EMPLOYEE SAFETY &HEALTH • Importance of Safety and Health • Occupational Safety and Health Act, 1994 • What cause accidents? • How to prevent accidents?
DEFINITION OF TERMSCompany name Health is defined as the state of physical well being of a worker or an employee. Safety is a condition in which the physical well-being of people is protected. Safety is defined as absent of danger. Danger is defined as exposure to a hazard. Hazard is anything with the potential to cause harm or damage. a) Chemical Hazard d) Ergonomics Hazard b) Physical Hazard e) Psychological Hazard c) Biological Hazard Security is protection of employees and organizational facilities. 2
IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY & HEALTHCompany name Decrease staff turnover & maintain work harmony Having a safe & conducive working place Reduce cost of injuries & illness, medical & hospitalization cost Minimal property & equipment damage / lost Fewer stoppage / production delays, higher output, better quality of product / services Minimizes penalties through compliance with the laws & regulations Avoid / reduce times, liability suit & penalty from authorities Avoid tarnishing & damaging organizational image Avoid excessive investigations & waste of precious time Reduce risk premiums Secure investors confidence & investment 3
ACCIDENTCompany name ACCIDENT is defined as an unexpected, unplanned event in a sequence of events that occurred through a combination of causes which result in physical harm, injury / disease to an individual, damage to property, a near miss, a loss / a combination of these effect. Causes of Accidents: a) Overexertion b) Impact accident c) Falls d) Bodily injury / reactions Effect of Accidents: e) Poisoning: a) Death i) by solids & liquid b) Cost of accidents ii)by gases and vapors c) Bodily harm & injuries f) Drowning d) Burns injuries g) Fire related injuries e) Loss of company image, h) Extreme heat & temperatures reputation & competitiveness i) Exposure to radiations/caustics 4 j) Medical complication
Company name How to prevent accidents? a) management commitment & leadership by employer in safety b) safe & health working conditions c) safe work practices by employees Accident Prevention Programs: d) reducing unsafe acts a) safety inspection b) administering safety matters Accident c) establishing safety policy & safety management objectives Review d) safety documentation & information the Scene Interview Employees e) training & awareness program / Others f) establishing housekeeping principles g) determining a good implementation Prepare Report of PPE Identify h) proper chemical handling Recommendations 5 procedures
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTHCompany name Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA) is defined by World Health Organization (WHO) as: a) The promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and the social well being of workers in all occupations. b) The prevention of worker departures from health deterioration caused by their employment c) The protection of workers in the employment from risks resulting factors adverse to their health. d) The placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational environment adopted to his physiological and psychological ability, and to summarize. e) The adaptation of work to man and each man to work. 6
SAFETY MANAGEMENTCompany name Safety Management is defined as Planning managing safety, health and Policies, Objectives, Resource welfare of workers at a workplace in an organization. Leading Leadership & Commitment Safety Policy: a) must communicated to all employees Organizing Safety & Health Programs b) framing the policy & hanging it in a prominent place Coordination c) giving every individual Measuring Performance & Effectiveness employee a copy d) many companies seem use Control a consultant to set a policy Review & Control 7
APPROACHES TO EFFECTIVE SAFETYCompany name MANAGEMENT Organizational Approach a) Designing jobs b) Developing & implementing safety policies c) Using safety committees d) Coordinating accident investigations Engineering Approach a) Designing work settings & equipment b) Reviewing equipment c) Applying ergonomic principle Individual Approach a) Reinforcing safety motivation and attitudes b) Providing employee safety training c) Rewarding safety through incentive programs 8
SAFETY & HEALTH COMMITTEECompany name Safety & Health Committee consist of a chairman, a secretary, representative of employer and representative of employees. a) The chairman shall be at least one of the top management staff b) The secretary shall be the person who is the safety and health officer c) The representatives of employers are normally the departmental managers d) The representatives of the employees shall be represented by the employees, normally supervisors from various sections of a place of work. 9
Company name Duties & Function of Safety & Health Committee: a) Assists the employer in development of safety and health rules and safe system of work b) Review the effectiveness of safety and health programs c) Carry out studies on trend of accidents, dangerous occurrence, occupational poisoning and diseases at place of work. d) Report to the employees of any unsafe acts or unhealthy conditions or practices at place of work together with recommendation for corrective action. e) Review the safety and health policies at place of work and revision of such policies f) Shall inspect the place of work at least once in three months, and make recommendations on remedial measures on any matter detrimental to safety and health of workers g) Shall inspect the place of work soon after any accident occurrence at place of work
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH ACT, 1994 (OSHA)Company name The Act 514 is an Act to make further provision for securing the safety, health and welfare of persons at work, for protecting other against risks to safety or health in connection with the activities of persons at work and to establish National Council for OSH and for matters connected therewith. In the Act, there are 7 regulations: a) Employers Safety and Health General Policy Statement (Exception) Regulations, 1995. b) Control of Industrial Major Accidents Hazards Regulation, 1996. c) Safety and Health Committee Regulations, 1996. d) Classification, Packaging and Labeling of Hazardous Chemical Regulations, 1997. e) Safety and Health Officer Regulations, 1997. f) Prohibition of Use of Substances Order, 1999. g) Use and Standard of Exposure of Chemical Hazardous to Health Regulation, 2000. 11
Company name Objectives of The Act: a) To secure the safety, health and welfare of persons at work against risks to safety or health arising out of the activities of persons at work. b) To protect persons at a place of work other than the persons at work against risks to safety or health arising out of the activities of persons at work. c) To promote an occupational environment for persons a work which is adapted to their psychological needs d) To provide the means whereby the associated occupational safety and health legislations may be progressively replaced by a system of regulations and approved industry codes of practices operating in combination with provisions of this Act designed to maintain or improved the standard of safety and health. 12
General Duties of Employers & EmployeesCompany name Section 15 (Employers): a) The provision and maintenance of plant and systems of work that are safe and without risks to health; b) Making of arrangement for ensuring safety and absence of risks to health in connection with the use or operations, handling, storage and transport of plant and substances; c) The provision of such information, instruction, training and supervision as it is necessary to ensure safety and health at work of his employees; d) Any place of work under the control of employer or self employed person and maintenance of it must be safe and without risks to health, and the means of access and egress from it are safe and without such risks; e) The provision and maintenance of a working environment for his employees is practically safe, without risks to health and adequate in regards to the facilities for their welfare at work. 13
Company name Section 24 (Employees): a) To take reasonable care for the safety and health of himself and of others who may be affected by his act or omissions at work. b) To cooperate with his employer or any other person in discharge of any duty or requirement imposed on the employer by this Act. c) To wear or use at all times any protective equipment or clothing provided by the employer for the purpose of preventing risks to his safety and health. d) To comply with any instructions or measures on occupational safety and health instituted by the employer.