FAIZAN Q MUQHAL ANDM.FAHD UN NABI KHAN X-O USMAN PUBLIC SCHOOL
What is a robot?Definition:Alternate definition:“A robot is a one-armed, blind idiot with limited memoryand which cannot speak, see, or hear.”
What is hard for humans is easy for robots. Repetitive tasks. Continuous operation. Do complicated calculations. Refer to huge data bases. What is easy for a human is hard for robots. Reasoning. Adapting to new situations. Flexible to changing requirements. Integrating multiple sensors. Resolving conflicting data. Synthesizing unrelated information. Creativity.
Dangerous Space exploration chemical spill cleanup disarming bombs disaster cleanup Boring and/or repetitive Welding car frames part pick and place manufacturing parts. High precision or high speed Electronics testing Surgery precision machining.
How do our sensors work? eyes brain How do we integrate sensors? How does our muscular-skeletal system work? How do we grab and hold an object? How does our brain process information? What is nature of intelligence? How do we make decisions?
Action Stationary base Mobile Sensors Intelligence Power supply Robert Stengel, Princeton Univ.
Pick and place Moves items between points. Continuous path control Moves along a programmable path Sensory Employs sensors for feedback
Simple joints (2D) Prismatic — sliding along one axis square cylinder in square tube Revolute — rotating about one axis Compound joints (3D) ball and socket = 3 revolute joints round cylinder in tube = 1 prismatic, 1 revolute Degrees of freedom = Number of independent motions 3 degrees of freedom: 2 translation, 1 rotation 6 degrees of freedom: 3 translation, 3 rotation
Legs Wheels Tracks Crawls Roll
Optical Laser / radar 3D Color spectrum Pressure Temperature Chemical Motion & Accelerometer Acoustic Ultrasonic
Uses sensors for feedback Closed-loop robots use sensors in conjunction with actuators to gain higher accuracy – servo motors. Uses include mobile robotics, telepresence, search and rescue, pick and place with machine vision.
Open loop, i.e., no feedback, deterministic Instructions Rules Closed loop, i.e., feedback Learn Adapt