Methods for Attracting and Preserving Beneficial Insects
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Methods for Attracting and Preserving Beneficial Insects

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Methods for Attracting and Preserving Beneficial Insects

Methods for Attracting and Preserving Beneficial Insects

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Methods for Attracting and Preserving Beneficial Insects Methods for Attracting and Preserving Beneficial Insects Presentation Transcript

  • Methods for Attracting and Preserving Beneficial Insects by: Ryan S. DavisArthropod DiagnosticianDavis IPM and Biocontrol Ryan S.
  • Outline1) Biological control – basic concepts2) Selecting the proper insecticides3) Plants that attract beneficials4) Identification of beneficials Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • ATTRA: Farmscaping http:// attra.ncat.org/ attra-pub/ farmscape.htmlRyan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Biological Control Classical Applied Biological ControlRyan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Classic, or importation biological control: includes the deliberate introduction andestablishment of exotic natural enemies into areas where they did not previously occur. Vedalia beetle against cottony cushion scale in CA. Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Classical Applied Biological ControlRyan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Applied Biological ControlRyan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Applied Biological ControlRyan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Classical Applied Biological ControlRyan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Conservation and enhancement:1. Avoid using broad-spectrum insecticides (IPM).2. Provide shelter, alternative food sources, overwintering sites for larvae/nymphs and adult beneficials (farmscaping). Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas (ATTRA) http://www.attra.org “Farmscaping to Enhance Biological Control” Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Chemical Control •  Two general categories: Broad-spectrum & Selective Mosquitos Cyper TC Bonide Mosquito Beater WSP Cypermethrin Kills 47 pests from:Coleoptera HymenopteraBlattaria HeteropteraDiplopoda AcariOrthoptera Isoptera Bt isr. Kills 1 pests from:Dermaptera Thysanura DipteraSiphonaptera DipteraLepidoptera Aranae Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol Selective!
  • Chemical control Avoid using broad-spectrum insecticidesSub-Group Sub-Group Name Active Ingredients1A Carbamates Carbaryl, Bendiocarb,1B Organophosphates Acephate, Diazinon2A Organochlorines Endosulfan, Chlordane3A Pyrethroids Bifenthrin Esfenvalerate4A Neonicotinoids Imidacloprid (foliar) Why? Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Broad-spectrum insecticides can destroy beneficials. Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Broad-spectrum insecticides can destroy beneficials. Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Chemical Control •  Two general categories: Broad-spectrum & Selective Cyper TC Conserve SC Cypermethrin Kills 47 pests from: Spinosad kills 77 pests from:Coleoptera Hymenoptera Acari ColeopteraBlattaria Heteroptera Dermaptera HymenopteraDiplopoda Acari Lepidoptera SiphonapteraOrthoptera Isoptera ThysanopteraDermaptera ThysanuraSiphonaptera DipteraLepidoptera Aranae Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol But…
  • Chemical Control•  Two general categories: Broad-spectrum & Selective Beneficial Species Spinosad LC 50 Cypermethrin LC 50Honeybee 11.5 ppm 1.2 ppmWhitefly parasitoid 29.1 ppm 1.9 ppmMinute pirate bug 200 ppm 0.2 ppmLady beetle >200 ppm 0.2 ppmLacewing >200 ppm <0.2 ppmPredaceous mite >200 ppm <0.2 ppm Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Chemical controlBroad-spectrum with selective formulationsImidacloprid Carbaryl Neonicotinoid Carbamate very toxic, but… very toxic, but… Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol Systemic Bait
  • Chemical control “Reduced risk” pesticidesQualities of a reduced risk insecticide–  Selective–  Short residual–  SystemicExamples–  microbial (bacteria, nematode, fungi, viruses)–  soap, oil, dust–  botanical (pyrethrum, nicotine, neem) Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Selective ChemistriesMain Sub-Groups Main Groups Sub-GroupsGroups 14 Nereistoxin analogues1 Carbamates/ 15 Benzoylureas Organophosphates 16 Buprofezin2 Cyclodiene/organochlorines Phenylpyrazoles (Fiproles) 17 Cyromazine3 Pyrethroids/pyrethrins 18 Diacylhydrazines DDT/Methoxychlor 19 Amitraz4 Neonicotinoids/Nicotine 20 Hydramethylnon/5 Spinosyns Acequinocyl/ Fluacrypyrim6 Avermectins/Milbemycins 21 METI acaracides/7 Juvenile hormone analogues Rotenone Fenoxycarb/pyrproxyfen 22 Indoxacarb/8 Methyl bromide/Chloropicrin/ metaflumizone Sulfuryl fluoride/borax/tartar emetic 23 Tetronic and tetramic acid derivatives9 Pymetrozine/Flonicamid 24 Phospine/Cyanide10 Clofentezine/Hexythiazox Etoxazole 25 Vacant11 Bacillus thuringiensis 26 Vacant12 Diafenthiuron/organotin 27 Vacant miticides/Propargite/tetradifon13 Chlorfenapyr Ryan S. Davis IPM28 Biocontrol and Diamides
  • Planting to Promote BeneficialsPlant selection and application methods depend on your system:1)  Identify crop you want to plant.2)  What pests affect this crop?3)  What beneficials “prey” upon those pests?4)  What type of plants and habitat do those Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol beneficials prefer?
  • Planting to Promote Beneficials Plants must provide… Food Shelter Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol(primary or secondary) (favorable microenvironment)
  • Planting to Promote BeneficialsPlant Characteristics-  Floral structure -  Small, shallow flowers (umbels)-  Extrafloral nectaries-  Greater nectar and pollen production-  Trichomes Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Attractive FlowersGood plants to use:Carrot Family (Umbelliferae)- Queen Anne’s Lace, dill, fennel parsley, coriander, bishop’s weedQueen Anne’s Lace Dill Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol Coriander
  • Attractive FlowersGood plants to use:Sunflower Family (Asteraceae)- coreopsis, Gloriosa daisy, yarrow, cosmos, sunflower, marigolds Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol Gloriosa Daisy Yarrow Cosmos
  • Attractive FlowersGood plants to use:Mustard Family (Brassicaceae)- Sweet alyssum, twinpod, whitlow grass, sweet rocket, wall flower, rock cress Twinpod Sweet Alyssum Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol Sweet Rocket
  • Using Plants in the Field or LandscapeTactics:-  Companion planting-  Strip cropping-  Intercropping-  Cover crops-  Shelterbelts/hedgerows-  Permanent border Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Bloom calendarCommon Name Genus/sp. Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugWillow Salix spp.CA lilac Ceanothus spp.Coffeeberry Rhamnus californicaYarrow Achillea millefoliumSilverlace Vine Polygonum aubertii Plant according to blooming succession Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Caveats to Preservation and Enhancement- Can be difficult/expensive to implement on a large scale.- Some “beneficial” plantings can increase pest arthropods.- Not proven to work in all systems.- Eliminating/reducing use of broad-spectrum insecticides may result in production loss.- Must take valuable land out of production for attractive plants. Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Identifying the good bugs! Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Lacewings: Chrysopidae and Embiodiidae Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Lacewings: Chrysopidae and Embiodiidae Plants to attract andPrey upon conserve- aphid - Carrot family- thrips - sunflower family- mealybug - buckwheat- scale - holly leaf cherry- caterpillar - corn- mite *provide water during dry spells Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Parasitoid Wasps: Aphidius spp. (Braconidae)Preys upon- aphid- armyworm- cabbageworm- codling moth- beetle larvae- flies- caterpillars- etc. Plants to attract and conserve - nectar plants w/ small flowers - caraway - dill - parsley - fennel - Queen Anne’s - white clover lace - mustard - tansy - yarrow - sunflower - hairy vetch - buckwheat Ryan S. Davis IPM and - cowpea Biocontrol - common knotweed - crocuses - spearmint
  • Other Wasps: Ichneumonidae Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Other Wasps: Bembix, Sphecius Sphecius spp.Bembix spp. Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Other Wasps: PompillidaeRyan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Ladybird Beetles: Coccinellidae Prey upon - aphid - mealybugPlants to attract and - spider miteconserve - soft scales- nectar plants w/ small flowers- caraway - dill- parsley - fennel- Queen Anne’s - white lace clover- angelica - goldenrod- mustard - tansy- yarrow - sunflower- hairy vetch - buckwheat- cowpea - common- native grasses knotweed- crocuses - spearmint- grains - buckthorn- black locust - saltbush Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Ladybird Beetles: Coccinellidae Scymnus spp. Hippodamia parenthesis Hippodamia convergensAxion plagiatum Chilocorus bipustulatus PEST SPECIESHarmonia axyridis Coccinella novemnotata Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol Epilachna varivestis
  • Predaceous Ground Beetles: Carabidae, Tenebrionidae Prey upon - slug - snail - cutrworm - tent caterpillar - cabbage-root maggot - Colorado potato beetle - gypsy mothPlants to attract andconserve- permanent plantings- amaranth- white clover Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol- mulch
  • Predaceous Ground Beetles: Cantharidae, Staphylinidae Prey upon - aphid - springtail - nematode - flies - some are parasites of cabbage-root maggot Plants to attract and conserve - permanent plantings - stone or plant pathways - rye - grains - mulch S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol Ryan
  • Predaceous Ground Beetles: CicindelinaePrey upon - many things Plants to attract and conserve - permanent plantings - exposed dirt or sand areas Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Predaceous True Bugs: Anthochoridae: Orius spp., Lygaeidae: GeocorinaePrey upon- thrips - leafhopper- spider mite - caterpillars- many others Plants to attract and conserve - Queen Anne’s lace - tansy - coriander - bishop’s weed - chervil - cosmos - tidy tips - goldenrod - daisies - yarrow - baby-blue-eyes - hairy vetch - alfalfa - corn Ryan S. Davis IPM and clover - crimson Biocontrol - buckwheat - willows - shrubs (permanent)
  • Predaceous True Bugs: Anthochoridae: Orius spp., Lygaeidae: Geocorinae Plants to attract and conserve - cool season cover crops - berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrium) - subterranean clovers (Trifolium subterraneum) - common knotweed (Polygonum aviculare) Prey upon - true bugs - flea beetles - spider mites - insect eggs - small caterpillars Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol - seeds
  • Predaceous True Bugs: Nabidae, Pentatomidae Prey upon - aphid - thrips - leafhopper - treehopper - small caterpillarsPlants to attract and conserve- anything in the sunflower family- goldenrod- yarrow Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol- alfalfa
  • Predaceous True Bugs: Pentatomidae Prey upon - fall armyworm - sawfly - Colorado potato beetle - Mexican bean beetlePlants to attract andconserve- sunflower family- goldenrod- yarrow- bishop’s weed- permanent plantings Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Predaceous True Bugs: ReduviidaePrey upon- flies- tomato hornworms- many insects- caterpillars Plants to attract and conserve - permanent plantings Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol (hedgrows)
  • Predaceous True Bugs: PhymatidaePrey upon- flies- tomato hornworms- many insects- caterpillars Plants to attract and conserve - permanent plantings (hedgrows) - late-summer/fall-flowering plants Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Predatory Flies: Syrphidae Prey upon - aphidsPlants to attract and conserve- Queen Anne’s lace - dill- fennel - caraway- tansey - parsley- coriander - bishop’s weed- coreopsis - Gloriosa daisy- yarrow - cosmos- sunflower - marigolds- candytuft - sweet alyssum- ceanothus - holly-leaved cherry- buckwheat - scabiosa- spearmint - coyote brush- knotweed - California lilacs- soapbark tree Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol - meadow foam- baby-blue-eyes
  • Predatory Flies: AsilidaePrey upon- other insects Plants to attract and conserve - permanent hedgerow Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Predatory Neuropterans: Raphidiidae, Mantispidae, Mantidae Prey upon - other insects (including beneficials) Plants to attract and conserve - cosmos - brambles - permanent plantings Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Predatory ThripsPrey upon- spider mite- aphid- various moths- alfalfa weevil- whitefly Plants to attract and conserve- leafminer - need low populations of other mites, scales, aphids, moth- scale eggs, leafhoppers and other thrips to maintain populations Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Predatory Mites: PhytoseiidaePlants to attract and conserveneed low populations of prey to keep beneficials alive. Prey upon - spider mite - thrips Ryan - small insectsBiocontrol S. Davis IPM and - insect eggs
  • SpidersRyan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Summary•  Use cultural andSummary mechanical control methods first –  Prevention –  Promote diversity and plant health –  Encourage natural enemies using multiple tactics –  Monitor/scout•  Apply reduced risk pesticides second –  Slower acting, may need multiple applications•  Use traditional pesticides sparingly Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Thank you!Ryan DavisArthropod DiagnosticianUtah State Universityryan.davis@usu.edu
  • IPM Concept•  Integrated pest management –  Promote plant and ecosystem health by limiting chemical applications –  Plan ahead with regular scouting/monitoring –  Use thresholds (economic or aesthetic) –  Multiple tactics based on insect and host biology to reduce pests Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • IPM tactics to reduce the need for pesticides•  Cultural•  Mechanical Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Cultural Control•  Seek resistant/tolerant plants•  Avoid susceptible plants•  Start out with pest-free plants•  Plan ahead, diversify plant selection; plant for good bugs•  Rotate crops•  Plant properly•  Keep plants healthy S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol Ryan
  • Mechanical/Physical Control•  Barriers, screens•  Traps, bands•  Mulch•  Tillage•  Sanitation•  Hand removal Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Chemical controlMain Groups Sub-Groups Main Groups Sub-Groups1 Carbamates/ 14 Nereistoxin analogues Organophosphates 15 Benzoylureas2 Cyclodiene/organochlorines Phenylpyrazoles (Fiproles) 16 Buprofezin3 Pyrethroids/pyrethrins 17 Cyromazine DDT/Methoxychlor 18 Diacylhydrazines4 Neonicotinoids/Nicotine 19 Amitraz5 Spinosyns 20 Hydramethylnon/6 Avermectins/Milbemycins Acequinocyl/Fluacrypyrim7 Juvenile hormone analogues 21 METI acaracides/ Fenoxycarb/pyrproxyfen Rotenone8 Methyl bromide/Chloropicrin/ 22 Indoxacarb/ Sulfuryl fluoride/borax/tartar metaflumizone emetic 23 Tetronic and tetramic acid9 Pymetrozine/Flonicamid derivatives10 Clofentezine/Hexythiazox 24 Phospine/Cyanide Etoxazole 25 Vacant11 Bacillus thuringiensis 26 Vacant12 Diafenthiuron/organotin 27 Vacant miticides/Propargite/tetradifon Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol 28 Diamides13 Chlorfenapyr
  • Suffocants, Desiccants, Membrane DisruptorsSoaps, oils, sucrose esters, dusts, DE Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Microbials•  Targeted host selection•  Kill, reduce reproduction, or shorten the life•  Environment controls effectiveness•  Relatively slow acting; may take several days and repeated applications fungus nematode Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol virus
  • Eating Disruptor Kaolin clay (Surround®)–  Physical barrier, excessive grooming Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol
  • Botanicals (aka plant derived)•  Neem (neem trees) –  Trilogy®•  Pyrethrum (pyrethrum daisy) –  Pyganic®, Evergreen®•  Rotenone (subtropical leguminous shrubs) –  Pyrellin® Ryan S. Davis IPM and Biocontrol