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Definition & Types of Jaundice By: Fahad Al Hulaibi
:Definition Jaundice is a yellow discoloration of the sclerae and skin, as a result of raised serum bilirubin, and is usually detectable clinically when the bilirubin is greater than 3mg/dL. Clinical Medicine, Kumar & Clark, 4th edition
Type 1:Haemolytic jaundice The increased breakdown of red cells leads to an increase in production of bilirubin. causes of haemolytic jaundice are those of haemolyticAnaemia. The resulting jaundice is usually mild. level of unconjugatedbilirubin is raised, but the serum transferasesand alkaline phposphateare normal. Clinical Medicine, Kumar & Clark, 4th edition
Type 2:Congenital hyperbilirubinemia Most common is Gilbert’s syndrome . Mutation in the gene coding for : UDP-glucuronosyltransferase. asymptomatic and is usually detected as an incidental finding of a slightly raised Bilirubin (1–6mg/dL). There is a family history of jaundice in 5–15% of patients. The reticulocyte count is normal, excluding haemolysis, and no treatment is necessary. Clinical Medicine, Kumar & Clark, 4th edition
Type 3:Cholestaticjaundice Can be devided into: Intra-hepatic Cholestatic: Cased by hepatocellular swelling in parenchymal liver disease or abnormalities at a cellular level of bile excertion. aminotransferasesand alkaline phposphate ?? Extra-hepatic Cholestasis: Resulting from obstruction of bile flow at any point distal to the bile canaliculi. Clinical Medicine, Kumar & Clark, 4th edition