struthiopteris ostrich fern spreads vigorouslyMimulus cardinalis* scarlet monkey ﬂower dappled shadeOsmunda cinnamomea cinnamon fernOsmunda regalis and cultivars* royal fernPrimula beesiana* candelabra primrose can be semi-evergreenPrimula bulleyana* candelabra primrose can be semi-evergreenPrimula denticulata* drumstick primrose can be semi-evergreenPrimula elatior* oxlip can be semi-evergreenPrimula japonica and cultivars* japanese primroseRodgersia pinnata* rodgersia cut back mid-summer forScrophularia auriculata ‘Variegata’* water ﬁgwort fresh ﬂush of foliageThalictrum delavayi ‘Hewitt’s Double’ double meadow rue airy leaves and ﬂowersViola glabella stream violet can be semi-evergreenZantedeschia aethiopica* calla lily evergreen in mild winters Carex elata = a Great Plant Picks selection ‘Aurea’ page 5 www.savingwater.org
Favorite Paciﬁc Northwest Native PlantsThese are among the most garden-worthy native plants available in local nurseries. When buying natives, askto make sure the plants are nursery-propagated to avoid harming natural plant environments in the wild.Refer to page 12 for additional resources to help you ﬁnd plants that match your garden’s conditions. Partial Shade Deciduous Evergreen Mature Tree Heights small up to 30 feet tall Shade medium 30 to 70 feet tallTrees Sun large more than 70 feet tallAbies grandis grand ﬁr large; drought tolerantAbies procera noble ﬁr largeAcer circinatum vine maple small; great fall colorCalocedrus decurrens incense cedar large; drought tolerant large; drought tolerant;Chamaecyparis nootkatensis weeping yellow cedar ‘Pendula’ is a GPP large shrub or small tree;Malus fusca paciﬁc crabapple tolerates standing water large; tolerates winter wet,Pinus contorta var. contorta shore pine summer drought small; needs excellentQuercus garryana garry oak drainage small in garden setting;Tsuga mertensiana mountain hemlock drought tolerant Chamaecyparis nootkatensis ‘Pendula’ShrubsAcer glabrum douglas maple shrub or small treeAmelanchier alnifolia serviceberry well-drained soilArctostaphylos uva-ursi kinnikinnick groundcoverCornus stolonifera red osier dogwood moist or dry soil tolerates dry soil onceGaultheria shallon salal establishedHolodiscus discolor ocean spray forms a thicketLedum groenlandicum labrador tea moist soil forms a thicket; droughtLonicera involucrata black twinberry tolerantMahonia nervosa cascade oregon grape drought tolerant tolerates winter wet,Myrica californica california wax myrtle summer drought Myrica californicaPaxistima myrsinites falsebox compact shrubPhiladelphus lewisii mock orange fragrant ﬂowersRhododendron macrophyllum paciﬁc coast moist to fairly dry sites rhododendronRhododendron occidentale western azalea needs good drainageRosa nutkana nootka rose forms a thicket; pink ﬂowers forms a thicket; moist orRubus parviﬂorus thimbleberry dry soils Rubus parviflorus = a Great Plant Picks selection page 6 www.savingwater.org
Favorite Pacific Northwest Native Plants Partial Shade Deciduous Evergreen ShadeShrubs (cont.) SunRubus spectabilis salmonberry forms a thicket; moist soilsSambucus nigra subsp. cerulea blue elderberry blue fruitsSambucus racemosa subsp. pubens red elderberry bright red fruits forms a thicket; aggressive;Spiraea douglasii subsp. douglasii hardhack moist to wet soils forms a thicket;Symphoricarpos albus common snowberry white berriesVaccinium ovatum evergreen huckleberry delicious blue berriesVaccinium parvifolium red huckleberry tangy red berries Rubus spectabilisNOTES:Perennials,Grasses and MoreAdiantum aleuticum western maidenhair fern in sun, needs more waterAllium cernuum nodding onion bulb; pink ﬂowersAntennaria microphylla rosy pussytoes also called A. roseaAquilegia formosa red columbine red-and-yellow ﬂowersAruncus dioicus goat’s beardAsarum caudatum wild ginger spreading groundcoverBlechnum spicant deer fern in sun, needs more waterCamassia leichtlinii leichtlin’s camas bulb; blue or white ﬂowers bulb; tolerates winter wet,Camassia quamash common camas summer droughtCampanula rotundifola common harebell small perennialCornus canadensis bunchberry slow-growing groundcover spreads quickly; dormantDicentra formosa paciﬁc bleeding heart in summerDisporum hookeri hooker’s fairybells dainty white ﬂowersDodecatheon pulchellum few-ﬂowered shootingstar moist soil in sunEriophyllum lanatum oregon sunshine drought tolerantFragaria chiloensis beach strawberry spreading groundcoverGymnocarpium dryopteris oak fern also called G. disjunctum Blechnum spicant = a Great Plant Picks selection page 7 www.savingwater.org
Favorite Pacific Northwest Native Plants Partial Shade Deciduous EvergreenPerennials, ShadeGrasses and More (cont.) SunHeuchera micrantha small-ﬂowered alumroot semi-evergreenIris tenax toughleaf irisLonicera ciliosa western trumpet climbing vine honeysuckle spreading groundcover;Maianthemum dilatatum false lily-of-the-valley dormant in summerOxalis oregano oregon oxalis also evergreen forms drought tolerant oncePolystichum munitum sword fern establishedSedum divergens spreading stonecrop round succulent leaves Polystichum munitumSedum oreganum oregon stonecrop oval succulent leavesSedum spathulifolium broadleaf stonecrop ﬂattened gray leavesSisyrinchium californicum golden-eyed grass semi-evergreen; self-seedsSisyrinchium douglasii satin-ﬂower red-purple ﬂowersSmilacina racemosa false solomon’s seal white ﬂowers; red fruit star-ﬂowered solomon’s white ﬂowers; dark blue orSmilacina stellata seal reddish-black fruitTellima grandiﬂora fringecup moist soilThalictrum occidentale western meadowrue blue-green foliageTiarella trifoliata foamﬂower moist soil Smilacina racemosaTolmiea menziesii piggy-back plant moist soilTrillium ovatum western trillium dormant in summerVancouveria hexandra inside-out ﬂower dainty groundcover = a Great Plant Picks selection Finding Native Plants Most retail nurseries sell a variety of native plants. However, some of the selections on the Favorite Paciﬁc Northwest Plants list may be available only from nurseries that specialize in native plants. To identify native plant nurseries, go to the Washington Native Plant Society (WNPS) website at www.wnps.org and click on Gardening, then scroll down to Native Plant Nurseries. You can also purchase natives at the WNPS plant sales, also listed on their site. Or, simply ask your favorite nursery if they will order native plants for you. For descriptions and photos of many native plants, go to the Master Gardener website at http://gardening.wsu.edu/nwnative/ page 8 www.savingwater.org
Drought-Tolerant PlantsThe following plants can survive with little or no supplemental watering—besides rainfall—after they areestablished, a process that usually takes 2 to 3 years. As a general rule, these plants need good drainage in winter.Note that the plants on the Wet Winter/Dry Summer Plants list are also drought-tolerant. Refer to page 12 foradditional resources to help you ﬁnd plants that match your garden’s conditions. Partial Shade Deciduous Evergreen Mature Tree Heights small up to 30 feet tall Shade medium 30 to 70 feet tallTrees Sun large more than 70 feet tallAcer buergerianum trident maple small; slow growingAcer griseum paperbark maple small; peeling barkAcer tataricum subsp. ginnala amur maple small; suckering treeAcer triﬂorum roughbark maple smallBetula albosinensis var. septentrionalis chinese red birch mediumBetula utilis var. jacquemontii himalayan white birch medium; white barkCalocedrus decurrens incense cedar large; coniferCarpinus betulus ‘Fastigiata’ european hornbeam medium; slow growingCornus mas cornelian cherry shrub or small treeCrataegus × lavalleei lavalle’s hawthorn small; showy fruit columnar weeping copperFagus sylvatica ‘Purple Fountain’ beech small; columnarFagus sylvatica var. heterophylla fernleaf beech medium‘Aspleniifolia’Ginkgo biloba ‘Autumn Gold’ maidenhair tree large Ginkgo biloba ‘Autumn Gold’Koelreuteria paniculata goldenrain tree mediumParrotia persica persian ironwood mediumPicea omorika serbian spruce medium; slender coniferPicea orientalis oriental spruce large; coniferPinus leucodermis bosnian pine medium; conifer blue-needled japanesePinus parviﬂora f. glauca white pine medium; coniferPyrus salicifolia ‘Pendula’ weeping willowleaf pear small; weeping form large; ‘Glaucum’ andSequoiadendron giganteum and cultivars giant sequoia ‘Pendulum’ are GPPs medium; slow growing;Trachycarpus fortunei windmill palm protect when young small in garden setting;Tsuga mertensiana mountain hemlock conifer Trachycarpus fortunei = a Great Plant Picks selectionNOTES: page 9 www.savingwater.org
Drought-Tolerant Plants Partial Shade Deciduous Evergreen ShadeShrubs SunArbutus unedo strawberry tree shrub or small treeBerberis darwinii darwin’s barberry blooms better in sunCeanothus ‘Julia Phelps’ california lilac midnight blue ﬂowersCeanothus ‘Victoria’ california lilac bright blue ﬂowersCeanothus ‘Puget Blue’ california lilac bright blue ﬂowersChoisya ‘Aztec Pearl’ mexican mock orange fragrant white ﬂowersCistus × hybridus white rockroseCotinus ‘Grace’ hybrid smoketree large burgundy leavesCotoneaster dammeri bearberry cotoneaster groundcover golden variegatedElaeagnus pungens ‘Maculata’ elaeagnus fragrant ﬂowers in fall Arbutus unedoHebe ‘Emerald Green’ white ﬂowersHebe cupressoides ‘Boughton Dome’ cypress hebe white ﬂowersHebe ochracea ‘James Stirling’ whipcord hebe bronzey foliageHebe odora ‘New Zealand Gold’ white ﬂowersHebe pinguifolia white ﬂowersHebe topiaria white ﬂowersIlex aquifolium ‘Ferox Argentea’ hedgehog holly male clone: no berriesIlex crenata ‘Convexa’ convex leaf japanese holly excellent for hedgeLaurus nobilis bay laurel excellent for cookingMahonia nervosa cascade oregon grape blue berries Elaeagnus pungens ‘Maculata’ needs some water in fullNandina domestica ‘Gulf Stream’ dwarf heavenly bamboo sun to look its bestMalus toringo subsp. sargentii ‘Tina’ dwarf sargent’s crabapple disease resistant ‘King Edward VII’ andRibes sanguineum and cultivars ﬂowering currant ‘White Icicle’ are GPPsSyringa vulgaris and cultivars common lilac fragrant ﬂowersTaxus baccata ‘Fastigiata’ irish yew columnar coniferTaxus baccata ‘Repandens’ spreading english yew mounding coniferViburnum tinus ‘Spring Bouquet’ compact laurustinus ﬂowers less in shade Viburnum tinus ‘Spring Bouquet’Perennials,Grasses and MoreAllium cristophii star of persia bulb; sandy soilAnemone nemorosa wood anemone dormant in summerAsarum europaeum european wild ginger creeping groundcoverAgastache ‘Blue Fortune’ hybrid hyssop long bloomtimeCamassia leichtlinii subsp. leichtlinii leichtlin’s camas bulb; dormant in summerCrocus tommasinianus tommasini’s crocus bulb; dormant in summerCyclamen coum persian violet tuber; dormant in summer Allium cristophii = a Great Plant Picks selection page 10 www.savingwater.org
Drought-Tolerant Plants Partial Shade Deciduous EvergreenPerennials, ShadeGrasses and More (cont.) SunCyclamen hederifolium ivyleaf cyclamen tuber; dormant in summerCrambe maritima sea kale add lime to soilEpimedium × versicolor ‘Sulfureum’ barrenwort groundcover large mediterranean contact with sap mayEuphorbia characias subsp. wulfenii spurge cause rashHelenium ‘Moerheim Beauty’ sneezeweed comb out old leaves; do Cyclamen hederifoliumHelictotrichon sempervirens blue oat grass not cut to groundHelleborus argutifolius corsican hellebore striking leavesHelleborus foetidus stinking hellebore green ﬂowersHelleborus × hybridus lenten rose showy ﬂowersLathyrus vernus spring bush pea charmingLeptinella squalida ‘Pratt’s Black’ brass buttons creeper for crevicesLeucanthemum × superbum ‘Becky’ shasta daisy long bloomtimeLonicera japonica japanese honeysuckle vine; fragrant ﬂowersMiscanthus sinensis ‘Morning Light’ chinese silvergrass cut to ground in MarchSalvia verticillata ‘Purple Rain’ salvia long bloomtimeStipa gigantea giant needle grass trim back in fallVitis vinifera ‘Purpurea’ purpleleaf grapevine vine; redder in sun Vinus vinifera = a Great Plant Picks selection ‘Purpurea’ page 11 www.savingwater.org
Resources & CreditsBooks for more plant information Photo creditsA to Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants Cover and waterwise garden photos: Jacqueline Koch American Horticultural Society, DK Publishing, Inc., 1996. Plant photos: Courtesy Great Plant Picks, Richie Steffen,Gardening with Native Plants of the Paciﬁc Northwest Richard Hartlage, Alan Dodson by Arthur R. Kruckeberg; University of Washington Press, 1982.Perfect Plant, Perfect Place With thanks to by Roy Lancaster; DK Publishing, Inc., 2002. Center for Urban HorticultureSunset Western Garden Book Furney’s Nursery Kathleen Norris, ed.; Sunset Publishing Corp., 2001. Molbak’sTrees and Shrubs for Paciﬁc Northwest Gardens Piriformis by John and Carol Grant; Timber Press, Inc., 1990. Rhododendron Species Botanical Garden Swanson’s NurseryHotlines for gardening questions University of British Columbia Botanical GardenNatural Lawn & Garden Hotline 206.633.0224 Washington Native Plant SocietyCenter for Urban Horticulture Plant Answer Line Washington State Department of Transportation 206.UWPLANT (206.897.5268)Master Gardener Hotline, King County 206.296.3440 A Special Note of Appreciation to Carolyn Jones and Richie Steffen of the Elisabeth Carey Miller BotanicalWebsites Garden and Great Plants Picks for their generous help in creating thisGreat Plant Picks descriptions and photos www.greatplantpicks.org plant list.Natural Lawn & Garden Care www.savingwater.orgComprehensive horticultural information www.millerlibrary.orgWashington State University Extension/Master Gardener information http://gardening.wsu.eduNative plant information (also see page 8) www.wnps.org http://gardening.wsu.edu/nwnative Great Plant Picks The Great Plant Picks (GPP) educational program promotes plants well-suited to Paciﬁc Northwest gardens west of the Cascade Mountains. Each year, noteworthy plants are added to the GPP list, selected by professional horticulturists from Washington, ks.org Oregon and British Columbia. GPP is funded by the Pendleton and Elisabeth Miller Charitable Foundation and administered by tpic the staff of the Elisabeth Carey Miller Botanical Garden. For more lan tp ea details, visit: .gr www www.greatplantpicks.org page 12 www.savingwater.org
The Natural Lawn & Garden Series Brought to you by your local water providers: Cedar River Water and Sewer District City of Bothell City of Duvall Coal Creek Utility District Highline Water District King County Water District 20 King County Water District 45 King County Water District 49 Growing Healthy Soil Choosing the Right Plants Smart Watering King County Water District 90 King County Water District 119 King County Water District 125 City of Mercer Island Northshore Utility District Olympic View Water and Sewer Seattle Public Utilities Shoreline Water District Composting at Home Natural Pest, Weed & Natural Lawn Care Soos Creek Water and Sewer District Disease Control Woodinville Water District Natural Yard Care (summary) For TTY assistance, please call 206.233.7241. This information can be made available on request toTo request a Natural Lawn & Garden Guide, contact the Natural Lawn & Garden accommodate people with disabilities and those whoHotline at 206.633.0224 or at firstname.lastname@example.org, or visit www.savingwater.org need language assistance.