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    Education in Malaysia Education in Malaysia Document Transcript

    • MI S IA NI AY ST R L Y A OF M E D U C AT I O NEducational Planning and Research Division 2008
    • © Copyright @ 2008 Ministry of Education ISBN 978-983-9522-21-1 All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any other information storages and retrieval system, without written permission from the Ministry of Education. Cataloguing - in -- Publication-DataMalaysia, Educational Planning and Research Division. Education in Malaysia: A Journey to Excellence / prepared by the Educational Planning and Research Division. Ministry of Education Malaysia. Includes index ISBN 978-983-9522-21-1 1. Education- Malaysia I. Ministry of Education Malaysia II. Faridah, Abu Hassan 379.595Ministry of EducationLevel B - 4, Block E8,Government Complex Parcel EFederal Government Administrative Centre62604 PutrajayaMALAYSIATel : +603-8884 6522Fax : +603-8884 6579Web : byAmpang Press Sdn. Bhd.6 & 8, Jalan 6/91,Tmn. Shamelin PerkasaBatu 3 1/2 Jln. Cheras,56000 Kuala LumpurTel : +603-9284 9448 (7 lines)
    • ContentsList of Tables and Figures viiEducation Act 1996 ixEducation Vision xEducation Mission xNational Education Philosophy xiEducation Objectives xiiMinisters of Education (1955 - 2008) xiiiMessage by the Minister of Education Malaysia xivMessage by the Secretary-General of Education Malaysia xvMessage by the Director-General of Education Malaysia xviForeword by the Director of the Educational Planning and Research Division xviiCHAPTER ONE : EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA : A HISTORICAL REVIEWIntroduction 3Pre-Independence : Education During the British Occupancy (1824 - 1957) 3 English Schools 4 Malay Schools 4 Religious Schools 5 Chinese Schools 6 Tamil Schools 6 Development of Secondary Education 7Education During the Japanese Occupancy (1942-1945) 7Development of Education in Sabah and Sarawak 8Post Independence : Education During the Post-Independence Era (1957-1970) 10Education Development : Education During the Era of New Economic Policy (1971-1990) 14Education Development : Education During the Era of National Development Policy(1991-2000) 15Education Development : Education During the Era of National Vision Policy (2001-2010) 17Education Development Plan (2001-2010) 19 Education Development Master Plan (EDMP) 2006-2010 20 The EDMP Strategic Thrusts 20CHAPTER TWO : THE NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEMIntroduction 29Pre-school Education 30Primary Education 31 The Compulsory Education Act 33 Strengthening of National Schools 33 The Pupils’ Integration Programme for Unity (RIMUP) 34 Vision Schools 35Smart Schools 35Special Model Schools 36 K-9 Comprehensive Special Model Schools 37 iii | education in malaysia
    • Special Programme for Orang Asli and Penan 38Cluster Schools 38Special Education 39 Special Education Service Centre 40Secondary Education 40 Technical and Vocational Education 41 National Religious Secondary School 42 Sports School 42 Arts School 43Form Six 44Matriculation Programme 44j-QAF Programme 45KIA2M Programme 45English for the Teaching of Mathematics and Science (ETeMS) 46Civics and Citizenship Education 46Co-Curricular Activities 46School Assessment 46 Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) 46 Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR) 47 Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) 47 Peperiksaan Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (STPM) 47 Peperiksaan Sijil Menengah Ugama (SMU) 48 Peperiksaan Sijil Tinggi Agama Malaysia (STAM) 48 Peperiksaan Majlis Lembaga Vokasional Malaysia (MLVK) 48Private Education 48CHAPTER THREE : EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE AND SUPPORT PROGRAMMESIntroduction 53The Textbook Loan Scheme (TBLS) 53The Poor Students’ Trust Fund (PSTF) 54The Tuition Aid Scheme (TAS) 55The Integrated School Health Programme (ISHP) 56The Supplementary Food Programme (SFP) 58The School Milk Programme (SMP) 59The 3K Programme (Safety, Health and Aesthetic) 60The Safe School Programme (SSP) 61The Scholarship Programme 62The Counselling and Guidance Programme 64The Emergency Preparedness Programme (EPP) 64The School Boarding Programme 65The Assistance Programme for Students with Special Needs 65The Supplementary Reading Programme in Sabah and Sarawak (SRP) 66The NILAM Programme 66The School Resource Centre (SRC) 68ICT in Education 68Educational Television Programme 69Eduweb TV 69CHAPTER FOUR : TERTIARY EDUCATIONIntroduction 73History of Higher Education in Malaysia 73 iv | education in malaysia
    • Community Colleges 74Polytechnics 76Public Higher Education Institutes (Public HEIs) 76Private Higher Education Institutes (Private HEIs) 78The Malaysian Students’ Department 79Financial Assistance for Students at HEIs 79 Allowance for the Disabled Students 80 Allowance for the Community College Students 80 Financial Assistance Programme for Matriculation 80 Education Loan 81Promotion for Tertiary Education 81The National Higher Education Strategic Plan:“Beyond 2020” 81CHAPTER FIVE : TEACHER EDUCATIONIntroduction 87Historical Background 87Pre-service Teacher Education 88In-service Teacher Education 91Teachers Professional Guidance in ICT Project 93Management of Co-Curricular Activities 93Aminuddin Baki Institute (IAB) 93Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) 94Universiti of Malaya 95Teachers’ Welfare 95 Teachers’ Quarters 95 Special Allowences for Teachers in Rural/Remote Areas 96Excellent Teachers 96Award for Innovative Teachers 96Expert Teachers 96Teachers Day 97CHAPTER SIX : EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATIONIntroduction 103The Federal Level 103Policy and Educational Development Sector 103 The Educational Planning and Research Division 104 The Curriculum Development Division 105 The Educational Technology Division 106 The Malaysian Examinations Syndicate 107 The Textbook Division 108 The Malaysian National Book Council 108Educational Operations Sector 108 The School Management Division 109 The Islamic Education Division 109 The Technical and Vocational Education Division 110 The Special Education Division 110 The Sports, Art and Co-curriculum Division 111 The Private Education Division 111Professional Development Sector 112 The Teacher Education Division 112 v | education in malaysia
    • The Institute of Aminuddin Baki 112 The School Inspectorate and Quality Assurance 113Development Sector 113 The Development Division 114 The Finance Division 114 The Procurement and Asset Management Division 114 The Account Division 115The Management Sector 115 The Human Resource Management Division 115 The Competency Development and Evaluation Division 116 The Education Sponsorship Division 116 The Information and Communication Technology Division 117 The Service Management Division 117 The Corporate Affairs Division 117Divisions Directly Under the Secretary General 118 The Matriculation Division 118 The Policy and International Relations Division 118 The Internal Audit Division 119 The School Audit Division 120The Statutory Bodies Under the Ministry of Education 120 Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) 120 The Malaysian Examination Council 121 The Malaysian National Institute of Translation 122Decision Making at Federal Level 122 The Educational Planning Comittee (EPC) 122 Educational Administration at State Level 122 The State Education Departments (SED) 122Educational Administration at District Level 123Educational Administration at School Level 123Educational ExpenditureEducation For All 124 EFA Steering Committee 125 Technical Working Committee 125Internationalization Policy and Goals 126Programmes Implemented to Promote Internationalization of Education in Malaysia 126 United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) 128 Membership in UNESCO Subsidiaries 129 Collaboration with the International Bureau of Education (IBE) and 129 the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (ISESCO) 129 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 130 Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO) 130 Collaboration between ASEAN and SEAMEO 131 The Commonwealth 131 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Human Resources Development Working Group (APEC HRDWG) 132 Asia Pacific Centre of Education for International Understanding (APCEIU) 132 Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA) 133 International Exhibitions 133 Official Overseas Visits 133 vi | education in malaysia
    • List of Tables, Figures and GraphsChapter 1 : EDUCATION IN MALAYSIATable 1.1 Features of Colonization 3Table 1.2 Number of Students According to Type of School and Gender, 1938 3Table 1.3 Enrolment in Educational Institutions (1970-2008) 18Figure 1.1 Sabah and Sarawak School System, 1955 8Figure 1.2 The School System According to the Razak Report 9Figure 1.3 List of Important Education Committee Reports 10Figure 1.4 The Education Structure, 1968 12Figure 1.5 Formal Education System - Rahman Talib Report 1960 13Figure 1.6 List of Educational Legislation 17Figure 1.7 Framework of Educational Development Master Plan 2006-2010 23Graph 1.1 Total Number of Pupils, Teachers and Schools at Primary Level 11 (1958 - 2008)Graph 1.2 Total Number of Pupils, Teachers and Schools at Secondary Level 14 (1958 - 2008)Graph 1.3 Total Number of Teachers in Primary and Secondary Schools 18 (1980 - 2008)Chapter 2 : THE EDUCATION SYSTEMTable 2.1 Number of Pre-schools, Classrooms, Teachers and Enrolment 30Table 2.2 Intake of Special Model School, 2005-2009 36Table 2.3 Enrolment of Orang Asli Pupils, 2007 and 2008 38Table 2.4 Special Education Programmes in Primary and Secondary Schools, 2008 39Table 2.5 Special Education Integration Programmes for Primary Schools, 2008 39Table 2.6 Achievements of Malaysian Sports School Athletes at 43 International Games, 2008Table 2.7 Schedule of the j-QAF Programme 45Table 2.8 Statistics of Private Education Institutions and Agencies, 2008 49Table 2.9 Statistics of International Students in Private Schools 1995-2008 49Figure 2.1 The School System and Curricular Emphasis 29Figure 2.2 Development of Education Policy and National Education System 29Figure 2.3 List of Subjects in Primary School 32Figure 2.4 Aspects Emphasized Across the Curriculum 32Figure 2.5 Rationale for Compulsory Education 33Figure 2.6 Making National Schools as the School of Choice 34Figure 2.7 Aims of the Vision School 35Figure 2.8 List of Subjects at Lower Secondary Level 40Figure 2.9 List of Subjects at Upper Secondary Level 40 vii | education in malaysia
    • Figure 2.10 List of Elective Subjects at Upper Secondary Level 40Figure 2.11 List of Vocational Subjects at the Regular Secondary Schools 41Figure 2.12 List of Courses in Technical Schools 41Figure 2.13 List of Subjects Offered at the Form Six Level 44Figure 2.14 List of Matriculation Colleges 44Graph 2.1 Number of Primary Schools by Type, 2008 32Chapter 3 : EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE AND EDUCATIONAL SUPPORT PROGRAMMESTable 3.1 Allocation of the Poor Students’ Trust Fund (PSTF) 2005-2008 55Table 3.2 Scholarship Programmes under the Ministry of Education in 2007 63Table 3.3 Recognition of the Jauhari Level for Primary and Secondary Schools 67Table 3.4 The Reading Peer (RP) Reward System 67Figure 3.1 Types and Rate of Allocation in PSTF 55Figure 3.2 Scholarship Programmes for Pupils 63Chapter 4 : TERTIARY EDUCATIONTable 4.1 Number of Higher Education Institutions, December 2007 74Table 4.2 Number of Malaysian Students Studying Abroad (2002-2007) 79Figure 4.1 Full-time Courses at Certificate Level in Community College 75Figure 4.2 List of Skills Training Offered in Community Colleges 75Figure 4.3 List of Community Colleges in 2008 75Figure 4.4 List of Polytechnics in 2008 76Figure 4.5 List of Public Higher Education Institutes Based on Categories 77Figure 4.6 The National Higher Education Strategic Plan Implementation Phase 82Figure 4.7 The National Higher Education Strategic Plan 83Chapter 5 : TEACHER EDUCATIONTable 5.1 List of Institutes of Teacher Education Malaysia (ITEM) 88Table 5.2 Pre-service Courses in Institutes of Teacher Education Malaysia 91Table 5.3 In-service Programmes 91Figure 5.1 List of Courses Offered in IAB 94Figure 5.2 List of Courses Offered in Master of Education Programme in Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) 94Figure 5.3 List of Courses Offered in Principalship Programme at the Masters Level 95Chapter 6 : EDUCATION ADMINISTRATIONTable 6.1 List of State Education Departments 104Figure 6.1 Flowchart of MOE’s Management and Administration 103Figure 6.2 The Policy Decision- Making Structure 123 viii | education in malaysia
    • An Act that provides for education and for matters connected therewith.WHEREAS acknowledging that knowledge is the key determinant of thedestiny and survival of the nation:AND WHEREAS the purpose of education is to enable the Malaysian societyto have a command of knowledge, skills and values necessary in a worldthat is highly competitive and globalised, arising from the impact of rapiddevelopment in science, technology and information:AND WHEREAS education plays a vital role in achieving the country’s visionof attaining the status of a fully developed nation in terms of economicdevelopment, social justice and spiritual, moral and ethical strength,towards creating a society that is united, democratic, liberal and dynamic:AND WHEREAS it is the mission to develop a world class quality educationsystem which will realize the full potential of the individual and fulfil theaspiration of the Malaysian nation:AND WHEREAS the National Education Policy is based on the NationalPhilosophy of Education which is expressed as follows:AND WHEREAS the above policy is to be executed through a nationalsystem of education which provides for the national language to be themain medium of instruction, a national curriculum and commonexaminations; the education provided being varied and comprehensive inscope and which will satisfy the needs of the nation as well as promotenational unity through cultural, social, economic and political developmentin accordance with the principles of Rukunegara:AND WHEREAS it is considered desirable that regard shall be had, so far as iscompatible with that policy, with the provision of efficient instruction andwith the avoidance of unreasonable public expenditure in accordancewith the wishes of their parents: ix | education in malaysia
    • x | education in malaysia
    • “ Education in Malaysia is an on-going efforttowards further developing the potential ofindividuals in a holistic and integrated manner, soas to produce individuals who are intellectually,spiritually, emotionally and physically balancedand harmonious, based on a firm belief in anddevotion to God. Such an effort is designed toproduce Malaysian citizens who areknowledgeable and competent, who possess highmoral standards, and who are responsible andcapable of achieving a high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to theharmony and betterment of the family, the societyand the nation at large.“ xi | education in malaysia
    • The objectives of national education are: l To produce a loyal and united Malaysian nation; l To produce faithful, well-mannered, knowledgeable, competent and prosperous individuals; l To produce the nation’s human resource for development needs; and l To provide educational opportunities for all Malaysians.The National Education Policy, the Education Vision, theEducation Mission and Education Objectives are derivedfrom the National Education Philosophy, which constitutesthe basis for all education activities and programmes. Inother words, the National Education Philosophy istranslated into action and implementation particularly theimplementation of the National Education Policy. xii | education in malaysia
    • Ministers Of Education Malaysia (1955 - 2008) xiii | education in malaysia
    • Message Minister of Education Malaysia Y. B. Dato’ Seri Hishammuddin bin Tun HusseinThe Ministry of Education is constantly endeavouring to ensure that oureducation system provides quality learning experiences to equip our youth withrelevant and current knowledge and skills. To ensure this, our education systemhas undergone rigorous changes as we have adopted cutting edge solutions tomake the system more effective and responsive to the needs of the globalisedworld. We have, at the same time, ensured that changes to the education systemare consistent with the main tenets of our National Philosophy of Education.Malaysia can be proud of the successes and achievements of its education system in this era ofglobalisation.The education system has also taken account of the new frontiers in the creation and dissemination ofknowledge brought about by the spectacular developments in information and communicationtechnologies. Education initiatives and programmes in the country take into account the necessity tocreate a work force that is comfortable with, and able to utilize these new information and communicationtechnologies. Our education system is, in many respects, on par with those of many developed countriesand has proven to be capable of developing human assets that are able to compete in the global arena.This has been possible because the Ministry of Education has been willing to embrace the latestdevelopments and innovations in education. This willingness has ensured that we maintain the integrityof our education system so that it is one of the best in the world.In our efforts to develop a world-class education system, we have ensured that all initiatives andprogramme implementations are closely monitored and evaluated so that returns on funding andresources are maximized. Apart from the emphasis on developing quality human capital, our educationsystem also plays a major role in fostering unity and social balance in our multi-cultural nation.The successes and achievements of the education system can be attributed to the work of the Ministry ofEducation in partnership with all stakeholders, especially parents and the community at large. We areconfident that Malaysia is set to be a centre of educational excellence, both regionally as well asinternationally. DATO’ SERI HISHAMMUDDIN BIN TUN HUSSEIN xiv | education in malaysia
    • Message Secretary-General of Education Y. Bhg. Tan Sri Dr. Zulkurnain bin Haji AwangI offer my congratulations to the Educational Planning and Research Division,Ministry of Education, Malaysia for having successfully published this book. I alsoextend my deepest appreciation for the opportunity to pen a few words in thisbook.This new edition of Education in Malaysia is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the national educationsystem. It contains a wealth of accurate and current information relating to the developments and innovations that havebeen implemented as part of our continuing efforts to improve the system. I am confident that the book will be aconvenient and useful reference for information relating to the various divisions and agencies of the Ministry ofEducation Malaysia for education specialists at home and abroad.Education is vital to the development of a country. A stable and flexible education system facilitates the citizens of thenation in their efforts to generate knowledge and wealth and to improve the quality of life for their people. Awareness ofthis critical role of education has strengthened our determination to ensure that our education system is capable ofrealizing national goals for nation building.In the era of globalisation the world is borderless. The Ministry of Education Malaysia accepts this new reality and hasplanned strategically and systematically to face the challenges pitted against us by this brave, new world. Our efforts toimprove our education system are geared towards ensuring that the younger generations in this country are equippedwith the knowledge, skills and competencies that will enable them to cope with the challenges posed by globalisation.Information relating to our efforts to ensure that our education system is competitive and capable of providing qualityinstruction can be found in this book. I am confident that this publication can become an important reference resourcefor all those who are interested in learning more about our education system.TAN SRI DR. ZULKURNAIN BIN HAJI AWANG xv | education in malaysia
    • Message Director-General of Education Y. Bhg. Dato’ Hj. Alimuddin bin Hj. Mohd. DomThe Ministry of Education is committed to developing the competitiveness ofthe national education system for the international arena.This challenge requiresall officers of the ministry dedicate themselves toward the goal of creating aquality education system that equips our youth with the attitudes, skills andcompetencies they require in the 21st century.Quality education is critical to the development of quality human capital. Quality human capital that isknowledgeable, competent and competitive can contribute to the peace and prosperity of the nation. Animportant part of our responsibility for the national education system is to ensure that the Malaysian educationsystem is able to respond to the demands imposed by the challenges of globalisation.We have expended mucheffort on planning and preparing a variety of innovative initiatives and programmes that are designed to bringabout the wholesome development of our learners so that they can contribute significantly to nationaldevelopment. We have also made great strides in ensuring equity and access to quality education for all ourpeople.Change brought about by rapid technological developments is a hallmark of our times. The Ministry ofEducation has attempted to harness the latest developments in education to ensure that we provide effectiveand enjoyable learning experiences for our students. Our curricular changes and innovations are designed toforeground the role of our schools as agents of social transformation, preparing our students to confront thechallenges of the 21st century while simultaneously fostering national unity, patriotism and a shared nationaldestiny. In response to the recent surge in new information and communication technologies, the Ministry ofEducation has committed itself to the preparation and implementation of programmes that are intended toequip our learners with the skills and competencies that will allow them to master these new technologies andexploit their development potential for the nation.This effort is just one part of a wider spectrum of programmes and initiatives that are detailed in the EducationDevelopment Master Plan 2006-2010. The master plan maps out the development emphases for the nationaleducation system. Continuous monitoring is an integral part of the plan and is designed to ensure that stagedtargets are achieved on schedule. By the will of Allah SWT and the diligent work of all, we are confident that wewill achieve the objectives of the Education Development Master Plan and make our education system one ofthe best in world.DATO’ HAJI ALIMUDDIN BIN HAJI MOHD. DOM xvi | education in malaysia
    • Foreword Director Educational Planning and Research Division Dr. Amir bin Salleh @ Mohd SalehPraise be to Allah. His blessings had enable Educational Planning and ResearchDivision to once again successfully publish “Education in Malaysia” .The current publication focuses on the latest developments and changes in Malaysian education. It dealswith all important aspects of the education structure as well as the management system in allorganisations and agencies under the Ministry of Education. The book highlights the Ministry’sachievements in adapting and improving its education system in order to meet the challenges ofglobalisation and address the rapid changes brought about by the development of information andcommunication technologies. It is important to note that these developments have been attained whiletaking account of the aspirations of the National Philosophy of Education.The Educational Planning and Research Division wishes to acknowledge the cooperation of the variousagencies of the Ministry of Education in the publication of this book. We wish to thank all officers in theMinistry of Education who have contributed their ideas and suggestions. We hope that this cooperationwill continue and be further enhanced in the future.Finally, it is our hope that this publication will prove to be a useful reference for information pertaining tothe Malaysian education system.DR. AMIR BIN SALLEH @ MOHD SALEH xvii | education in malaysia
    • “This country must seriously enhance the production and supply of information, knowledge and wisdom and assure their accessibility to all our people” Y.A.B. Dato’ Seri Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad Former Prime Minister of Malaysia
    • CHAPTER 1 Education in Malaysia : A Historical ReviewIntroductionInformal education in Malaysia began since the Malacca Sultanate. For decades, the education in Malaysia went througha series of transformation according to local needs. There was no significant change in the provision of education duringthe occupancy of the Portuguese and Dutch. However, the arrival of the English in 1786 brought a new era in educationfor the Malays until it was disrupted by the invasion of the Japanese in 1941. After the fall of the Japanese in 1945, theEnglish again played a significant role in the development of education until Malaya achieved its independence from theBritish on 31st August 1957.Since independence, education in Malaysia has undergone tremendous changes and development. From a diverse andfragmented system of education based upon communal needs, it has evolved into an education system that strives tobuild a united nation according to the Malaysian mould. Malaysia aims to produce a competitive society that is strong,united and resilient in facing challenges and adversity. Features of Colonization No. Colonist Period Features 1 Portuguese 1511-1641 l Based in Malacca (130 years) l Language and cultural influence l Limited impact on education 2 Dutch 1641-1824 l Based in Malacca (183 years) l Limited influence, focus was on Betawi (Jakarta) l No impact on education 3 English 1824-1942 l Significant influence on development of education 1945-1957 l Development of English, Malay, Chinese, Tamil and religious education (130 years) l Did not promote ethnic unity 4 Japanese 1942-1945 l Significant influence on relationship between ethnic groups (3 1/2 years) l School curriculum promoted Japanese culture and values Table 1.1: Features of ColonizationPre-Independence : Education During the British Occupancy (1824-1957)Prior to attaining independence from Type of Male Female Totalthe British in 1957, there was an absence Schoolof uniformity in the provision ofeducation. Each ethnic group Malay 68 905 21 531 90 436established its own school. Malay, Chinese 63 338 22 951 86 289English, Chinese and Tamil schools used Tamil 14 866 7 775 22 641their respective medium of instruction, English 40 577 17 038 57 615curricula, books and teachers. Childrenof different ethnic background could Source : Buku Pendidikan di Malaysia: Sejarah, Sistem dan Falsafah. Edisi Kedua, 2004only study together in the English Table 1.2 : Number of Students According to Type of School and Gender ,1938schools. Teachers for the Chinese andTamil schools were brought in fromChina and India respectively while local Malays were recruited to teach in Malay schools. At that time, education wasfocused on maintaining loyalty towards the country of origin. As a result, segregation existed among the ethnic groups. 3 | education in malaysia
    • • English SchoolsThe establishment of English schools in Malaya was led by the British government, individualsand Christian missionaries. The missionaries felt that it was an opportunity to spreadChristianity among the locals. The curriculum emphasized preparing students for theCambridge Overseas School Certificate. Students who obtained good results in theSchool Certificate examination were given the opportunity to further theireducation at the diploma level at Kings Edward Medical College VII (1912) inSingapore, Raffles College (1919) or at degree level at the University ofEngland. Among the earliest schools established were thePenang Free School (1816) in Pulau Pinang, VictoriaInstitution (1893) and St. John’s Institution (1893)in Kuala Lumpur, as well as the Methodist Boys’School (1897) in Selangor.The Malay College KualaKangsar (MCKK) was founded in 1905 to cater forMalay aristocrats. These schools adopted thecurriculum used by the Grammar Schools inEngland.Secondary education was only available in English Penang Free School, 1816government and mission schools as well as inindependent Chinese schools. In the 1930s, the British government introduced the Special Malay Class to enable Malaychildren from Malay schools to further their secondary education in English schools. The missionaries played aninstrumental role in developing and promoting the English education in Malaya. To cater for the growing teaching force,the English language teacher training programme was initiated in Kuala Lumpur (1905) and Pulau Pinang (1907). Diplomain teaching was offered at Raffles College, Singapore and Kirby College, United Kingdom. Prior to the establishment of theUniversity of Malaya in Singapore in 1949, graduate teachers for English secondary schools obtained training from RafflesCollege and the University of Hong Kong.• Malay Schools Initially, education among the Malays was informal and mainly focused on Al Quran and religious matters.The British government, on the other hand, set up Malay schools to teach Malay children to become better farmers than their parents. The first Malay school was established in 1855 in Gelugur, Pulau Pinang. As the number of students increased, two more schools were set up in Teluk Belanga and Kampung Gelam, Singapore. The Teluk Belanga Malay School was upgraded to a high school in 1876 and later into a teacher training college. The school in Kampung Gelam was transformed into a religious school. Sekolah Melayu Setapak, 1908 4 | education in malaysia
    • As the Malay community was not keen on co-edschools, the British government established the firstMalay Girls’ School in Teluk Belanga. The curriculumemphasized on reading, writing, arithmetics,geography and physical education. Later elements ofbasic living skills such as farming and weaving wereintroduced at the request of the Malay community.Statistics show that there were 16 Malay schools with569 students in 1872. In 1892, the number of Malayschools increased to 189 with a total of 7,218 students.The Sultan Idris Training College (1922) and the MalayWomen’s Training College (1935) were established totrain teachers. Maktab Perguruan Perempuan Melayu Melaka, 1935• Religious Schools Sekolah Agama Madrasah or Islamic religious schools were pervasively established to compete with English and Malay schools by Islamic religious figures such as Sheikh Tahir Jalaluddin and Sayid Syeikh Ahmad Al-Hadi. These schools had better infrastructure, and were more organized and systematic compared to sekolah pondok (informal religious classes managed by individuals). Sekolah Agama Madrasah Madrasah Al-Iqbal, Singapore (1907), Sekolah Al-Hadi, Malacca (1917) and Madrasah Al-Mashoor, Pulau Pinang (1919) were the pioneer religious schools. More schools were rapidly established between the 1920’s - 1940’s. The establishment of these religious schools provided a sense of security among the Malays that the position of Islam was secured despite the influence of other religions and way of life brought about by the English and vernacular schools. However, the aim to build a modern, rationale and progressive Muslim society was not realized as the curriculum lacked emphasis on Mathematics, Science and English Language, which were considered as essential subjects to promote mobility amongst a modern Muslim society. Sayed Sheikh Al-Hadi 5 | education in malaysia
    • • Chinese SchoolsThe Chinese were brought to Malaya from mainland China towork at the tin mines in urban areas. Chinese schools wereestablished and financed by this community until the 1920’s.The curriculum, textbooks and teachers were brought in fromChina.The first Chinese school was set up in Malacca in 1816 bya group of missionaries from London.In the early 20th century, the Chinese schools were very muchinfluenced by the reformation movement in mainland China.Kang Yu Wei, a Chinese scholar, introduced a modern andmore systematic curriculum in the Chinese schools in Malayaand Singapore. This curriculum included subjects such asHistory, Geography, Science, Mathematics, Ethics, Writing, Physical Educationand Music. Schooling was divided into six years of primary, three years of Junior Middle and three years ofSenior Middle school. The new curriculum provided an avenue for the British to interfere in the administration of Chineseschools.The British government introduced the School Registration Ordinance to control the administration and expansion ofChinese schools. In 1924, some Chinese schools received financial aid from the British government, and by 1938, a total of 684Chinese schools received this financial aid.• Tamil SchoolsThe Indians were brought into Malaya to work in estates and plantations.The development and growth of Tamil schools wasthus closely linked to the opening of rubber estates, coffee, sugar-cane and coconut plantations in Penang, Malacca andJohore.The textbooks and teachers were brought in from India while the curriculum was adapted from the Indian curriculum.However, since the Tamil schools were initially built by the Indian workers without any aid or assistance from the British government or their employers, these schools failed to function effectively as they lacked proper resources. Most pupils remained in the plantation and worked as labourers. In 1923, the Labour Enactment introduced by the British government enforced that it is compulsory for each estate to open a school when there was more than 10 Indian children aged 7-14 years. In addition, the British government provided some financial assistance to schools that showed progress and opened free Tamil schools for the children of public works department and railway workers. Since then, most Tamil schools were financed either by the British government, the estate management, the local Indian SJK(T) Kinrara, 1947 community or the Christian missionaries. However, due to the poor development of Tamil schools, some parents opted to sendtheir children to English schools as they had better facilities and resources. By 1930, there were four types of Tamil schoolsnamely, government schools, estate schools, Indian community private schools and the Christian missionary private schools. 6 | education in malaysia
    • • Development of Secondary EducationThe British government provided free secondary education in English, missionary and Chinese schools while the Malay andthe Tamil schools were confined to primary education. Students who wanted to further their education had no choice but toattend English schools. Students from Malay schools had to attend a Special Malay Class upon completion of Year 3 or Year 4as a requirement for entry. The policy of the British government was to produce an educated Malayan civil service.Nevertheless, the higher ranking positions were reserved for and filled by the Europeans.Several tertiary education institutions were established during this period. The first institution of higher education, in fieldsother than teaching, was not established until 1905 when the King Edward VII College of Medicine was founded in Singapore.The second institution was the Raffles College which was also established in Singapore in 1928. These two colleges wereamalgamated to constitute the former University of Malaya in Singapore. The Public Works Department set up a technicalschool in 1925. It was taken over by the Education Department in 1931 and later became a Technical College in 1946. A yearlater, it was renamed the College of Agriculture, Serdang.The upsurge of nationalism and the desire for self-government resulted in the setting up of two committees, popularlyknown as the Barnes (1950) and Fenn-Wu (1951), to look into problems of and recommend improvements to Malay andChinese education. As an outcome of the deliberations of these two committees, the Education Ordinance of 1952 waspassed but it did not produce the desired changes in the system. As a result, a special committee was set up in 1956 to workout a policy based upon the decision to make Malay the national language whilst preserving the languages and culture ofthe other domiciled races of the Federation of Malaya. The recommendations of this committee contained in the report ofthe Education Committee 1956, commonly referred to as the Razak Report, formed the basis of the Education Ordinance of1957, which laid the foundation for the educational policy.Education during the Japanese Occupancy (1942-1945)Malaya was occupied by the Japanese from 1941-1945. The Japanese army continued the vernacular schools but added theJapanese language into the curriculum. The Japanese established the Nippon-Go school which emphasized on the cultureand values of the Japanese.Education at the secondary level was replaced with the establishment of technical schools and technical colleges whichemphasized on the learning of telecommunication, fishery, agriculture and civil engineering. School facilities were also usedas base for the Japanese army. This had hampered the education progress.Local teachers were given training in the teaching of the Japanese language. In their effort to acculturate Japanese valuesamong the locals, Japanese classes were offered in associations and clubs. A special section was reserved for the Japaneselanguage in the local newspapers.There were no clear educational objectives during the occupation, merely as a tool to assistthe Japanese administer the country. 7 | education in malaysia
    • Development of Education in Sabah and SarawakThe British government did not give due emphasis on the development of vernacular schools for the natives of Sabah andSarawak. Efforts to build schools in remote areas were initiated by the Christian missionaries. Before the 20th century, schoolsthat taught the Quran was established by Muslims from the Bajau, Sulu, Illanum, Kedayan, Brunei, Tidong and Bisaya ethnics.Sekolah Jesselton, the first Malay school was built in 1915 by the families of various ethnic leaders. St. Joseph School Kuching(1833) was the first school to be built in Sarawak, followed by the Chinese school (1872) in Paku and Pekan Bau. TheWoodhead Report (1955) recommended that emphasis be made on the: l importance of primary education; l need to improve primary and secondary education; l provision for primary and secondary education, and l need to establish a teaching service in North Borneo.Based on this report, the school system and organization was realigned as shown in the table below. Type of School Type of examination Secondary school l Year 5 Examination l Year 6 Examinations English Schools l Year 6 Examination l North Borneo Certificate of Education Chinese schools l Year 6 Examination l Junior Middle Examination Sabah and Sarawak School System, 1955 Special Course (1 Year) Chinese ( 2 Years ) English ( 2 Years ) Vernacular ( 2 Years ) Teacher Trainning Post Tertiary Tertiary Secondary Education Education Abroad Abroad Upper Secondary Secondary (3 Years) (5 Years) Commerce School Secondary Upper Secondary Post Primary (2 Years) (3 Years) ( 3 Years ) Lower Secondary Upper Secondary (3 Years) (3 Years) Remove Remove 6 Years 6 Years 6 Years Primary Chinese English Vernacular Figure 1.1 : Sabah and Sarawak School System, 1955 8 | education in malaysia
    • The School System According to the Razak Report Primary School A B C Malay Medium English, Chinese English, Malay, National Schools & Tamil medium Chinese,& Tamil National Type School that are Schools not national schools. SECONDARY EDUCATION EmploymentNational Schools (Academic and Vocational) Commerce School EmploymentDifferent medium of instruction during the or 2 year coursefirst 3 years of school. Teachers trained inTeacher Training Colleges where possible. Employment LOWER CERTIFICATE EXAMINATIONTeacher Training Colleges for basic Second part of Secondary Technical Instructionschool teacher. Education. Graduate teachers where possible. Different medium of instruction at the SPM level. Employment Employment Pre University classes (Arts and science stream in English) Technical Teachers College Institutions for special education Teacher University Figure 1.2: The School System According to the Razak Report 9 | education in malaysia
    • Post Independence : Education During Post-Independence (1957-1970) Prior to independence, there was awareness amongst the leaders and List of Important Education the locals for the need to replace the education systems left behind by Committee Reports the colonists with one common education system for all.This awareness resulted in the Razak Report 1956. The Education Committee Report Barnes Report 1950 1956 established an education system that incorporated national characteristics and guaranteed a place in schools for all children Fenn-Wu Report 1950 regardless of their ethnic or religion. The education policies as outlined in the Razak Report were the foundation in the formulation of a national education system that placed high emphasis on national unity. Razak Report 1951 In 1960, a Review Committee looked into the implementation of Rahman Talib Report 1960 recommendations made by the 1957 Razak Report. The findings of this committee, commonly known as the Rahman Talib Report, confirmed Higher Education the educational policy in the Razak Report and its general acceptance by Committee Report 1967 the public. The recommendations of these two reports became the integral components of the Education Act 1961. In January 1976, the Act Dropout Report 1973 was extended to Sabah and Sarawak, which had been incorporated into the formation of Malaysia in 1963. Cabinet Committee Report 1979 The most important challenges facing the new nation after independence were unity and democratization of education. The Cabinet Committee Report process of consolidating the diverse school systems into a cohesive on Training 1991 national education system, with the national language as the main medium of instruction, was initiated during this period. In 1957, all Figure 1.3: List of Important Education Committee existing primary schools were converted to national and national-type Reports schools. Malay medium primary schools were renamed national schools. English, Chinese and Tamil schools became national-type primaryschools. Whilst Malay was the medium of instruction in national schools, English and the vernacular languages were themedium of instruction in national-type schools. The national language was made a compulsory subject in these nationaltype-schools. The English national-type schools were converted into national schools in stages beginning 1968, with theimplementation of five subjects taught in the Malay language for Year One to Year Three pupils. English and Chinese secondary schools were converted to national-type secondary schools. These schools became fully orpartially assisted schools. Private Chinese Schools that opted to become government-aided schools were termed asConforming schools.The year 1958 marked the beginning of Malay medium secondary education. Malay medium secondaryclasses started as an annex in English secondary schools.These classes eventually developed into national secondary schools.Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (1956) and the Language Institute (1958) were responsible for the development of the Malaylanguage. The main function of the Language Institute was to train Malay language specialist teachers. The Dewan Bahasadan Pustaka’s main function was to promote the Malay language as the national language, and to produce textbooks andreference books in the national language.In 1962, school fees were abolished in all fully assisted primary schools. Free primary education was made available to allchildren regardless of their ethnic group or religion. The entrance examination into the secondary school, the MalaysianSecondary School Examination was abolished in 1964 and universal education was extended from six to nine years inPeninsular Malaysia. This examination was abolished in Sarawak in 1974 and in Sabah in 1977. 10 | education in malaysia
    • Graph 1.1: Total Number of Pupils, Teachers and Schools at Primary Level (1958-2008)The national agenda to unite the various ethnic groups in Malaya started with the reformation of the curricular. Curricularreforms were focused on reviewing the existing syllabuses and designing a common content curriculum with a Malaysianoutlook.The first comprehensive review of the scope and content of what was taught in schools was conducted in 1956.TheGeneral Syllabus and Review Committee was set up in 1964 to revise, amend or in some cases to devise new syllabuses. Acomprehensive education system for lower secondary education was introduced in 1965.Technical and vocational educationwas given an impetus with the establishment of the Technical and Vocational Education Division in 1964.Following the declaration of independence, a division of the University of Malaya (Singapore) was established in KualaLumpur. On 1 January 1962, this division became a separate autonomous university. It continued to be the only university inthe country until University of Science Malaysia (USM) was established in 1969.Two colleges, subsidized by the government,namely, Institut Teknologi MARA and Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman were established in 1967 and 1969 respectively. 11 | education in malaysia
    • The Education Structure, 1968I : Peninsular Malaysia Gred Basic Lower Secondary Upper Secondary Form 6 Tertiary EducationMasuk Terus 6 11 12 3 14 15 16 17 18 19 and abovePer. I Per. IV 2 13 14 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 Technical Agriculture Commerce Homescience Tamil 1 6 IV V Transition Class IV Malay Malay University (3 years and above) 1 6 I II III IV V VI VI Malaya, Sains, Kebangsaan, Overseas Science National English Transition Class IV English English MARA Overseas Degree Programmes (3 years and above) 1 6 I II III IV V VI VI Tuanku Abdul Rahman College (Professional Course 3 years and above) Technical College Chinese (Profesional Course (4 years)) Teacher Traning College (2 years) 1 6 IV V Colleges Teaching (2 years) Secondary Vocational Islam (2 years) Schools Polytechnic (2 years) Tunku Abdul Rahman (2 years) Key Agriculture (2 years) LCE / SRP Diploma MARA (2 years) Technical Diploma (2 years) MCE / OSC / SPM HSC / STP Vocational CertificateII : Sabah and Sarawak 1 2 3 Work English 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 MalaySarawak 1 2 3 4 5 6 Academic Academic University P Chinese 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Key Teacher Maktab Teknik, LCE Training Pertanian, Politeknik, Perguruan, MARA, STAR MCE HSC Remove Vocational 1 2 3 English 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Malay Academic Academic T P UniversitySabah 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 T P Chinese Technical School 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 1 2 3 Figure 1.4 : The Education Structure, 1968 12 | education in malaysia
    • Formal Education System - Rahman Talib Report 1960 A B Sekolah Kebangsaan Non- Standard Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (National Primary Schools) Primary School (National Type Primary (To Be Converted to A or B) Schools) MALAYAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS ENTRANCE EXAMINATION 30% 70% Remove Class Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan / Sekolah Menengah Sekolah Lanjutan Jenis Kebangsaan Kampung Sekolah Pelajaran (National Type (Rural Secondary Lanjutan Secondary Schools) Schools) (Post Primary Schools) Lower Certificate Of Education Primary Teacher Secondary Trade Secondary Technical Upper Secondary Training Institution Schools Schools Schools (Course 2) Federation Of Malaya Certificate / Schools Certificate Lower Sixth Form Training Colleges Technical College Upper Sixth Form (Primary Course Post- Primary Secondary) Higher School Certificate University EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIETYNote : ---- lines indicate course duration in a yearSource : Report of the Education Review Committee 1990. Kuala Lumpur : Government Press. (Rahman Talib Report) pg 26 Figure 1.5 : Formal Education System - Rahman Talib Report 1960 13 | education in malaysia
    • Educational Development During the Era of New Economic Policy ( 1971-1990 ) Social and economic issues shaped the development of education from 1971 to 1990.Racial harmony and efforts to curb economic imbalances in the society were crucial to sustain development, stability and progress. This was the period of the New Economic Policy (NEP) that is a socio-economic policy to achieve national unity and development. The focus was on eradicating poverty and restructuring the Malaysian society to eliminate the identification of race with economic function and geographical location. Improving the income of the poor especially in rural areas, bridging disparities between races and location, increasing production and creatingSource: Educational Statistics of Malaysia 1938, 1967, 1977, 1987, 1997, 2000 to 2008 more opportunities for Bumiputera in the commercial, industrial and Graph 1.2: Total Number of Pupils, Teachers and Schools at Secondary Level (1958-2008) professional sectors were of paramount importance. The NEP brought about significant changes in the national education system. All pupils follow the same curriculum and sit for the same examinations. Civics was introduced as a subject to instil self reliance in pupils. Science and technical subjects were offered at the secondary level to produce skilled workforce in the areas of science and technology. The aim of achieving national unity through the use of Malay language as the medium of instruction in all primary and secondary schools had begun since 1970, and implemented in stages. In Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah, English ceased to be the medium of instruction at the primary level in 1975, at the secondary level in 1982, and at the tertiary level in 1983. In Sarawak, the conversion of the medium of instruction was implemented in 1977 beginning with Standard One. 14 | education in malaysia
    • Today Malay language is the medium of instruction in all national schools and a compulsory subject in Chinese and Tamilschools. English is taught as a second language in all schools. In 1980, the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) examination wasconducted in Malay language. In 1970, English ceased to be the medium of instruction for teacher training at the primarylevel.The provision of education, which was more focused in urban centres, was extended to the rural areas. More schools werebuilt in the rural areas hence providing greater access for rural children, especially the economically disadvantaged. Inaddition, the government introduced support programmes such as the fully residential schools, science schools, rural schoolhostels, the textbook loan scheme and educational television programmes. The government also expanded the provision ofscholarships, the school meal programme and the health programmes.In 1974, a Cabinet Committee was formed to study the implementation of the national education system. The focus of thiscommittee was to ensure that the education system was able to produce citizens who are united, progressive, disciplined andtalented in diverse fields as required to achieve the national mission. As a result of the Cabinet Committee Report, the NewIntegrated Primary School Curriculum was formulated in 1983 and the New Integrated Secondary School Curriculum wasformulated in 1989. The National Education Philosophy was also formulated in 1988 to guide and strengthen the nation’seducation system. Higher education was also expanded during this period with the establishment of three universitiesnamely National University of Malaysia (1970), University of Agriculture Malaysia (1971) and University of TechnologyMalaysia (1972).Educational Development During the Era of National Development Policy ( 1991-2000 )Drastic changes in education took place in the last decade of the 20th century. The vast development of ICT hasten theglobalization era. In concurrence with the demands of globalization and the information and technology era,Vision 2020 waslaunched by Dato’ Seri Dr. Mahathir Mohamad in 1991 to aspire Malaysians towards achieving the status of a developednation by the year 2020. In line with the vision 2020, MOE outlined an education system to realise the vision. Educationlegislation was amended in order to be relevant to current needs. The 1961 Education Act was replaced with the 1996Education Act. One of the major amendments made was to include preschool into the National Education System. Theenactment of the 1996 Private Higher Education Act was also amended to allow the establishments of more private highereducation institutes. The MOE formulated four new acts to encourage a more systematic development of higher education.The acts are: i. 1996 National Higher Education Council Act - to allow the establishment of a council that will determine the policy and manage development of higher education. ii. 1996 National Accreditation Board Act - quality assurance, especially for the private higher education programmes. iii. 1996 University and College University Act (Amendment) - grants more financial and management autonomy to public universities. iv. 1996 National Higher Education Fund Cooperation Act - provides student loans and funds in order to increase access to higher education. 15 | education in malaysia
    • One of the major moves at this time was to increase access to higher education by setting up more public universities, collegeuniversities, matriculation colleges, community colleges, private colleges and universities as well as branch campus ofoverseas universities. University of Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) was established in 1992, followed by University of MalaysiaSabah (UMS) in 1997. Maktab Perguruan Sultan Idris was upgraded to Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) in 1997. TheMalaysian Teaching Diploma Programme was also introduced to replace the Teaching Certificate Programme for pre-serviceteachers at Teachers Colleges.Measures were also taken to improve leadership qualities amongst school heads. Institut Aminuddin Baki (IAB) was entrustedwith the task to provide leadership and management training to school heads and administrators. Another significantchange was the introduction of the open concept for SPM and STPM examinations in 2000. Maktab Perguruan Sultan Idris (MPSI), established in 1922, upgraded to Universiti Perguruan Sultan Idris (UPSI) in 1997. 16 | education in malaysia
    • Education Development During the Era of National Vision Policy (2001 - 2010) Globalization, liberalization and the vast development of ICT has Education Legislation influenced the development of the national education system. The challenge for the nation is to produce human capitals that are 1 Education Ordinance, 1952 knowledgeable, competent and globally competitive. The National Educational Policy was formulated based on the 2 Education Ordinance, 1957 Education Ordinance of 1957 which was later amended through the Razak Report (1956), the Rahman Talib Report (1960) and the Cabinet Committee Report (1979). To promote unity amongst the Malaysians, 3 Education Act, 1961 the education system was extended to 11 years of schooling with Malay language as the medium of instruction, a uniformed national 4 National Language Act 1963 / 67 curriculum and a standardised national assessment. Steps were taken (Revised - 1971) to amend the Education Act in order to strengthen the national education system as shown in Figure 1.6. 5 Universities and Colleges Act 1971 Steps were taken to provide quality infrastructure as well as to increase the number of education facilities in all education 6 Ungku Omar Polytechnic Act 1974 institutions, as an effort to accommodate the increase of enrolment. In 2008, there are 7,627 primary schools, 2,062 secondary schools, 24 7 Malaysias Examination Council Act 1980 polytechnics, 27 teachers’ education institutes and 21 public universities across the nation. 8 Education Act, 1996 Developing competency and efficiency amongst leaders, teachers and education officers was also an important agenda during this Private Higher Education period of time. Empowerment and learning organization concepts 9 Institution Act 1996 were widely instilled and encouraged. Allocations were made to promote continuous human resource development. Programmes Universities and Colleges Act such as in service training on developing management, leadership 10 (Amendment) 1996 and research skills were carried out at all levels of the ministry as an effort to implement a competent and efficient education 11 National Acreditation Board Act 1996 management system capable of providing quality and relevant education to the nation. National Higher Education 12 Fund Board 1997 National Council on Higher Education 13 Act 1996 MARA Institution of Technology Act 14 (Amendment) 2000 National Higer Educational 15 Finance Board (Amendment) 2000 Educational Act (Amendment) 2002 - 16 Section 29A Education Regulations 17 (Compulsory Education) 2002. Figure 1.6: List of Educational Legislation 17 | education in malaysia
    • Enrolment in Educational Institutions, (1970-2008)Tahun Primary Secondary Teacher Polytechnics College School School Training and Colleges University1970 1 421 489 478 610 2 927 455 17 4231980 2 008 973 1 083 818 13 247 3 024 41 4471990 2 447 206 1 376 337 23 006 9 404 92 0532000 2 907 123 1 998 744 23 740 43 248 229 1312003 3 071 121 2 098 817 24 587 49 135 317 7142005 3 137 280 2 217 879 28 755 64 303 348 2292007 3 167 775 2 253 383 30 937 83 848 371 1862008 3 151 780 2 243 693 33 744 84 250 408 750Source :Educational Statistics of Malaysia 1970-2008, Educational Statistics of Malaysia 1977, 1987, 1997, 2000 and2007 Table 1.3: Enrolment in Educational Institutions (1970 - 2008) Source: Educational Statistics of Malaysia. Graph 1.3: Total Number of Teachers in Primary and Secondary Schools (1980 - 2008) 18 | education in malaysia
    • Education Development Plan 2001 - 2010 The Education Blueprint The Education Development Plan for Malaysia (2001 -2010) also referred to as the Blueprint takes into account the goals and aspirations of the National Vision Policy to build a resilient nation, encourage the creation of a just society, maintain sustainable economic growth, develop global competitiveness, build a knowledge-based economy (K-economy), strengthen human resource development and maintain sustainable environmental development. The Blueprint aims to ensure that all citizens have the opportunity to twelve years of education in terms of access, equity and quality. Thus the MOE aims to gradually restructure the national education system from 11 years of schooling to 12 years similar to that of many developed nations. The Blueprint also outlines goals and strategies to further develop the potentials of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner so as to produce individual who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced in line with the NEP. The plan is inclusive of strategies to nurture creativity and innovativeness amongst students; enhance learning cultures; develop a science and technology culture; encourage life long learning; and to provide an efficient, effective and quality education system.The Blueprint focuses on the development of pre-school, primary, secondary and tertiary education which will bestrengthened through the development of support programmes, funding, management and integration of informationand communication technology (ICT). The Blueprint is used as a framework for preparing action plans for educationdevelopment, which encompass the expansion and strengthening of existing programmes as well as the replacementsof non-relevant programmes with new programmes that are more realistic to current and future needs. The EducationDevelopment Plan was developed based on four thrusts: l to increase access to education; l to increase equity to education; l to increase quality of education; and l to increase the competency and efficiency level of the educational management.To implement the programmes in the Blueprint, the Federal Government continuously increased funds allocation forMOE. In 1997, a total of RM12 billion that is 20 percent of the federal expenditure was allocated to the MOE, and over thenext 11 years, MOE’s expenditure has increased to RM22.14 billion. Although the budget for MOE has been increasing, itis still not sufficient to sustain the actual amount needed to fully develop the National Education System to that of adeveloped nation. The MOE constantly encourages the involvement of NGOs, the private sectors and individualsproviding financial support, apart from offering competitive fees to international students studying in Malaysian schoolsor education institutes. The private sectors involvement in tertiary education is very encouraging. Smart partnership,incentives, twinning programmes and cost sharing in training and R&D has helped the government towards achievingthe educational goals.Education managers were given adequate training in financial management to build up their competency and efficiencyin managing funds. They were empowered to manage education finance to facilitate the implementation of educationprogrammes. Emphasize were also placed on supervision and monitoring of expenditure of all educational programmes. 19 | education in malaysia
    • Education Development Master Plan (EDMP) 2006-2010 The Education Development Master Plan (EDMP) was launched on 16 January 2007 to promote the education agenda under the 9th Malaysian Plan (9MP). THE EDMP outlines six thrusts that mirror the objectives of the National Mission. The MOE has developed the EDMP 2006-2010 as a comprehensive education planning document based on three main aspects i.e. infrastructure, content and human resource. The aim of the EDMP is to provide quality education for all. To ensure this goal is achieved, two main approaches have been identified under the Ninth Malaysia Plan: l Complete tasks specified under the previous five-year plan, ensure access to education for all and to provide equal opportunities for all students. l Further develop the potential of schools in their respective clusters of educational institutions, enabling teachers and students to promote the schools and the national education system at the international level.The EDMP Strategic ThrustsSix strategic thrusts have been identified to strengthen the national education system:First Thrust : Nation BuildingThe MOE aspires to produce citizens who passes local, global and patriotic outlook, who value and treasure the culturalheritage and arts from the formative school years. The desire to build a nation can be achieved by strengthening theMalay language, improving students’ discipline, fully implementing theStudent Integration Plan for Unity (RIMUP) including co-curricular andsports activities to develop the identity and by cultivating positive traitsand courtesy among students.Focus and implementation strategies: l Strengthening the national language as the basis for unity and knowledge l Strengthening unity and national integration l Cultivating love for arts, heritage and national culture l Promoting a clear understanding of Islam Hadhari 20 | education in malaysia
    • Second Thrust: Developing Human CapitalThe MOE focuses on the development of positive value systems,discipline and character building of students. This thrust aspires toproduce students competent in science and technology, innovative,creative and marketable. The MOE will provide a holistic assessmentand evaluation system, mould students’ discipline and emphasiseon cleanliness, health and safety. Focus and implementationstrategies: l Providing more educational choices for parents and students l Enhancing capacity and mastery of knowledge l Developing skills and students’ personality l Strengthening evaluation and assessment system to become more holistic l Enhancing co-curriculum and sports programmes l Strengthening students’ discipline l Enhancing disciplinary complaint system service l Strengthening curriculum l Enhancing MOE’s smart partnership with various agenciesThird Thrust: Strengthening the National SchoolThe MOE aims to strengthen the national schools (primary and secondary) as the ‘school of choice’. In this regard, nationalschools will be well equipped with sufficient and quality education facilities including clean water, electricity supply and ICT infrastructure. These schools will have sufficient trained teachers according to options as well as adequate numbers of supporting staff. Focus and implementation strategies: l Expanding Pre-School Programme l Strengthening the leadership of the principal/head and quality of teachers l Reinforcing the school culture l Reinforcing the curriculum l Reinforcing co-curricular and sports activities l Improving the support system l Improving academic performance of the National Schools l Improving the infrastructure and performance of the National Schools 21 | education in malaysia
    • Fourth Thrust: Bridging the Education GapThe MOE aims to bridge the education gap in terms of the provision of physical andnon-physical amenities, students’ achievements and drop-out rate. Hence, the MOEwill continue to develop infrastructure and educational facilities especially in therural areas of Sabah and Sarawak. These schools will be provided with the requiredinfrastructure as stipulated under the Ninth Malaysia Plan.The MOE will also increaseaid for poor students, students with special needs and minority group, bridge thedigital gap and emplace trained teachers according to subject specialisations inrural and remote areas. Focus and implementation strategies: l Developing infrastructure and educational facilities in rural and remote areas l Increasing the participation rate and reducing the risks of drop-out l Increasing the number of trained teachers according to options in remote areas l Improving the distribution systems of the support programme for poor students, students with special needs and students from minority groups Fifth Thrust: Elevating the Teaching Profession Efforts to elevate the teaching profession are aimed at making it a respected profession in line with the responsibility of moulding future generations. The MOE has upgraded teacher training colleges to teacher education institutes to raise the qualification of teachers to degree level. The MOE will also improve the systems for teacher selection, services, placements and welfare. Focus and implementation strategies: l Implementing a stringent selection system for teacher candidates l Strengthening teacher training l Strengthening the teaching career l Improving the working environment and wellbeing of teachers l Strengthening human resource planning and managementSixth Thrust: Accelerating Excellence of EducationalInstitutionsThe effort to accelerate excellence in educational institutions isplanned through the establishment of cluster schools based on theirniche in academic, co-curricular and sports activities. Selectedschools in these clusters will be benchmarked and showcased atthe international level in line with efforts to develop aquality and world-class education system.Three hundred outstanding educational institutionswithin their respective clusters have been identifiedand selected based on main and supporting elements. 22 | education in malaysia
    • Focus and implementation strategies: l Ensuring strong and effective leadership l Selecting capable and highly skilled teachers and trainers l Allowing greater autonomy to schools l Creating a system of accountability l Setting standards and benchmarks that are exemplary for developing and developed countries l Strengthening Malaysia as a hub for educational excellence l Initiating changes and innovations Framework of Education Development Master Plan 2006 - 2010 APPROACH Equal Opportunities in Education Excellence of Educational Institutions BASIS FOR DEVELOPMENT National Mission National Development Policies National Educational Policy Islam Hadhari EDMP STRATEGIC THRUST National Integrity Plan Natiion-Building Developing Human Capital OBJECTIVE Strengthening the National School Quality Education for all Bridging the Education Gap EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT Elevating the Teaching Profession THRUST Accelerating Excellence of Educational Institutions Access Equity Quality Efficiency and Effectiveness of Education Management CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS Cooperation and Commitment of Education community Cooperation and Commitment of Stakeholder Education Delivery System Monitoring and Evaluation System Figure 1.7 : Framework of Education Development Master Plan 2006 - 2010 23 | education in malaysia
    • “A nation may grow and prosper as a result of economic miracles and new technologies achievements, but this prosperity is hollow and meaningless if it is not supported by a solid value-based foundation. Therefore, in education, it is imperative that we nurture and strengthen our value base while we seek economic advancement and technological supremacy.” Dato’ Aishah bt. Abu Samah Director-General of Education Malaysia (1991-1993)
    • 27 | education in malaysia
    • CHAPTER 2 The National Education SystemIntroductionEducation is one of the most importantelements in the development of human capital 16-17 Year olds : Upper Secondary (Form 4-5)towards achieving the status of a developed Development of aptitude and interest,nation. The advent of globalization, development of personality, attitude & values, specialisation, career & higherliberalization and ICT has brought about educationsignificant changes in the economic system 13-15 Year olds : 13 year olds : Lower Secondary (Form 1-3) Transition Classbased on knowledge or K-economy. MOE General education, consolidation of Reinforcement andstrives to continuously strengthen the national skills acquired at primary & pre-vocational level development of aptitude & interests, enhancement of Bahasa Melayueducation system by improving access, equity development of personality, attitude & values.and quality of education, the effectiveness of 10-12 Year Olds : Primary Level II (Year 4-6)management and foster racial harmony at all Reinforcement and application of 3Rs complex skills, acquisitionlevels of schooling. MOE places emphasis on of knowledge, pre-vocational education, development of personality, attitude and valuesthe curriculum and co-curricular activities,teacher training, infrastructure, teaching and 7-9 Year Olds : Primary Level I (Year 1-3) Mastery of 3Rs, development of personality, attitude and valueslearning materials and an effectivemanagement system. 5-6 Year Olds : (Pre-school) Socialisation process, personality development, preparation for primary schooling Figrure 2.1: The School System and Curricular Emphasis Development of Education Policy and the National Education System New Economic Policy & Rukun Negara 1970 Figure 2.2: Development of Education Policy and the National Education System 29 | education in malaysia
    • Pre-school Education The pre-school education aims to meet the needs of young children. The aim of the National Pre-school Curriculum (NPC) is to enable pre-school children to acquire basic communication, social and other positive skills prior to primary education. The NPC is based on the principles of the National Philosophy of Education and is designed to provide a basic foundation in cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. The MOE strives to improve access to pre-school education in rural and remote areas, irrespective of race or religion. The number of classes and trained teachers have been increased for the pre-school programmes in national schools as well as in Chinese and Tamil national- type schools. In addition, pre-school classes have been made available for the indigenous pupils, the hearing and visually impaired. Inclusive education programmes have also been carried out for children with learning disabilities. Pre-schools, Classes, Teachers and In the effort to improve the quality of pre- Enrolment, 2004-2007 school education, the MOE had devised a curriculum guideline that allows for Year Schools Classes Teachers Enrolment flexibility in the medium of instruction as well as in teaching methods and 2004 2 722 3 197 3 197 76 578 approaches. The curriculum guideline 2005 3 267 3 868 3 868 92 303 serves as a foundation for all pre-school 2006 3 677 4 580 4 580 106 290 centres including KEMAS, Perpaduan and 2007 4 733 5 761 5 776 132 209 private kindergartens. In addition to the NPC, the MOE has also provided the pre- Source : Quick Facts, 2008 school curriculum specification to all pre- Table 2.1: Number of Pre-schools, Classes, Teachers and Enrolment school teachers.The pre-school curriculum specification stresses on nine elements as basis for children development. Among them arecivics education, Islamic education, moral studies, Malay language, English language and children’s physicaldevelopment. At this stage, teachers are expected to employ various teaching approaches for example, by utilizingeducational games besides using the thematic approach. On the whole, the focus of pre-school education is on personaldevelopment, the socialization process and preparation for primary education. The NPC places emphasis on six learningcomponents: Objectives of Pre-School Education l Language and Communication l Cognitive Development l Fostering love for the country l Morality and Spirituality l Instilling moral values and developing characters l Social and Emotional Development l Developing basic communication skills l Physical Development l Respecting the national language l Creativity and Aesthetics l Acquiring physical activities as a basis for good healthTo promote computer literacy among children, each pre-school l Developing critical thinking skills through enquiryclassroom is provided with two computers and and the use of all senses.teaching/learning course wares. Pre-school teachers ingovernment pre-schools must possess a minimum qualification Source : Curriculum Development Centreof a diploma or a first degree. 30 | education in malaysia
    • Primary EducationChildren begin their primary education at the age of 6+.Their primary education may be completed between six to sevenyears.To cater for the multi ethnic nature of its population, Malaysia has set up two categories of schools: the national andnational-type schools. The Malay language is the medium of interaction for national schools while English language is acompulsory subject. National-type schools use Mandarin or Tamil as the medium of instruction with the Malay andEnglish languages made compulsory subjects.The New Primary Integrated Curriculum (NPIC) was introduced to all schools nationwide in 1983. The aim of NPIC was toproduce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced. The NPIC placed emphasis onpersonal development, communication skills and conservation of the environment. Upon the completion of the firstcycle, the term NPIC was changed to Primary School Integrated Curriculum (PSIC).The PSIC approach combines the elements of knowledge, values and skills through: l integration of skills in all subjects; l incorporation of a range of knowledge within and across subjects; l inculcation of moral values in all subjects; l integration of curriculum and co-curricular activities; l integration between knowledge and practice; and l integration of new and existing experiences.The primary curriculum is divided into two levels. At Level One, that is from Year One to Year Three, the emphasis is onacquiring strong reading, writing and arithmetic skills. At Level Two, from Year Four to Year Six, the mastery of these basicskills is reinforced and emphasis is given to building a strong foundation in content and basic sciences. In 2003, beginningwith pupils in Year One, Science and Mathematics subjects were taught in English.At the end of Level Two (Year Six), all pupils sit for the Primary School Assessment (UPSR) to evaluate their academicperformance. The UPSR results are used for selecting pupils to residential schools. Although MOE conducts assessmentat the national level, continuous assessment at school level is also conducted for both curriculum and co-curricularactivities.MOE has introduced ICT in the teaching and learning process at the primary school level through the Computer inEducation Programme since 1994.The MOE encourages the use of different types of media in the process of teaching andlearning. Education TV is used widely in schools, and is accessible even in the remote areas of Sabah and Sarawak throughthe use of satellite. MOE is continuously upgrading the quality of the Education TV content incollaboration with ASTRO. MOE also strives to improve theinfrastructure of primary schools by upgrading computer labs,science labs, libraries and sports facilities among others.Various support programmes such as the Textbook LoanScheme, Supplementary Food Programme, School MilkProgramme, Tuition Aid Scheme, ScholarshipProgrammes, Guidance and Counseling Programmes, aswell as Poor Students Trust Fund are provided to fosterand motivate learning interests amongst students.This is also a move towards bridging the educationgap and providing access to quality education for all.MOE constantly reviews the curriculum so as toremain relevant and to meet the new requirements ofthe 21st century. Primary schools emphasise the 3Rs and nurture positive attitudes 31 | education in malaysia
    • 5 785 Sekolah Model K9 523 1 290 28Graph 2.1: Number of Primary Schools by Type, 2008 Figure 2.3: List of Subjects at Primary Level Aspects Emphasized Across the Curriculum Language Acquisition Moral Values Patriotism Drug Awareness Science And Technology Environmental Preservation Futuristic Studies Health Education Consumer Education Road Safety Education Study Skills Creative And Critical Thinking Figure 2.4: Aspects Emphasized Across the Curriculum 32 | education in malaysia
    • • The Compulsory Education Act RATIONALE FOR COMPULSORY EDUCATION To increase awareness among parents and the The Compulsory Education Act was enforced on society on the importance of education 1 January 2003 to ensure that all children complete primary education in six years but may complete it in five To ensure all children receive primary education to seven years. The intent was to reduce illiteracy and dropouts especially in rural areas. Under the Compulsory To reduce illiteracy Education Act [Section 29A Education Act (Amendment) 2002], every child who has reached the age of six in To curb dropouts from the school system January of the current year must be enrolled in school and receive formal primary school education. The Compulsory To improve transition rates from Year One onwards Education Act stipulates that a fine of RM5000.00 or jail for a period of not exceeding six months or both can be To reduce wastage in the education system imposed upon parents who fail to abide to this Act. However, the Minister of Education has the authority to Figure 2.5: Rationale for Compulsory Education give exemption to any child who is not able to adhere to this Act due to legitimate reasons.• Strengthening of National Schools The National Schools (NS) forms the best foundation for cultivating racial solidarity. The strengthening of NS policy is to ensure that all primary schools with Malay language as the medium of instruction become the school of choice for all Malaysians. The objective of the policy is to enhance and reinforce unity among the multi-racial students whereby the sense of patriotism, tolerance and cooperation is instilled among students at an early stage. Excellence of academic, co-curricular activities and discipline are the pulling factors to making NS as the school of choice. In the effort to strengthen NS, various subjects have been introduced to provide a more holistic approach to education which reflects the multi-racial society of Malaysia. In addition, MOE is upgrading the infrastructure in schools by providing better co-curricular, sports and ICT facilities. 33 | education in malaysia
    • The National Schools will be helmed by head masters possessing effective leadership skills and a group of efficient, trained and committed teachers from various ethnic backgrounds. This is to ensure a healthy and conducive school culture that can encourage the involvement of the parents and the community. These NS will have a comprehensive and superior infrastructure in order to produce pupils with outstanding personality and excellent academic and co-curricular achievements. Figure 2.6 : Making National Schools as the school of choice• The Pupils’ Integration Programme for Unity (RIMUP)The Pupils’ Integration Programme for Unity (RIMUP) was introduced in 1986. At the initial stage, the programmeconcentrated on primary schools in the form of co-curricular activities and sports among multi-racial students. In 2005,the MOE has revived the programme by adopting a fresh approach to enable students from schools with a majority ofone race to interact with multi-racial students from other schools. The concept has been reinforced by encouragingparticipation from the local community, school administrators, teachers and students at primary and secondary levels inspecial joint activities. The programme has three main components academic, co-curricular activities and sports, and e-Integration. The MOE has made it compulsory for all schools to conduct RIMUP in line with the first thrust of the Education Development Master Plan 2006-2010. One of the projects under the RIMUP is the e-Integration Programme.The programme has succeeded in making ICT the tool for fostering racial unity amongst pupils. The programme consists of ten virtual modules that portray 150 interactive scenes. These scenes provide pupils with the opportunity to learn, understand and appreciate different cultures. Competitions were also organised as a platform for teams of mixed ethnic pupils work together to design virtual presentations. 34 | education in malaysia
    • • Vision Schools Aims of the Vision School To promote integration among pupils of different ethnicity and background To nurture and sustain unity and tolerance among pupils To encourage interaction among pupils through coordination of activities and sharing of facilities Sekolah Wawasan USJ 15, Subang Jaya, Selangor Figure 2.7: Aims of the Vision SchoolIn the Vision School concept, two or three national and vernacular primary schools are placed in the same compound andshare common facilities such as the school canteen, courtyard and school field but without losing the identity of eachschool. The aim is to promote integration as well as to inculcate cooperation, understanding and tolerance amongchildren of different ethnic and religious backgrounds. Thus far, six Vision Schools are in operation. They are; l Sekolah Wawasan USJ 15, Subang Jaya, Selangor (2002); l Sekolah Wawasan Pundut, Lumut, Perak (2002); l Sekolah Wawasan Taman Aman, Kedah (2003); l Sekolah Wawasan Tasek Permai, Pulau Pinang (2003); l Sekolah Wawasan Pekan Baru, Parit Buntar, Perak (2003); l Sekolah Wawasan Seremban, Negeri Sembilan (2004).Smart SchoolsThe Smart School concept is one of the seven flagships of Malaysiaís Multimedia Super Corridor. It was introduced toacculturate the use of ICT in the education system. The most critical facet of the Smart School flagship was theestablishment of the 88 Smart Schools throughout the country. These schools serve as the nucleus, role-model andbenchmark for the nation-wide deployment for Smart School teaching concepts, materials, skills and technologies.This concept is an on-going process towards the acculturation of ICT application in education as a mean of upgradingthe quality of teaching and learning, elevating the effectiveness of management and administration of schools as well asto advance the competency of teachers. Accelerated programmes are implemented for the 88 Smart Schools incollaboration with the private sector.These programmes are to ensure that these schools become the model for the other10,000 schools as well as benchmarked schools at both national and international levels. The aim is to transform allschools into smart schools by the year 2010. By 2007, 9629 schools have access to broadband and 5279 schools have beenequipped with computer labs. 35 | education in malaysia
    • In the process of making all schools smart, MOE has implemented several ICT initiatives and provided the ICTinfrastructure for teaching and learning.The SchoolNet was launched to connect teachers and learners,to create opportunities for schools to work together and to allowindividuals to learn through online programmes. MOE has recentlydeveloped e-material for all primary and secondary subjects as aone-stop resource centre for teachers and pupilsaccessible through the internet.Besides providing the infrastructure for ICT, smartpartnerships with organisations outside of MOE isone of the critical factors that supports the successand effective implementation of ICT in teachingand learning. MOE-Intel School AdoptionProgramme is one of the initiatives between MOEand the private sector towards making school smart.Its main focus is on student-centred computer-assisted learning, teacher training for the 21stcentury and school leadership training inbuilding a comprehensive ICT developmentplan. The Online collaboration projectis another smart partnership between MOE andOracle Education Foundation which started at the end of 2006. This project aims to enable teachers and pupils tocollaborate and interact locally and globally through the portal. Users will have the opportunity to generatecritical and creative thinking through learning and interacting across cultures virtually within the communityaround the world.Special Model SchoolsThe Special Model School concept was introduced to improve the quality of Pupils’ Intake at Special Modeleducation and to reduce drop outs from the national education system. Schools, 2005-2009These schools were established primarily to increase opportunities amongpotential pupils in rural areas to excel in education. These schools combine Year Year / Formpupils at Level Two of primary education with secondary students within the 2005 Year 4 dan Form 1same school premise under the same management. Pupils from the age of10-17 years old stayed in the same school hostel. A caretaker is engaged to 2006 Year 5 dan Form 2look after the younger children. These children are also given all the support 2007 Year 6 dan Form 3programmes such as textbooks and financial aid. In 2007, there were 1,117 2008 Form 4primary and 10,598 secondary students in these schools. There are twelve 2009 Form 5Special Model Schools: Table 2.2: Intake of Special Model School, l Sekolah Model Khas Baling, Baling, Kedah 2005-2009 l Sekolah Model Khas Bukit Jenun, Pendang, Kedah l Sekolah Model Khas Permatang Tok Jaya, Seberang Prai Utara, Pulau Pinang l Sekolah Model Khas Batu Kikir, Batu Kikir, Negeri Sembilan l Sekolah Model Khas Clifford, Kuala Lipis, Pahang l Sekolah Model Khas Seri Pekan, Pekan, Pahang l Sekolah Model Khas Seri Bentong, Pahang l Sekolah Model Khas Seri Tualang, Pahang 36 | education in malaysia
    • l Sekolah Model Khas Redang Panjang, Perak l Sekolah Model Khas Chalok, Setiu, Terengganu l Sekolah Model Khas Meru, Klang, Selangor l Sekolah Model Khas Komprehensif K-9, Paloh Hinai, Pekan, Pahang• K-9 Comprehensive Special Model Schools The K-9 Comprehensive Special Model School is MOE’s initiative to provide access to education as well as to curb absenteeism and dropout among the indigenous and Penan children. It is part of the effort to bridge the education gap among Malaysian from various ethnic, culture and socioeconomic status. The first K-9 Comprehensive Special Model School was SK Bandar Dua, Paloh Hinai, Pekan, Pahang. The school was remodeled to provide space for eight classrooms, boys’ and girls’ hostels, rooms for wardens and a guest room. Other amenities provided include a computer lab and an access centre. Sekolah Kebangsaan Bandar 2, Paloh Hinai, K-9 Comprehensive Special Model SchoolThe enrolment of the school comprises of pupilswithin the neighborhood, indigenous pupils fromremote areas who live in the school hostel, indigenousstudents who excel in their education and pupils withspecial needs. SK Long Bedian in Miri and SK Lemoi inCameron Highlands have been identified as K-9Comprehensive Special Model School for the Penanand indigenous people respectively. Orang Asli pupils at Sekolah Model Khas Komprehensif K-9 37 | education in malaysia
    • Special Programme for Orang Asli and Penan Enrolment of Orang Asli Pupils in 2007 and 2008 Level Primary Secondary Year No. of Male Female Total No. of Male Female Total School Pupils Pupils School Pupils Pupils 2007 93 8 800 8 503 17 303 102 4 367 5 233 9 600 2008 655 14 097 13 923 28 020 334 4 139 5 220 9 359 Table 2.3: Enrolment of Orang Asli Pupils, 2007 and 2008 The Special Programme for the Orang Asli and Penan was designed to deal with the problem of dropout among indigenous pupils. The Curriculum for Orang Asli and Penan schools, introduced in 2007, was designed to produce knowledgeable, conversant and skilled Orang Asli pupils who are proud of their heritage and tradition, and are able to assimilate in the society at large. Curriculum Development Division (CDD) also provides teaching materials for the Malay Language and Mathematics subjects and conducted orientation programmes for the teachers. The MOE has provided various support programmes in the form of school uniform, pocket money, supplementary food, tuition classes and transportation to increase their participation in schools and to raise their academic achievement standards. This programme was first introduced in 39 Orang Asli and Penan pupils indigenous schools in 1999 and extended to 55 other schools in 2001. The total number of Orang Asli students as of 31 January 2008Cluster SchoolsThe MOE aims to develop cluster schools as models for other institutions within the same cluster. It is hoped that clusterschools will become the premise for pioneering new approaches and innovations in the education system. Students ofthese excellent institutions are expected to excel in academic and co-curricular activities and possess outstandingpersonality, leadership skills, high team spirit, creative thinking skills, and are patriotic, globally oriented and competitive.The selection of cluster schools is based on these groups of institutions: l Primary Schools - National Schools, Chinese and Tamil National-Type schools, Orang Asli schools; l Secondary Schools - regular day schools, residential schools, religious schools, technical schools, premier schools, 100-year schools, special model schools and schools in the Putrajaya and Cyberjaya vicinity; l Special Education Schools (Primary, Secondary and Vocational); l International and private schools; and l Post secondary institutions such as the Matriculation College and Institutes of Teacher EducationThe principal, headmasters and teachers from cluster schools are expected to set examples and share their experienceswith counterparts in other institutions. Their accountability is outlined by a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)relating to human resource development, physical development, financial management, professionalism among staffmember, and school achievements (academic, co-curricular activities and aptitude). 38 | education in malaysia
    • The cluster schools are expected to bring about positive impact to the national education system through: l excellence in co-curricular activities programmes; l exemplary career guidance programmes; l outstanding all-rounded students (5.8% of 5.2 million students); l acceptance of students from cluster schools at world renowned universities; l government and private sector sponsorships; l international acknowledgements; l as benchmarks for other schools, both local and foreign; l quality leadership; and l excellent teachers.Special EducationThe MOE provides education opportunities for pupils with special needs such as those with visual, hearing and learningimpairments. Pupils categorised as learning impaired are those who experience minor cognitive problem, behaviouralproblem, Autism, Down Syndrome, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) andDyslexia. MOE has taken the inclusive learning approach and as far as possible, learning difficulties in special educationchildren are addressed within the mainstream school system and technical/vocational schools. In addition, there arespecial schools for the visual and hearing impaired children. MOE provides the same access to quality education tochildren with special needs so that they can enjoy the quality of life similar to normal children. Similar to the regularstream, emphasis is given to emotional, physical, spiritual and intellectual development so that they are able to furthertheir education to a higher level and are able to be independent.The curriculum used is an adaptation of the National Curriculum and a special curriculum developed by the SpecialEducation Department. The National Vocational Council has also developed an industrial training curriculum for thesechildren. Special Education Programmes in Primary and Secondary Schools, 2008 Special education pupils who are able to follow the National Curriculum are School Programmes No. of Total No. of eligible to sit for all national Teacher Enrolment Classes examinations. Pupils who opt for the Hearing Visual Learning alternative curriculum would have to Impaired Impaired Difficulties undergo industrial training to fulfil requirements towards obtaining a Primary 26 8 1 866 2 488 397 Malaysian Skills Certificate. Pupils who Secondary 3 2 1 189 746 80 choose the special curriculum will go through school based assessment and are awarded a School Certificate as well Table 2.4: Special Education Programmes in Primary and Secondary Schools, 2008 as a special vocational certificate. Special Education Integration Programmes for Primary Schools, 2008 Areas Programmes Enrolment Teachers Classes Hearing Impaired 36 587 206 128 Visual Impaired 15 155 84 57 Learning Difficulties 849 16 942 3 759 2 769 Dyslexia 35 263 49 44 Pre-school 125 492 130 126 Table 2.5: Special Education Integration Programmes for Primary Schools, 2008 39 | education in malaysia
    • Special Education Service CentresThe Special Education Department has established six service centres to provide expertise and guidance to parents andchildren with special needs. These centres provide audiology services, sign language classes, speech therapy classes,counselling for parents, early intervention programmes, hearing aid repair services and conducts various other activitiesto foster the children’s development.Secondary EducationEducation at the secondary level is provided for students between the ages of 12+ to 17+ years. The secondary schoolsystem is divided into two levels. The lower secondary level takes a period of three years. The curriculum at this level isaimed at providing general education so as to expose students to various fields. At the end of this level, students sit forthe Lower Secondary Assessment which is used as a basis to determine their stream that they will enrol in upon enteringupper secondary. The upper secondary level takes two years to complete and is more specialized. Among the disciplinesoffered are arts, science, vocational, technical, religious studies and sports. At the end of this level, students sit for the SijilPelajaran Malaysia (SPM) examination. Upon completing the examination, students have a choice to further their studiesor enter the job market. Subjects Offered at the Lower Subjects Offered at Upper Elective Subjects Offered at Upper Secondary Level Secondary Level Secondary Level l Malay Language Core Subjects l Biology l English Language l Malay Language l Chemistry l Islamic Studies l English Language l Physics l Moral Education l Islamic Studies l Additional Science l Science l Moral Education l Additional Mathematics l Geography l Science l English for Science and Technology l History l Mathematics l Al-Quran and As-Sunnah Education l Living Skills l History l Syariah Islamiah Education l Arts Education l Civics and Citizenship l Tasawwur Islam l Music Education l Higher Arabic l Physical Education Compulsory Subjects l Basic Economics l Health Education l Physical Education l Accounts l Civics and Citizenship l Health Education l Commerce Additional Subjects l Geography Figure 2.8: List of Subjects at Lower l Chinese language l Information and Communication Secondary Level l Tamil language Technology l Kadazandusun Language l Invention l Arabic language l Malay Literature (Communication) l Literature in English l Japanese l Visual Arts Education l French l Music Education l German l Sport Science Figure 2.9: List of Subjects at Upper Figure 2.10: List of Elective Subjects at Upper Secondary Level Secondary Level 40 | education in malaysia
    • • Technical and Vocational Education Vocational Subjects offered at Courses of Study Regular Secondary Schools l Furniture and Fittings Technical Stream l Woodwork/Carpentry l Mechanical Engineering l Signage l Civil Engineering l Catering and Food l Electrical Engineering Preparation l Agriculture/Agro-technology l Tailoring and Fashion l Commerce Design l Home Science (Food Preparation) l Apparel and Fashion Design l Landscape and Nursery l Domestic Wiring Vocational Stream l Automotive l Refrigeration and Air Group A Conditioning l Electrical l Automotive l Facial and Hair Care l Catering l Plumbing l Business Office Technology l Arc and Gas Welding l Computer Programming l Motorbike Services l Geriatric Services Group B l Electronics l Food Technology l Machinery l Aquaculture l Welding and Metal Fabrication l Computer Graphics l Building Construction l Multimedia Production l Refrigeration and Air Conditioning l Interior Design l Fashion l Makeup l Infant Care and Early l Children Development Chilhood Education l Horticulture and Landscape l Estate Management Figure 2.11: List of Vocational Subjects at the Regular Secondary Schools Skills Training l Electrical l Radio & TV Technology l Arc Welding l Automobile Mechanics l Carpentry l Air Conditioning Mechanics l Agriculture Machinery Mechanics l Food Preparation Figure 2.12: List of Courses in Technical Schools 41 | education in malaysia
    • Technical schools offer education at the upper secondary level. It plays a significant role in preparing students to pursue technical, vocational and skills based education.The technical stream generally prepares students for higher education while vocational and skills based streams are career oriented. At present there are 90 technical schools in Malaysia. All technical schools offer core subjects and elective subjects in varying combinations. Technical schools offer electives in Information Technology, Applied Arts, Pure Science, Additional Science, technology related subjects, vocational elective subjects and skill based elective subjects. A practical session in a technical school To encourage student participation in science and technology, technical subjects have been introduced in regular schools, residential schools and religious schools. MOE has established smart partnerships with the industrial sector and increase the number of places at technical institutes so that students can gain hands-on experience.• National Religious Secondary SchoolThe National Religious Secondary Schools were established in 1977 to prepare students for professions in Islamicreligious affairs, education and law. Initially these schools only offered Islamic religious education and Arabic studies.However, these schools have expanded their programmes to include science and technology related subjects. Besidesoffering subjects in the core group, elective subjects are offered in Pure Science, Applied Arts, Technology, InformationTechnology and languages.These schools maintain their uniqueness by offering specialized Islamic studies which are notavailable in other schools.• Sports School Two sports schools, namely Bandar Penawar Sports School and Bukit Jalil Sports School, have been established to nurture and develop potential athletes. The ultimate aim is to groom potential young athletes into world champions. These athletes follow the same curriculum and sit for the same examinations as their peers in regular schools. However, their timetable is adjusted to accommodate their training schedules. To ensure that they achieve their fullest potential, students are placed in hostels where their nutritional needs are monitored. In addition to the academic staff, qualified coaches are employed to oversee their training programmes. The selection of students is done through Talent Identification, Talent Search and Talent Scouting programmes as well as recommendations from national coaches or sports organizations. Both schools have produced students who have excelled at the international level. For example, in the Southeast Asian Games in 2007 in Thailand, athletes from the sports schools contributed 25 gold, 19 silver and 39 bronze medals. 42 | education in malaysia
    • Achievement at International Games 2008 Year Games No. of Athlete Achievement 2008 Teluk Danga International Games, Johor Bahru 16 9G 8S 3B 2008 Thailand 3G Track and Field Open Championship 5 2S 1B 2008 International Youth Track and Field Championship (Women), Amman, Jordan 2 1G 1S 2008 Asian U14 Series Championship, Amman, Jordan 3 Ist Runner Up 2008 8th Asian Schools Swimming Championship , Shah Alam 2 1G 1S 2008 10th Wushu Championship, Macau, China 6 2S 3B 2008 Vietnam International Judo Championship, Vietnam 3 1B 2008 Hong Kong International Judo Championship, Hong Kong 2 1B 2008 2nd SEA Judo Championship 3 1S 1B 2008 13th ASEAN Schools Gymnastics Championships , Kuala Lumpur 14 13G 12B 2S 2008 SEA Youth Track and Field Championships, Thailand 6 2G 2008 11th Thailand Sports Schools Track and Field Championship , Thailand 6 8G 2008 22nd ASEAN Schools Sepak Takraw Championship, Bangkok 12 1S 2B 2008 7th ASEAN Schools Golf Championship, Bali 9 1S 2008 3rd Asian (U15) Schools Football Championship, Bangkok 18 1B 2008 1st Ancol Open Bowling Championships, Jakarta 8 1G 1S 2B 2008 14th ASEAN Schools Badminton Championship, Manila 16 2G 1S 3B Table 2.6 : Achievements of Malaysian Sports School Athlete at International Games, 2008• Arts SchoolThe Arts School is a formal institution that providesopportunities for students who are more inclined towardsthe performing arts. The aim of the Arts School is tosystematically develop students’ talents and to produce studentswith knowledge and skills in arts. At present, two Art Schools havebeen established in Johor Bahru and Kuching. The selection ofstudents for these schools take into account their talent andpotential in visual arts, dance, music or theatre. In addition,candidates would have gone through anaudition conducted by the MOE. 43 | education in malaysia
    • • Form SixThe Form Six programme is a continuation of the Subjects Offered at Form 6 Levelsecondary education where students spendapproximately one and a half years preparing for the l General Paper l GeographySijil Tinggi Pelajaran Malaysia (STPM) examination as l Malay Language l Economyan entrance requirement to the university. Thisexamination is conducted by the Malaysian l Chinese Language l Educational StudiesExamination Council which is accredited by the l Tamil Language l AccountingUniversity of Cambridge Local Examination Syndicate, l Arabic Language l MathematicsEngland. Students are offered a choice of subject for l English Literature l Additional Mathematicsboth the science and arts stream. This open certificate l Malay Literature l Higher Mathematicsis equivalent to a general certificate of secondaryeducation (GCSE) ‘A’ level certificate. The certificate is l Malaysian University l Computer Studiesrecognized by professional examination bodies English Test (MUET) l Physicsworldwide. l Syariah l Chemistry l Usuluddin l Biology l History l Arts Figure 2.13: List of Subjects Offered at the Form 6 LevelMatriculation ProgrammeThe Matriculation programme is a pre-university programmedesigned to prepare students for professional fields in institutions of List of Matriculation Collegeshigher learning. Prior to June 1999, these programmes wereconducted by public universities. The Matriculation Division, MOE was l Matriculation College Melakaestablished in 1998 to consolidate and manage all matriculation l Matriculation College Labuanprogrammes that are under the administration of public universities. l Matriculation College Negeri SembilanThis Division manages the intake of students for 11 matriculationcolleges. l Matriculation College Pulau Pinang l Matriculation College PerlisStudents who are selected for the one-year matriculation programme l Matriculation College Johorcan either major in Science or Accountancy. All students have to take l Matriculation College PerakEnglish, Mathematics, Islamic/Moral Studies, Dynamic Skills and l Matriculation College KedahInformation Science. Science majors will also take Chemistry, Physicsor Biology while Accountancy majors will take Accounts, Economics l Matriculation College Pahangand Business Management. It is also compulsory for all students to sign l MARA College Kuala Nerangup for one co-curricular activity. l MARA College Kulim Figure 2.14 : List of Matriculation Colleges 44 | education in malaysia
    • j-QAF Programme The programme was launched in 2005 in the effort to elevate Islamic education at primary school level. j-QAF stands for the Malay language in Arabic transcript (Jawi), the Quran (Q), the Arabic Language (A) and the Fardhu Ain - Islamic obligatory duties (F). The objective of j-QAF is to ensure that all Muslim pupils, including those with special needs, have a good command of Jawi, are proficient in Al-Quran studies, understand Arabic and practice Fardhu Ain before they continue their secondary studies. The difference between j-QAF and the regular Islamic subject is that it places more emphasis on practical experience. It provides anopportunity for students to practice what they learn. The MOE has launched a parallel project to train teachers toimplement the programme. Schedule of j-QAF Programme Model First 6 Months Second 6 Months Remedial Jawi Class 60 minutes per week 30 minutes per week (2 periods X 30 minutes) (1 period X 30 minutes) 6 Months Khatam Al-Quran 140 minutes per week 90 minutes per week (4 periods X 30 minutes) (3 periods X 30 minutes) Tasmik Al-Quran Model Implemented after the school time table Communication Arabic Language 60 minutes per week 60 minutes per week (2 periods X 30 minutes) (2 periods X 30 minutes) Bestari Solat Camp 4 times per year Source: Islamic and Moral Education Division (JAPIM) Table 2.7 : Schedule of the j-QAF ProgrammeKIA2M Programme The KIA2M programme is an early reading and writing intervention programme to address the problem of illiteracy among Year 1 students.The aim of KIA2M is to ensure that all Year 1 students are able to read and write in the Malay language. It is compulsory for all national schools to run this programme for three to six months. 45 | education in malaysia
    • English for the Teaching of Mathematics and Science (ETeMS)Developments and advances in science and technology had led to the implementation of ETeMS. ETeMS wasimplemented in 2003 to provide students with early exposure to master these disciplines in English. This is due to therapid advancements of these disciplines and the predominant availability of references in English. Globalization,liberalisation and advancement of the internet had made English as a necessary tool to acquire knowledge, express ideasand communicate effectively.ETeMS was implemented for Year 1, Form 1 and Lower 6 students in 2003. To ensure a smooth transition and successfulimplementation of this policy, MOE has taken steps to provide many support programmes such as teacher training,intervention classes, provision of ICT facilities, teaching coursewares and additional textbooks. The MOE constantlymonitors the progress of ETeMS and provides continuous support according to current needs.Civics and Citizenship EducationCivics and Citizenship Education is a core subject which was introduced in stages in all primary and secondary schools.This subject hopes to develop pupils to become patriotic citizens, who are able to cooperate and work as a team,understand and are tolerant towards other cultures, able to solve conflicts without violence, love and protect theenvironment and contribute towards the development of citizenship and the nation. MOE hopes that this subject istaught through hands-on and is student-centred. To motivate pupils interest, involvement and interaction amongschools, community as well as the student leaders are encouraged. Teachers of this subject are trained at the state levelby master trainers who are experts in the field.Co-Curricular ActivitiesCo-curricular activities are regarded as an integral part of the school curriculum as they provide opportunities forstudents to interact, develop social skills, encourage team building, camaraderie, tolerance and leadership qualitiesthrough play and activities.There are three types of co-curricular activities, namely uniformed bodies, societies and sportsclubs. It is compulsory for students to participate in at least one uniformed body, a society and a sports club. Theseuniformed bodies, societies and clubs meet at least once a week. Competitions at school, district and state levels are heldto encourage the development of creativity, motivation and leadership among students.School AssessmentAssessment is part and parcel of the teaching and learning process. Formative assessment can be conducted todetermine and assess students’ achievements at any point in time while summative assessment is conducted at the endof the learning period or school term.• Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR)Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) or the Primary School Assesment Test is a national examination taken by allStandard 6 (12-year old) students in Malaysia.The subjects tested in UPSR are Malay Language, English, Mathematics andScience. 46 | education in malaysia
    • • Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR)Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR) is a Malaysian public examination taken by all Form 3 students. It was formerly knownas Lower Certificate of Education (LCE) and Sijil Rendah Pelajaran (SRP). The examination is conducted at the end of thethird year of secondary schooling. Although all students are promoted to Form 4 in the following year, the results of thePMR examination are used to place students either in science, arts or technical streams at the upper secondary level. Theresults of the PMR examination are also used as basis for placement in residential and technical schools, the Royal MilitaryCollege as well as other educational programmes offered by the MOE.• Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM)The Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM), or the MalaysianCertificate of Education, is a national examination taken byall fifth form students in Malaysia. It is set and examined bythe Malaysian Examinations Syndicate (LembagaPeperiksaan Malaysia). The SPM is equivalent to the BritishGeneral Certificate of Seconday Education (GCSE), andprovides the opportunity for Malaysians to continue theirstudies to pre-university level.The subjects offered in the SPM Open Certification conformto the subject groupings, that is, the Core Group and theElective Group in the Integrated Secondary SchoolCurriculum. All six subjects in the Core Group arecompulsory for all students. Students have the flexibility to choose subjects in the Elective Group based on their interests,abilities and aptitudes. The MOE has designed two specialised packages of subjects to be offered in the examination.Essentially, the SPM Open Certification examination differs from the earlier system in two aspects, namely, flexibility in thechoice of subjects and in the certification method. Certificates awarded will only certify achievements in subjects passedand candidates must at least obtain a pass in the Malay Language. Unlike the earlier system, there will be no overallaggregate and classification of candidates into Grade One to Three. The examination will continue to be centrallyadministered at the end of secondary schooling and be a requirement for further education or entry into the job market.• Peperiksaan Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (STPM)Peperiksaan Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (STPM) or the Malaysian Higher Education Certificate is taken by students whocontinue their education at the Sixth form. This examination is taken at the end of Upper Six level and used asrequirement to local and private universities. 47 | education in malaysia
    • • Peperiksaan Sijil Menengah Ugama (SMU)In the Malaysian education system, there are students who opt for the religious stream which focuses on Islamic studiesand the Arabic language. This alternative stream is offered mostly at Islamic Religious Secondary Schools, though someselected secondary schools do offer similar option.• Peperiksaan Tinggi Agama Malaysia (STAM)Peperiksaan Sijil Tinggi Agama Malaysia (STAM) or Malaysian Higher Religious Examination was introduced in 2000 as aresult of collaboration between the Ministry of Education Malaysia and Al-Azhar Al-Sharif University of Egypt. Thepurpose of the examination was to ensure students from the State and Private Religious Schools undergo a commonexamination system that is accepted at both local and international levels.• Peperiksaan Majlis Lembaga Vokasional Malaysia (MLVK)Vocational training at vocational training centres is an alternative for students who are less academically inclined tofurther their studies at the secondary level. After two years of training in these centres, all trainees will be assessed by theNational Vocational Council (MLVK). MLVK Certificate is accepted nation-wide and trainees who are successful inobtaining the certificate are able to work in their respective fields. MLVK Certificate is accepted and can be used as anentry qualification into tertiary education such as polytechnics and universities.Private EducationThe progress and historical development of private education in Malaysia is linked to educational reforms in the nationalschool system. Private education began in the 1950s as an avenue for dropouts from the national school system tocontinue with their studies and obtain school certificates. In the early 1970s, the focus shifted to the provision of pre-university courses.Today, the types of private education institutions registered with the Ministry of Education are as givenbelow : l Kindergartens l Primary Schools l Secondary Schools l Primary Religious Schools l Secondary Religious Schools l Independent Chinese Schools l International Schools l Expatriate Schools l Special Schools l Tuition Centers l Language Institutions, and l Computer Training Centers l Skills/Commerce Training Centers l Postal/Correspondence Skills 48 | education in malaysia
    • The policies relating to the establishment of private education institutions in Malaysia are based on the Education Act1996 as well as decisions made by cabinet and announcements by the Minister of Education and the Director-Generalof Education. Statistics of Schools, Teachers and Enrolment by Type of Private Institutions, 2008 Type of Schools Number of Number of Enrolment Schools Teachers Pre-schools 5 096 20 764 339 536 Academic Primary 65 1 247 16 190 Academic Secondary 78 1 193 14 017 Chinese Private Secondary 60 2 849 55 096 Expatriate 13 213 3 153 International 40 1171 13 811 Religious Primary 27 647 8 261 Religious Secondary 14 291 3 267 Tuition Centre 2 369 11 243 199 408 Language Centre 267 1 064 33 470 Computer Training Centre 373 1 115 20 474 Skills Training Centre 513 1 262 37 247 Mind Development Centre 180 988 10 661 Special Education 10 191 913 Correspondence School 1 na 1 405 Total 9 106 44 238 756 909 Table 2.8 : Statistics of Private Education and Agencies Institutions, 2008 Number of Foreign Students in Private Institutions 1995-2008 Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 No. of 360 1 380 3 029 4 745 5 745 5 540 4 544 5 668 4 992 9 819 11 606 13 266 15 172 15 308 Students Table 2.9 : Statistics of Foreign Students in Private Institutions 1995-2008 49 | education in malaysia
    • Health, poverty and academic well-being are intrinsically interlinked. If left neglected and not addressed it would result in a vicious circle that would paralyse all efforts towards progress. Tun Dato’ Seri (Dr) Haji Hamdan bin Sheikh Tahir Director-General of Education Malaysia (1966-1976)
    • CHAPTER 3 Educational Assistance and Support ProgrammesIntroductionThe aim of educational assistance and support programmes is to prepare students mentally and physically, to excel in thefield of curricular and co-curricular activities and to decrease the dropout rate among students from low income families.Among the programmes available are the School Boarding Programme, the Textbook Loan Scheme, the School HealthProgramme, the Nutrition and Health Programme which include the Supplementary Food Programme and the SchoolMilk Programme, the Counselling and Guidance Programme, the Scholarship Programme, the Educational Assistance forStudents With Special Needs, the Poor Students’ Trust Fund and the Tuition Aid Scheme.The objectives of the Ministry of Education (MOE) in establishing the Educational Assistance and Support Programmesare: i. To provide programmes and schemes that assist students to prepare for schooling; ii. To minimise the dropout rate; iii. To improve academic excellence especially among students from low income families; iv. To ensure equal education opportunities for all especially among students from low income families; and v. To ensure the management of education support programmes is efficient and effective.The Textbook Loan Scheme (TBLS)The Textbook Loan Scheme (TBLS) was implemented nationwide since 1975. The scheme cover all levels of educationfrom the primary to the upper secondary education in government schools and government aided schools. The aim ofthe scheme is to lessen the financial burden of parents from the lower income group and ultimately ensure access toeducation for every child. In 1983, this scheme was extended to People’s Religious Schools (SMAR).Beginning 2008, the MOE has made a provision to give free textbooks to every student regardless of socioeconomicstatus.The Textbook Division has introduced innovations inteaching and learning materials by producing CD-ROMalongside the textbooks produced.The CD-ROMs includetexts, graphic illustrations, animation, audio, video,interactive multimedia and interactive activities whichinclude simulations, computer games and interactiveassessment. The CD-ROMs are also equipped withelectronic notebook known as e-journal as acommunication tool. Besides ensuring the textbookpackages produced are of high quality and concurrentwith the curriculum, efforts have also been made toensure the suitability for the target groups and able toachieve the teaching and learning objectives. Studentsare given the opportunity to use the CD-ROM in theirMalay language, English language, as well as Scienceand Mathematics classes. 53 | education in malaysia
    • The Poor Students Trust Fund (PSTF)The MOE has set up the Poor Students Trust Fund on 11 April 2003 under Section 10 of the Finance Procedure Act 1957.This is in line with the implementation of the Compulsory Education Policy in 2003 (Section 29A Education Act 1996 [Act550]).The PSTF was set up to provide financial aid specifically to poor Malaysian children in government and government-aided schools regardless of race and religion. This is in accordance with the Compulsory Education Policy to improvestudents’ academic excellence.Criteria for Eligibility: l Malaysian students. l Students in government and government-aided schools. l Family income below the level of poverty i.e. RM530.00 and below for Peninsular Malaysia; RM585.00 and below for Sarawak; and RM685.00 and below for Sabah and the Federal Territory of Labuan. l Students at risk of dropout.Types and Rate of AllocationBeginning 2006, the types and rate of allocation are as follow: l Primary School Students Schooling Aid: RM200.00 per year General Aid: RM500.00 per year (RM50.00 per month/10 months) l Secondary School Students Schooling Aid: RM300.00 per year General Aid: RM600.00 per year (RM60.00 per month/10 months)Types and Provision of Aid l The Schooling Aid includes school paraphernalia such as school uniform and stationery provided to students before the start of a new school session. This aid is channelled to the District Education Offices to be distributed to students in their respective schools. l The General Aid is the school allowance given to students for a period of 10 months and is allocated twice a year through the District Education Offices or schools. l The Emergency Aid is the financial aid provided to students who face tragedies such as natural disasters and fire which affect the family’s income. Application for the aid is submitted through schools with the endorsement from the State/District Education Departments.The aid is granted in five to 10 days from the date when the letter of application is received. 54 | education in malaysia
    • Allocation of the Poor Students’ Trust Fund (PSTF) 2005-2008 Year Number of Student Total of Amount of Financial Aid 2005 857 319 RM102.87 million 2006 545 386 RM181.58 million 2007 621 108 RM326.81 million 2008 931 673 RM343.16 million Table 3.1: Allocation of the Poor Students’ Trust Fund (PSTF) 2005-2008 Types and Rate of Allocation in PSTF Types of Allocation Rate School fees/examination/hostels Maximum of RM80.00 a year School uniform (one-off ) RM120.00 a year School stationery RM200.00 a year General assistance RM100.00 a year Counseling and Training RM50.00 a year Figure 3.1: Types and Rate of Allocation in PSTFThe Tuition Aid Scheme (TAS)The Tuition Aid Scheme (TAS) which was launched on 2 August 2004 is an educational intervention programme targetedfor poor students with low academic achievement. The aim of TAS is to provide extra guidance or tuition which isstructured for poor students whose achievement is low in the subjects of Malay Language, English Language, Science andMathematics. The extra classes provided are an effort to improve students’ academic achievement.This scheme is targeted for Malaysian students of Year 4, 5 and 6 in government and government-aided schools fromfamilies with monthly income below the level of poverty. With this aid, parents are exempted from the tuition fees. Theallocation is channelled directly to schools. The government also provides incentive for teachers who volunteer to givetuition to the selected students to recognise their efforts and contributions.The objectives of TAS are as follow: 55 | education in malaysia
    • i. To increase student-teacher contact hour ii. To increase the students’ level of motivation and confidence as well as to enhance their knowledge and basic skills iii. To improve students’ academic achievement v. To bridge the gap of academic achievement among students v. To increase the enrolment rate of poor students at tertiary level.Criteria for Eligibility l Malaysian students. l Students in Year 4, 5 and 6 in government and government- aided schools. l Family income below poverty level i.e. RM530.00 and below for Peninsular Malaysia; RM585.00 and below for Sarawak; and RM685.00 and below for Sabah and the Federal Territory of Labuan. l Students who are refered to by the subject teachers.The Integrated School Health Programme (ISHP)The Integrated School Health Programme (ISHP) is implemented with the assistance of the Ministry of Health. The aim ofthis programme is to provide various health services to students in primary and secondary schools. This noble effort isbased on the rationale: l To coordinate the various health programmes into an integrated programme. l To create a flexible, innovative and creative system to fulfil the school needs. l To create a health programme which can foster a sense of belonging and commitment among the school community. l To create an integrated health programme which has an impact that can be evaluated. l To foster understanding and cooperation between the school and local community in overcoming health issues. l To encourage good health practices through planned and direct efforts.The six thrusts of Integrated School Health Programme (ISHP) towards creating an integrated approach among the publicsector, private sector and community are as follow: i. School Health Policy Among the safety policies that can be formulated in school are: l policy for clean and nutritious food in school canteen; l policy for substance abuse (cigarettes and drugs); l policy for first aid; l policy for school safety; l policy for disease control; l policy for school physical environment; 56 | education in malaysia
    • l policy for school social environment; l policy for health education; and l policy for the role of school community and society. ii. School Physical Environment A healthy physical environment promotes healthy practices and evades accidents in school. Among the activities that can be implemented in school are to ensure sufficient basic facilities and continuous clean, safe and healthy environment. iii. School Social Environment A healthy and safe social environment helps to shape attitude and practices of the school community in moulding character and resilience. iv. Community Involvement Community involvement is cooperation among school, parents and society in raising the health standards of the school. v. Health Skills Health skills are defined as efforts to promote healthy life style in school. Among the activities that can be implemented are personal hygiene, dental hygiene, physical exercise, healthy diet, the study of human anatomy and physiology. vi. School Health Services The school health services comprise of promotions on health and nutrition, health care, medical referral and placement in special ward by medical doctors and dentists, nursing personnel and teachers to achieve optimum health.The services provided under the ISHP include dental and medical treatment, prevention and control of contagiousdiseases and free medical kit to schools.Through this programme, schools are able to identify students who need medicaltreatment such as vaccination, eye treatment, dental treatment, and prevention and control of contagious diseasesprogramme. A medical officer from the neighbourhood health clinic will make visits and scheduled examinations onstudents. The implementation of Enhancing Students’ Health Programme (Program Peningkatan Kesihatan Murid) inschools has increased collaboration between the MOE and the Ministry of Health. This programme aims to nurturepositive habits and attitude among students in everyday life towards a healthy and quality lifestyle. 57 | education in malaysia
    • The Supplementary Food Programme The aim of Supplementary Food Programme (SFP) is to increase the nutritional value of food consumed by pupils to ensure they receive a well-balanced diet for their physical growth, mental health and general well-being. It is hoped that pupils are more focused on the teaching and learning process through this programme. In 2006, the MOE has spent RM167.6 million for the benefit of 706,712 pupils under this programme. This programme was introduced in 1976 as part of the Food Preparation and Nutrition Programme (Rancangan Amalan Makanan dan Pemakanan) under the Prime Minister’s Department (JPM). This programme was a community development programme focussing on health, agriculture and education. The initial implementation of this programme was targeted for students in primary schools and rural areas.In the early 1980’s, the programme was expanded nationwide when the MOE undertook the management of theprogramme. Since the 1990s, the main criterion to select pupils under this programme is the family socio-economicstatus.Selection Criterion l Primary school students from rural areas and whose family income per month is RM400 or less i.e. per capita income of RM80.00.Rate of Allocation l The rate allocated by the MOE beginning 1 March 2007 is RM1.80 per day for students in Peninsular Malaysia and RM2.05 per day for students in Sabah, the Federal Territories and Sarawak. This rate is calculated based on the market rate of raw materials excluding the cost of service, transportation and drinks. The programme is implemented for 190 schooling days in a year.Implementation Strategies l The SFP Committee is given the responsibility to select food suppliers, whose duties include the management of raw materials, preparation and service of food, cleaning of kitchen utensils and tools, and service location.The schools will choose five or ten menus from a list of 20 menus prepared by the Ministry of Health. These menus are rotated every week or every two weeks based on local flavour, seasonality of raw materials and budget allocation. In Peninsular Malaysia, 95% of the food preparation process is handled by the school canteens where students receive food a few minutes before recess time. 58 | education in malaysia
    • The School Milk Programme (SMP)The School Milk Programme (SMP) runs simultaneously with the Supplementary Food Scheme. The programme istargeted for poor students whose family income is below the poverty level. Besides, to ensure students receive a well-balanced diet in school, the programme is also aimed at increasing the quality of health and nutritional value of food forprimary students for better physical growth, mental health and general well-being.The SMP also encourages students toconsume milk early in their life. In 2006, the MOE spent RM20.6 million for 556,979 students under this programme. Theselection criteria for students under this programme are primary school students, especially from rural families, with afamily income of RM400.00 and below.The SMP was a collaborative programme between the MOE and milk producers under the concept of MalaysiaIncorporated launched in 1983. This program has expanded nationwide beginning 1985 with the exclusion of the stateof Sabah as it has its own milk programme.The two schemes under this programme are: i. Paid Milk Scheme which involves participation from primary school students either on voluntary basis or with/without government subsidy; and ii. Free Milk Scheme which supplies milk to selected students. The milk is sponsored by milk companies which collaborate with the MOE and/or non-government organisations (NGO’s) either privately or on voluntary basis. 59 | education in malaysia
    • The objectives of the programmes are as follow: i. To encourage milk drinking habit among primary school students under the Paid Milk Scheme. ii. To provide milk to selected students from low socio-economic background who are at risk of malnutrition through the Free Milk Scheme . iii. To increase the efficiency of planning, execution, and evaluation of programme with cooperation from other government agencies under the concept of Malaysia Incorporated. iv. To decrease public sector expenditure through the involvement of private sector agencies. v. To increase knowledge, skill and practice especially on food, nutrition, health, and other learning aspects in general. vi. To increase the development of community and food industry which involves the production, processes and supply of milk. The 3K Programme (Safety, Health and Aesthetics)The 3K Programme started in 1991 with the aim to strengthen the school system focusing on school safety, health and aesthetic. The 3K initiatives conducted by the School Division include the School Safety Programme, the Cleanliness and Health Programme as well as the School Aesthetic Programme. The programme is perceived as capable in making schools realise the significance of aesthetics in education which contributes to a conducive teaching and learning environment. Safety, cleanliness, health and aesthetics are contributing factors to providing a rich learning environment. In addition, projects under this programme have enabled schools to foster close relationship with Parent-Teacher Associations and local communities. 60 | education in malaysia
    • The Safe School Programme (SSP)Safe school is defined as a school environment which is free from internal and external threats and where the schoolcommunity feels a sense of security. In a safe school, each individual should be free from race and gender discrimination,have positive attitude towards others, value individual differences, act and be fair, be cooperative and helpful, practisegood behaviour and morality, avoid violent behaviour, abhor physical, mental and emotional abuse, and report allnegative incidents.The change in education environment has created a need to identify methods, strategies and models which have theabilities to increase the safety of students and teachers. A planned and reliable safe school policy will increase schoolsecurity. The development of the Safe School Policy in schools is a collective responsibility of the parents, schools andsociety. The Safe School Committee comprises of school representatives, parents, government agencies and NGOs. Theschool administration is responsible in safeguarding the school and formulating safety regulations. Schools must alsoprovide safety training for students and teachers to avoid, control and reduce negative incidents among students. Parentsmust ensure safety practices are taught at home to enhance the values instilled through the teaching and learningprocess. The society can manifest the practise of safety by being disciplined, responsible, knowledgeable and resilient.The objectives of the SSP are as follow: i. To enhance understanding of procedures on safety, emergency, accidents and disasters issues. ii. To increase full and total comprehension on safety issues in the planning and implementation of school activities. 61 | education in malaysia
    • iii. To create healthy, safe and pleasant environment in school. iv. To ensure individual rights in school are protected. v. To increase the quality of teaching and learning. vi. To prepare guidelines for action taken relating to safety issues. vii. To create a conducive environment for mental and emotional health. viii. To create a more focused school community towards learning and work. ix. To motivate students to contribute positively. It is the aspiration of the MOE that the Safe School concept is implemented in all schools in the country. The implementation of the Safe School Policy will create learning institutions which are free from physical, mental and emotional interferences.The Scholarship ProgrammeThe Scholarship Division is responsible for coordinating the MOE scholarship programmes. The division manages thescholarship fund for selected students at primary, secondary and selected tertiary levels. The MOE also providesscholarships to qualified teachers who wish to further their studies at bachelor, master’s and doctorate level in local orforeign universities.This programme is in relation to the aspiration of the MOE in elevating the teaching profession. Besides the In-serviceTraining Programme, the Scholarship Division also provides for students in the Pre-Service Programmes, i.e. programmeswhich involve providing scholarships to students at first degree level such as the Federal Teaching Scholarship at publicinstitutions of higher learning, Bachelor of Education in Teaching of English as a Second Language (B. Ed.TESL) TwinningProgramme and Programme For Excellent Students Abroad. The programmes are open to SPM holders to pursue abachelor degree in English language (TESL) and critical Science and Mathematics courses in local or foreign universities.In 2008, 500 B. Ed. (TESL) Twinning Programme students and 154 students in the Programme For Excellent StudentsAbroad were sent to universities in Australia, New Zealand and United Kingdom.Types of ScholarshipThe MOE is sensitive to the problems of less fortunate students who have the potentials to excel academically. In view ofthis, scholarships are granted to students with excellent academic achievement from poor family background with anincome below RM1000.00 per month. At primary and secondary levels, the students are granted with Federal MinorScholarship and University Preparatory Class Scholarship.The scholarship programmes include: l the Poor Students’ Trust Fund; l the Federal Minor Scholarship and University Preparatory Class Scholarship; l the Excellent Student Scholarship; l the Federal Teaching Scholarship (Bachelor Degree); and l the B. Ed. TESL Scholarship. 62 | education in malaysia
    • Scholarships are also granted to teachers and education officers in the MOE.The scholarship programmes include: l the Special Programme Enabling Non-graduate Teachers To Scholarship Programmes for Pupils Attain Degrees (PKPG); l the Federal Training Awards for Education Officers (master l Poor Students’ Trust Fund and doctorate level); l Federal Minor Scholarship l the Post-graduate Programme (unpaid leave); l University Preparatory Class Scholarship l the Programme Enabling School Heads to Attain Degrees l Excellent Student Scholarship (full time); l Federal Teaching Scholarship (Bachelor l the Programme Enabling Non-graduate Teachers of Degree) International Languages to Attain Degrees (French and l Scholarship for Bachelor of Education in German); TESL l the Distance Learning Programme with Open University, Malaysia; l the Graduate Diploma Programme in Drug Abuse; Figure 3.2: Scholarship Programmes l the Special Teaching Certificate Course (KSPK); l the National Professional Qualification for Headship (NPQH); and l the Pre-Service Programmes. Scholarship Programmes under Ministry of Education in 2007 Programme No. of Recipients in 2007 Total Expenditure in 2007 (RM) Million Federal Training Awards for 69 Ph.D 16.52 Education Officers at masters & 352 Masters doctorate Level Federal Teaching Scholarship 1 200 38.85 (Bachelor Degree) at public HEIs/overseas Assistance for Special Education 79 1.40 Students at Polytechnic Assistance for Technical 600 11.88 Lecturers’ Scheme Excellent Student Scholarship 105 3.79 Federal Minor Scholarship 50 088 161.6 University Preparatory 19 399 Class Scholarship Table 3.2 : Scholarship Programmes under Ministry of Education in 2007 63 | education in malaysia
    • The Counselling and Guidance ProgrammeThe aim of the Counselling and Guidance Programme is to expand thecounselling service and career guidance for the benefits of students. The MOEhas made a provision that every primary and secondary school must set up aCounselling and Guidance Unit headed by a full-time counsellor. The counsellingand guidance services in schools are primarily concerned with safeguarding students’welfare, providing counselling and career guidance, and organising motivational talks andcourses. Some of the programmes organised are short courses for peer counsellors, leadershipcamps, courses to develop social skills and self-reliance. Invitational talks on career and higher education opportunitiesare among important services rendered to school leavers.The Emergency Preparedness Programme (EPP) The Emergency Preparedness Programme (EPP) was launched in August 2006 in commemoration of the tsunami disaster that hit SK Seri Kuala in Kuala Muda, Kedah. The EPP is a collaborative programme between the MOE and UNICEF. UNICEF has allotted RM647,500 to the MOE under this program. The aim of the EPP is to equip primary school teachers with knowledge on how to prevail over natural disasters such as flood, tsunami, earthquakes, haze and landslides. The objectives of the programme are: i. to prepare teachers with knowledge and skills on how to face natural disaster through workshops and educational visits; and ii. to foster cooperation between teachers and NGOs to produce School Emergency Preparedness Natural Disaster Manual and School Emergency Preparedness Action Plan. The participants of the programme comprise of primary school teachers, education officers from the Curriculum Development Division, the Teacher Education Division, the Educational Technology Division and the Technology Division of Miri. This programme also involved the cooperation from State Education Department, District Education Office, The Royal Malaysia Police, The Ministry of Health, SMART Team, MERCY and the Red Crescent Society, Malaysia.The activities under the programme were: l a workshop for Natural Disasters Awareness; l a workshop for the writing of the School Emergency Preparedness Natural Disaster Manual; l educational visits to Adelaide and Melbourne, Australia; and l a course on Disaster Prevention In Schools in Kobe, Japan (in-service training in cooperation with JICA, Japan). 64 | education in malaysia
    • The School Boarding ProgrammeSchool hostels are built to provide convenientaccommodation for students especially to those who livein rural and remote areas and whose family earn less thanRM1000 per month. The aim is to bridge the gap ofquality education between students who live in the ruraland urban areas.At present, there are three types of hostels i.e. daily schoolhostel, centralised school hostel and fully residentialschool hostel. Day school hostels are built to provideaccommodation for selected students of the schoolswhile centralised school hostels are specifically built toprovide accommodation to students from a cluster ofneighbouring schools. Fully residential school hostels areprovided to students who excel academically from rural areas and from low income families.Factors which determine entry into the day school hostel and centralised school hostel are the distance of students’homes from school and the socioeconomic status of the parents or guardians. Priority is given to students from lowincome families. Besides getting good accommodation, pupils also receive nutritious food for their physical and mentalgrowth. Hostel facilities are also available in special education schools i.e. three in secondary special education schoolsand 18 in primary special education schools. In 2008, there are 54 fully residential school hostels nation wide.The Assistance Programme for Students with Special Needs The MOE is always concerned with the requirements of students with special needs. One of the steps taken by the MOE is to ease the financial burden of parents of students with special needs by providing financial assistance of RM25.00 per month. To qualify for this programme, the students must come from families with income of less than RM1000.00 per month. Students with special needs who stay in school hostels are also eligible to receive full aid such as free food and accommodation. The MOE also provides education allowance of RM300.00 per month for students with special needs who are pursuing further education in polytechnics. Other aids include tuition fees as well as free food and accommodation. 65 | education in malaysia
    • The Supplementary Reading Programme in Sabah and Sarawak (SRP) The Supplementary Reading Programme in Sabah and Sarawak (SRP) is a collaborative effort between the MOE and UNICEF. The aim of this programme is to increase the quality of teaching and learning in primary schools located on islands and remote areas of Sabah and Sarawak. The objectives of the programme are: i. to supply additional and interesting teaching and learning materials; and ii. to inculcate good reading habit among students through the supply of teaching and learning materials to schools. This programme is currently targeted at 25 schools in Sabahwhich mainly comprise of island schools. Five schools which are from the interior areas in Sarawak are also selected toparticipate in the programme.The materials provided to the schools are story books and pre-set computers. An allocation amounting RM195,000 wasobtained from the UNICEF in 2008 for the provision of reading materials, training of teachers in using the materials,organising reading camps for the project schools and to carry out evaluation research on the programme.The NILAM ProgrammeNadi Ilmu Amalan Membaca (NILAM) is a reading programme established to recognise and award good reading habitsamong pupils in school. This programme emerged from the combination or integration of all activities to inculcate thelove for knowledge in schools. The programme started in 1999 for Level 1 (primary school) and Form1/Remove Class (secondary school). Since 2005, efforts have been madeto instil reading culture among pupils.The NILAM Programme includesplans to inculcate reading habit continuously through systematicmanagement of reading activities in schools. This readingprogramme is continuously monitored throughout the year.The aim of the NILAM programme is to inculcate good readinghabits among pupils in Malaysia. The objectives of thisprogramme are: i. to produce pupils who are avid readers of quality materials from various fields; and ii. to encourage school to continuously generate creative and innovative ideas in instilling good reading habits among pupils. 66 | education in malaysia
    • The NILAM programme is divided into two levels: Recognition of the Jauhari Level for Primary and i. Level One - Jauhari Secondary SchoolsThe objective of this level is to develop interest in reading and Score Recognitionreading skill that is inculcated as a habit. This level requirespupils to participate in activities which encourage reading Primary Schoolplanned by the School Resource Centre (SRC) throughout the 90-179 books Bronzeyear. Pupils’ involvement at this level starts when they are able 180-269 books Silverto master the basic reading skill i.e. in the middle of Year 1. The 270-359 books GoldSRC will loan one book for a period of two weeks to promotereading activities in school. 360 books and above Nilam (Sapphire) Secondary SchoolPupils are rewarded and given due recognition in accordance 72-143 books Bronzewith their level of achievement. The recognition is noted inpupils’ Record Book, School Leaving Certificate and School 144-215 books SilverTestimonial. These can be used as part of the selection criteria 216-287 books Goldinto residential school or during the application of scholarship. 288 books and above Nilam (Sapphire) ii. Level Two - Reading Peer (RP) Table 3.3: Recognition of the Jauhari Level for Primary and Secondary SchoolsThe objective of this level is to increase pupils’ participation andusage of materials in promoting reading activities. This level places The Reading Peer (RP) Reward Systememphasis on pupils’ ability to guide and attract others’ interest inreading. Pupils who have read 100 books in the Jauhari Level are Score Recognitioneligible to enter this level. The level requires pupils to do reading 100-199 Bronzeactivities with their peers in school with guidance from teachers or 200-299 Silverfacilitators. The progress of these activities is tracked formally (inevents/competitions) or informally (e.g.: during social work/in class). 300-399 GoldPupils are trained in workshops and demonstration sessions. At this 400 and above Nilam (Sapphire)level, pupils are given a score based the number of activities theyparticipate in such as storytelling, book talks, borrowing of books, Table 3.4: The Reading Peer (RP) Reward Systemelocution, drama and discussion. All RP activities are recorded inReading Peer Book Record and are reviewed and assessed by facilitators.Implementation StrategiesThe implementation of the NILAM programme at the state level is done by the State Education Department while thesecretariat of the programme is the State Education Resource Centre. Activities that are carried out include programmeplacement, supervision, evaluation and reporting for the purpose of programme modification or improvement.The details on the types of activity and implementation strategies; the role of the school community; the involvement ofparents; the types of reading materials; the specification of reading materials; the reading record; the process ofmonitoring and evaluation; and the various school-based activities are stipulated in the NILAM programme manual.The National NILAM AwardThis objective of the National NILAM Award (Tokoh NILAM Kebangsaan) is to give recognition to a pupil who has readthe highest number of books. The award is presented annually and is under the jurisdiction of the EducationalTechnology Division which acts as the secretariat for the Main Committee of the Reading Programme. The methods ofevaluation used are guided interviews and supervised written test by a panel of professional judges. 67 | education in malaysia
    • The School Resource Centre (SRC)The School Resource Centre (SRC) is a place that provides reference resources and collections of reading materials to theschool community and a conducive learning environment for self-learning. Besides the school administrators, the Mediaand Library Teachers are responsible in the management of the SRC. The Educational Technology Division is responsiblefor monitoring the role of the SRC and ensuring the effectiveness of the SRC in the teaching and learning processes.Objectives of the School Resource Centre (SRC): l To achieve academic excellence l To inculcate learning habits l To produce teaching and learning materials l To provide learning experience l To ensure use of the facilities at the optimum level l To teach information skillsICT in EducationThe Computer in Education Programme started in 1999 in 332 schools in the country. The initial objective was to exposepupils to basic computer literacy. In 2002, the Computer Literacy Programme was implemented for Form 1 and 2 students. After five years, the programme was reviewed and ICT in Education Programme was introduced in secondary schools in 2007. With the advancement of ICT in education, the MOE has provided all the technology requirements such as application system and ICT infrastructure to create an effective and efficient management system. Realising ICT as an enabler in the management of education information, the MOE has strengthened various systems and databases through data mining, integrating information systems from all agencies in the MOE and upgrading ICT infrastructure in concurrent with the needs of e-government and e-management. The MOE has outlined three main ICT policies in education which are: i. ICT literacy for students; ii. ICT as a curriculum and teaching and learning tool; and iii. ICT for the improvement of productivity, and the effectiveness and efficiency of management system. The MOE has provided sufficient and the latest ICT infrastructure, and info structure equipped with networking facilities to all levels of organisation to widen its use in teaching and learning, and education management. ICT in education aims at increasing the development of ICT infrastructure, enhancing access and equity for ICT facilities in urban and rural areas, developing and expanding ICT-based curriculum, and enhancing students’ motivation towards learning.The MOE places emphasis on the integration of ICT in teaching and learning process such as in the subjects of Mathematics and Science in addition to increasing the performance in education management. Various efforts have been made to equip students, teachers and personnel with ICT knowledge and skills. The utilisation of ICT has increasedthe efficiency of the MOE and the growth of research and development in education.ICT in Teaching and LearningThe MOE has made initiatives in the use of ICT in teaching and learning through projects such as the Smart SchoolProject, School Access Centres and Making School Smart Programme. In addition, various pilot projects have been 68 | education in malaysia
    • implemented to keep abreast with the innovations of ICT. Among the projects are the Strengthening ICT in SchoolsProgramme, the SchoolNet Project in ASEAN Setting, the Technical Integration for Smart Brigade Programme, theRefurbish Computer Pilot Project and the Open Resource System Pilot Project.Educational Television ProgrammeIn line with the evolution of technology, the Educational Technology Division (ETD) has broadcasted all educational televisionprogrammes using the ASTRO channel. This endeavour enables viewers to watch quality and international programmes.Monitoring activities done by the ETD on educational television programmes on the ASTRO channel has shown positiveresults. The programmes broadcast are found to be relevant with the topics and objectives of teaching and learning.Pupils are interested to watch the programmes and have shown good response. Subjects such as Malay language,English language, Science and Mathematics have been aired through television. However, in remote areas such as inSabah and Sarawak, the radio is still one of the main and effective teaching and learning tools used in the classroom.Every year the Educational Television Sector produces a variety of programmes which encompass programmes based onthe primary and secondary school curriculum.Two new channels have also been included under this programme i.e.TechTV and Discovery Travel and Adventure. At present, educational television programmes are being telecast through TV9channel. Among the types of programmes broadcast are as follow: i. Programmes Based on the Curriculum The programmes comprise school subjects for primary and secondary schools such as Malay Language, English Language, Technical and Vocational, Islamic Education, Mathematics, Science, History, Geography and Moral Education. ii. Programmes Acquired from Private Sector The programmes are purchased from local or international companies such as Science and Technology Application Principles by Bill Nye . iii. Collaborative Programmes The programmes are produced in cooperation between ETD and production companies. Among the various topics produced for educational purposes are career guidance, information technology and pedagogy (to enhance the process of teaching and learning). iv. Lensa TVP Programme The programme highlights current affairs in the education sector around the country v. Bicara TVP and Laman Muda Programme These are educational talk shows which are telecast live from Studio 1, ETD. iv. Special Programme This programme is broadcast through the ASTRO channel via satellite to enable schools around the country including those in remote areas to receive clear transmission of the programmes.Eduweb TVWeb TV Project of MOE is a project implemented to bridge the educational gap between the rural and urban areas aswell as the remote areas. Teachers are able to preview and watch the selected television programmes; then use them intheir teaching and learning process irrespective of the schools’ location and the schedule of the programme. Studentsthroughout the nation are able to access educational learning aids which are hosted into the data centre. The public isalso given information on the development as well as various opportunities in national education. 69 | education in malaysia
    • Health, poverty and academic well-being are intrinsically interlinked.If left neglected and not addressed it would result in a vicious circle that would paralyse all efforts towards progress. Tun Dato’ Seri (Dr) Haji Hamdan bin Sheikh Tahir Director-General of Education Malaysia (1966-1976)
    • Chapter 4 Tertiary EducationIntroductionIn Malaysia, the National Education System consists of pre-school education, primary education, secondary education,upper secondary (Form Six) education and matriculation colleges as well as tertiary education. Tertiary education is thecontinuity of the upper secondary school education which includes Community Colleges, Polytechnics, public HigherEducation Institutions (HEIs) and private HEIs. The restructuring of the Cabinet on the 27 March 2004 has resulted in theMinistry of Education being divided into two: Ministry of Education (MOE) and Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia(MOHE). The administration of public HEIs, polytechnics and community colleges are being placed under the purview ofthe MOHE.Tertiary education is considered a catalyst in the government’s effort to supply human resource with first-class mentalityto fulfil the need of the workforce from various sectors and occupational fields. These graduates are expected to be ofhigh moral values, competitive, physically, emotionally, spiritually and intellectually balanced, highly knowledgeable andskilful to meet the country’s needs. The aim of tertiary education is to develop students’ critical, creative and innovativethinking to enable them to contribute towards the nation’s progress and ready to compete in the international arena.The MOHE has prepared the National Higher Education Strategic Plan 2007-2010: Beyond the Year 2020 to meet thedemands of the higher education transformation requirement in producing human capital equipped with first classmentality and making Malaysia an excellent hub for international higher learning. The plan focuses on the role andfunction of public and private HEIs, polytechnic, community college and other relevant training providers. To achievethese goals, some transformational steps are taken. This revolves around ensuring the democratization of highereducation; facilitating students’ mobility and improving the quality of teaching and learning; building critical massresearchers and continuing the effort to produce academics worthy of Nobel Laureates; creating one or two autonomousapex universities; intensifying internationalisation of higher education; enculturation of lifelong learning; activatingcritical mass researchers and teachers; and reinforcing the delivery system of MOHE.History of Higher Education In Malaysia Higher education in Malaysia started with the formation of University Malaya (UM) in 1961, followed by the Science University Malaysia (USM) and Tunku Abdul Rahman College in 1969. Since then, the number of public HEIs has increased in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Until 2007, the country has 20 public HEIs with 382,997 students enrolment. Meanwhile, Ungku Omar Polytechnic was the first polytechnic formed in Malaysia in 1969 and currently (2008), there are 27 polytechnics around the country. The formation of community colleges since 2001 has marked a new development in the history of higher education. Their aims are to encourage lifelong learning and to provide training opportunities to local communities. Initially, there were 10 community colleges which have since increased to 37 of them in 2007. The enrolment of students in polytechnics and community colleges stands at 84,250 and 13,758 students respectively in 2007. The private sector has also played an important role in providing education in the country. Initially, private education was only limited to pre-school, primary school and secondary school. The role of privateeducation in providing tertiary education started in the 1950s with the formation of some institutions such as The GoonInstitute, The Stamford College and The Kadir Adabi College. 73 | education in malaysia
    • The Number of Higher Education Institutions in 2007 However, this scenario changed in the 1970s when private education developers Institutions Number introduced and offered pre-university courses. Private education continued to thrive in the Public Higher Education Institutions 20 1980s when educational institutions started Private Higher Education Institutions 36 offering overseas courses at certificate, Polytechnics 24 diploma and professional qualification levels. Community Colleges 37 Subsequent development was more obvious in the 1990s where many private HEIs offered Private Colleges 488 their own certificates and diploma Total 605 programmes. The number of private tertiary Source: Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia institutions increased to 521 in 2007 where 17 were given university status, 15 were given Table 4.1 : Number of Higher Education Institutions, December 2007 university colleges status, four foreign branch university campuses, while the rest are privatecolleges. The role of private HEIs has gone through various changes and is an important alternative for students to gainquality tertiary education in Malaysia.In efforts to provide quality higher education, the Malaysian Qualification Framework (MQF) was introduced at the endof 2007. The main feature of MQF is to promote student mobility from one education program to another through thetransfer and standardisation of course credit. The implementation of MQF will simplify course certification at theinternational level.Community CollegesThe aims of community colleges are to provide dynamic and quality education as well as training by: l Organizing and creating alternative path for post secondary; l Organizing and preparing lifelong learning with knowledgeable community development (K-communities); l Providing training for up-skilling and re-skilling for local workforce needs; l Providing strategic networking to encourage socio-economic activities among local customers and stakeholders; and l Providing community-centred facilities and services.Initially, there were ten community colleges in June2001. In 2008, there are 37 community colleges and19 branches of community colleges throughout thecountry. The total enrolment in these colleges is over15,000 students at certification levels. Under theNinth Malaysia Plan (9th MP), 25 more communitycolleges will be built and 30 colleges will be openedon rented premises. Community colleges offer fulltime as well as short term courses that focus on skillstraining. Since February 2007, community collegeshave begun offering courses at diploma levelthrough the collaborations with private companies.These courses are conducted through work-basedlearning (WBL). Kuantan Community College 74 | education in malaysia
    • Full-Time Courses at Certificate Level in List of Community Colleges in 2008 Community College 1. Kolej Komuniti Arau Perlis l Creative Multimedia (Animation) 2. Kolej Komuniti Bandar Baru Darulaman Kedah l Creative Multimedia (Advertising) 3. Kolej Komuniti Sungai Petani Kedah l Integrated Technology in Manufacturing 4. Kolej Komuniti Kepala Batas Pulau Pinang l Automotive 5. Kolej Komuniti Bayan Baru Pulau Pinang l Draughtsmanship 6. Kolej Komuniti Chenderoh Perak l Building Maintenance 7. Kolej Komuniti Gerik Perak 8. Kolej Komuniti Sungai Siput Perak l Electrical Technology 9. Kolej Komuniti Pasir Salak Perak l Computer Support System 10. Kolej Komuniti Teluk Intan Perak l Hotel and Catering 11. Kolej Komuniti Sabak Bernam Selangor l Fashion and Design 12. Kolej Komuniti Hulu Selangor Selangor l Food Processing and Quality Control 13. Kolej Komuniti Selayang Selangor l Information Technology 14. Kolej Komuniti Kuala Langat Selangor l Business and Accounting 15. Kolej Komuniti Hulu Langat Selangor l Air Conditioning 16. Kolej Komuniti Jempol Negeri Sembilan l Tourism 17. Kolej Komuniti Jelebu Negeri Sembilan l Interior Design 18. Kolej Komuniti Alor Gajah Melaka l Landscape and Nursery 19. Kolej Komuniti Selandar Melaka 20. Kolej Komuniti Bukit Beruang Melaka l Bakery and Confectionary 21. Kolej Komuniti Jasin Melaka l Beauty and Hair Saloon 22. Kolej Komuniti Ledang Johor l Ceramic Industry 23. Kolej Komuniti Segamat Johor Figure 4.1: Full-Time Courses at Certificate Level in 24. Kolej Komuniti Segamat 2 Johor Community Colleges 25. Kolej Komuniti Bandar Penawar Johor 26. Kolej Komuniti Tebrau Johor 27. Kolej Komuniti Rompin Pahang 28. Kolej Komuniti Bentong Pahang 29. Kolej Komuniti Mentakab Pahang List of Skills Training Offered in Community Colleges 30. Kolej Komuniti Kuantan Pahang l Radiography 31. Kolej Komuniti Paya Besar Pahang 32. Kolej Komuniti Kuala Terengganu Terengganu l Occupational Therapist 33. Kolej Komuniti Tawau Sabah l Physiotherapist 34. Kolej Komuniti Kuching Sarawak l Medical Laboratory Technician 35. Kolej Komuniti Mas Gading Sarawak l Dental technician 36. Kolej Komuniti Kulim Kedah l Health Assistant 37. Kolej Komuniti Langkawi Kedah l Pharmaceutical Assistant Source : Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia l Dental Nurse l Dental Surgical Nurse Figure 4.3: List of Community Colleges in 2008 l Community NurseFigure 4.2: List of Skills Training Offered in Community Colleges 75 | education in malaysia
    • Polytechnics List of Polytechnics in 2008 Polytechnic education was introduced in Malaysia through the Colombo Plan in 1969 which resulted 1. Politeknik Ungku Omar Perak in the formation of the first polytechnic, the Ungku 2. Politeknik Sultan Ahmad Shah Pahang Omar (PUO) Polytechnic in Ipoh, Perak. Polytechnic 3. Politeknik Sultan Abdul Halim Mu’adzam Shah Kedah education was emphasized under the Cabinet 4. Politeknik Kota Bharu Kelantan Committee Report (1979) and the National 5. Politeknik Kuching Sarawak Industrial Master Plan (1985-1995). As of 2008, 6. Politeknik Port Dickson Negeri Sembilan there are 27 polytechnics with an enrolment of 7. Politeknik Kota Kinabalu Sabah 84,250 students. The polytechnics now offer 31 8. Politeknik Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Selangor courses at certificate level and 45 courses at 9. Politeknik Johor Bahru Johor diploma level in the field of engineering, business 10. Politeknik Seberang Perai Pulau Pinang and hospitality. In 2007, the polytechnics have 11. Politeknik Kota Melaka Melaka produced 30,120 graduates at certificate and 12. Politeknik Kota Kuala Terengganu Terengganu diploma levels. Under the 9th MP, seven more 13. Politeknik Dungun Terengganu polytechnics will be built. This is in line with 14. Politeknik Merlimau Melaka polytechnic’s mission to produce quality semi- 15. Politeknik Sultan Azlan Shah Perak professional workforce to fulfil the needs of the 16. Politeknik Sultanah Bahiyah Kedah public and private sectors of the nation, whilst 17. Politeknik Sultan Idris Shah Selangor helping the country realise Vision 2020. 18. Politeknik Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin Perlis 19. Politeknik Muadzam Shah Pahang Smart partnership and collaborative programmes 20. Politeknik Mukah Sarawak with local corporations and overseas institutions of higher learning are made in efforts to make 21. Politeknik Balik Pulau Pulau Pinang courses offered at Malaysian polytechnics more 22. Politeknik Jeli Kelantan competitive internationally. In July 2006, the Source : Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia course in Diploma in Aviation Maintenance was Figure 4.4: List of Polytechnics in 2008 introduced in collaboration with Malaysia Airlines.Public Higher Education Institutes (Public HEIs)The formation of public HEIs has given way to a new dimension and opportunities to more students to acquire tertiaryeducation and prepare them for the job market. The curriculum in public universities has to meet the need of the jobmarket and industry, especially language mastery, communication skills and competencies in science and technologyplus the acquisition of knowledge and the latest technology. Co-curricular activities are given due attention andemphasis as an effort to build a balanced human capital and quality workforce.Currently, there are 20 public universities throughout the country which are formed under University and CollegeUniversity Act (AUKU) 1971. The universities are categorized into three groups which are: i. research universities (four) give emphasis to the research discipline; ii. focused universities (12) which focus on the technical, education, management and defence disciplines; and iii. comprehensive universities (four) which offer various courses and field of studies.In 2006, two public HEIs were listed among the best 200 universities in the world as reported in The Times HigherEducation Supplement. The public HEIs were the National University of Malaysia (UKM) which ranked at 185 and theUniversity Malaya (UM) which ranked at 192. In efforts to improve the ranking of universities in Malaysia, research 76 | education in malaysia
    • List of Public Higher Education Institutes universities are formed to focus on research and innovation activities where the ratio of graduateResearch Universities students to post-graduate students is 50:50. l Universiti Malaya (UM) Meanwhile, for focused universities, the ratio of l Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) graduate students to post-graduate students is 70:30. l Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Comprehensive universities offer education in l Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) various fields and levels. Emphasis are given on providing programmes that offer ‘hands-on’Comprehensive Universities experience and increasing the number of post- l Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) graduate programmes. l Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia (UIAM) l Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) There has been an increase in student enrolment in l Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) public HEIs. This increase relates closely to the 1,384Focused Universities types of academic courses which are offered in public l Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) HEIs that comprise courses at certificate, diploma, graduate and post graduate levels. The enrolment for l Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) first degree in the science and technical fields has l Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) increased compared to other disciplines. This is an l Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) encouraging achievement and in line with the l Universiti Darul Iman Malaysia (UDM) objectives of MOHE to improve the enrolment of l Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UteM) students in science and technical to 60% by 2010. l Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Similar improvement is also seen at all levels of post- l Universiti Malaysia Perlis(UNIMAP) graduate which includes PhD., masters and post- l Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP) degree diploma. l Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK) l Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM) The trend in the Malaysian higher education l Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT) enrolment shows that there are more femaleFigure 4.5: List of Public Higher Education Institutes Based on Categories students than male students. In 2006, there wereSource: Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia 204,189 (62%) female students in public HEIs out of the total enrolment of 331,025 students. The high female enrolment is evident at the diploma (58%) and bachelor’s degree (64%) level. Meanwhile, male students form a higher percentage of enrolment in PhD. courses (61%) compared to female students. Public HEIs also offer long-distance programmes to give access to students who do not have the opportunity to attend classes on a full-time basis. These long-distance programmes offer courses at diploma, degree and masters levels. Collaborative programmes between public and private HEIs as well as universities abroad also provide opportunity for Universiti Sains Malaysia students to acquire tertiary education.On average, 90% of the public HEIs expenditure is provided through government grant to fund the annual operating costwhile 10% is acquired from the students’ tuition fees. The government encourages the public HEIs to generate their ownfunds by receiving commission from the products of their research. For this reason, the public HEIs are allowed toestablish holding companies to market or commercialize their research findings.In 2007, the total expenditure for operational cost of public HEIs was more than RM6 billion and this expenditure willcontinue to increase following the establishment of new universities and the establishment of four research universities. 77 | education in malaysia
    • Private Higher Education Institutions (Private HEIs) The development of private higher education in Malaysia started in the 1950s as alternative educational institutions to cater students who did not succeed to secure a place in public HEIs. Some programmes in the private HEIs, especially at diploma level, have received recognition from overseas universities as an entrance qualification in the universities’ final year programmes through credit transfer. Twinning programmes in business, engineering, communication and information technology have been established between the local private HEIs with universities abroad such as in United Kingdom (UK), United States of America (USA), Australia, New Zealand and France. University Tenaga National (Uniten) There are also some private HEIs which have forged collaborative efforts with some local universities in carrying out programmes atdiploma and degree level.Due to the tremendous growth of private education, the Private Education Department (formerly the Teacher and SchoolRegistration Division) was established in 1995. This department was responsible for: l handling matters regarding the private education institutions from kindergarten to university level; l managing education courses, registration, supervision, monitoring and information gathering; l managing applications to update education courses and private HEIs registration; and l providing more opportunities to pursue tertiary education.After the establishment of MOHE in 2004, the management of Private Higher Education Sector is responsible for theprivate HEIs in all aspects related to higher education. The implementation of the Act 555 has made it possible for someprivate universities and branch campuses of foreign universities to beestablished in Malaysian shores. These programmes provide privateHEIs with opportunities to conduct degree courses that are offered byoverseas universities in Malaysia. This development shows that trustand recognition are given to the country’s private educationsystem. Until 2007, there are 33 universities/university colleges,four overseas university franchise campuses and 488 colleges thatoffer a variety of academic and training programmes.The democratization of higher education in the second half of the1990s has given way to the establishment of bumiputera private HEIswhich consist of 180 institutions. Four bumiputera private HEIs weregiven university and university college status (UNITAR, KUTPM, Twintech University College and Cosmopolitan UniversityCollege). Almost all bumiputera private HEIs conduct courses as franchise of public HEIs. In addition, 34 bumiputeraprivate HEIs were chosen as the ‘sister’ college or collegiate of UiTM and conduct courses at diploma level. 78 | education in malaysia
    • The Malaysian Students DepartmentThe Malaysian Students’ Department (MSD) provides assistance and support in terms of counselling, course work, andmedical services to Malaysian students who are studying abroad. Currently, there are 11 MSDs located in UK (London),Egypt (Cairo), Indonesia (Jakarta), Australia (Sydney), USA (Washington D.C., Los Angeles, and Chicago), Canada (Ottawa),New Zealand (Wellington), Jordan (Amman) and Saudi Arabia (Jeddah). The Number of Malaysian Students Studying Abroad (2002-2007) Bil Negara 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 1. USA 7 359 7 611 5 519 6 411 6 142 5 281 2. Arab Saudi 127 125 125 132 138 125 3. Australia 15 700 15 448 15 434 15 909 14 918 13 010 4. Canada 231 231 196 230 238 312 5. Indonesia 1 337 1 225 1 607 2 444 3 630 4 565 6. Jordan 361 361 310 444 490 655 7. Egypt 4 664 4 330 5 768 6 256 5 780 6 896 8. New Zealand 995 918 1 011 1 338 1 297 1 574 9. UK & Ireland 11 970 11 860 11 041 15 189 12 569 10 10. Others 22 688 2 568 722 11 007Table 4.2 : Number of Malaysian Students Studying Abroad (2002-2007)Source : Ministry of Higher Education MalaysiaFinancial Assistance for Students at HEIsFinancial assistance is provided for students to further their studies at the tertiary level. This assistance is currentlyprovided by various organizations such as the Public Service Department (PSD), Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA), the TunkuAbdul Rahman Foundation, PETRONAS, the Malaysia Telekom Foundation, the Tenaga Nasional Foundation, KhazanahNasional, as well as state foundations and state governments. The National Higher Education Fund Corporation (NHEFC)is the biggest education financial body for public and private HEIs students. Currently, the Employment Provident Fund(EPF) is the largest financier to NHEFC.In tandem with the increase in student enrolment in HEIs, the number of NHEFC borrowers has also increased. In 1997,11,279 students received a total of RM206.24 million in education loans from NHEFC. In 2006, a total of 130,323 studentshad taken loans from NHEFC amounting to RM2.729 billion. The number of applicants has increased annually. Currently,the total amount of funds allocated to NHEFC is RM19 billion while the total cumulative loan disbursed is more thanRM13 billion.The amount of loans needed continue to increase exponentially and as of December 2007, the amount committed byNHEFC comes to a total of RM22.2 billion and projected sum of loan to be disbursed is RM70.0 billion by 2020. The NHEFChas provided loans to 1,110,091 students since 1997.The NHEFC also provides the following financial assistances: l Allowance for the disabled students l Allowance for community college students l Financial assistance programme for matriculation students l Education Loan. 79 | education in malaysia
    • • Allowance for the Disabled StudentsSpecial allowance is given to disabled students in higher education institutions under the jurisdiction of MOHE. Theamount of the allowance is RM300.00 per month. The criteria for the special allowance are as follow: l Disabled students who are registered with the Social Welfare Department l Disabled students who receive education loan l Disabled students who are attending courses approved by Malaysia Qualification Agency (MQA) and Public Service Department (PSD)• Allowance for Community College StudentsThis allowance is given to community college students at the certificate and diploma level for the duration of foursemesters at the certificate level and a further three semesters at the diploma level.The fixed rate of financial assistance given is RM250.00 per month and the maximum amount of financial assistance isRM6,000.00 for certificate courses (4 semesters) and an additional of RM4,500.00 for diploma courses (3 semesters) incommunity colleges.• Financial Assistance Programme for MatriculationThe financial assistance for matriculation students started on the semester of 2005/2006. The matriculation studentsinvolved are from: l Universiti Islam Antarabangsa (UIA); l Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM); l Universiti Malaya; l Kolej Universiti Islam Malaysia (KUIM); l Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM); and l Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM).This programme includes: l Pocket Money - RM1,000.00 per semester l Study Fees - RM350.00 per semester l Lodging Fees - RM300.00 per semester l Travelling expenses for students from Sabah and Sarawak 80 | education in malaysia
    • • Education LoanEducation loan is provided for polytechnics and community college students at the certificate and diploma level. Thetotal amount offered is RM6,000.00 per student. Promotion for Tertiary Education The aim of promoting tertiary education is to encourage students from other countries to further their higher education in Malaysia. Efforts to attract these students are made in countries such as Indonesia, Saudi Arabia,Vietnam, China and other countries. On 1 October 2003, the MOHE has established the Malaysian Education Promotion Centre in countries such as Indonesia (Jakarta), Saudi Arabia (Dubai), Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City), and China (Beijing). In 2007, a seminar on Malaysia Higher Education was organized in Dubai with the participation of 14 major universities from Malaysia. The National Higher Education Strategic Plan: "Beyond 2020" The National Mission which was announced on 31 March 2006 emphasised the second phase of the government’s effort to towards achieving the status of a developed nation as envisioned in Vision 2020.The secondthrust of this mission focus on raising the capacity for knowledge and innovation as wellas developing human capital with first class mentality to face challenges in theknowledge-based economy and the innovation field in the 21st century. The desiredhuman capital should excel in education, be skilful and possess towering personalities. Inrelation to these needs, the National Higher Education Strategic Plan which was launchedon 27 August 2007 by the Prime Minister. It was formulated with a vision to transformhigher education in the context of establishing Malaysia as an international hub of highereducational excellence.The National Higher Education Strategic Plan is prepared with the aim of producing human capital thatsupports the thrusts of the National Mission in order to improve knowledge capability and the nationís innovations, aswell as to inspire human capital with first class mentality. This Mission aims to produce world class universities and highquality graduates to meet the needs of the market. In continuation to the Educational Development Master Plan (EDMP)2006-2010, tertiary education will train students into human capital that are par excellence. Human developmentprogrammes which include teaching of communication and English language skills, exposure to entrepreneurship andcapacity building, as well as character building will be emphasised under this plan.The higher education system moves in accordance to changes in the global scenario. Factors that necessitate change,among others, include democratization of higher education, diversification of institutions and service providers as wellas changes in higher education funding and investment. The evolution and transformation of the higher educationsystem are further promoted with improved quality, relevant curriculum and efficient delivery system which wouldproduce quality graduates who can contribute to the community. 81 | education in malaysia
    • The National Higher Education Strategic Plan Implementation Phase Phase I : 2007-2010 (Laying the Foundation) Phase II : 2011-2015 (Strengthening and Enhancement) Phase III : 2016-2020 (Excellence) Phase IV : Beyond 2020 (Glory and Sustainability) Figure 4.6: The National Higher Education Strategic Plan Implementation PhaseThe National Higher Education Strategic Plan outlines seven strategic thrusts which forms the foundation for thedevelopment of the National Higher Education till the year 2020. They are as follows: First Thrust : Widening of Access and Increasing Equity Second Thrust : Improving the Quality of Teaching and Learning Third Thrust : Enhancing Research and Innovation Fourth Thrust : Strengthening of Higher Education Institutions Fifth Thrust : Intensifying Internationalisation Sixth Thrust : Enculturation of Lifelong Learning Seventh Thrust : Reinforcing Delivery Systems of the Ministry of Higher Education 82 | education in malaysia
    • National Higher Education Strategic Plan Thrust 3 Thrust 2 Enhancing Research and Innovation Improving the Quality of Teaching and Learning - To develop critical mass of researchers Thrust 1 - National policy on industrial internship for (100 RSE per 10,000 workforce) Widening of Access and Increasing Equity students and attachment for lecturers - Six (6) Research Universities - Democratisation through diversified meritocracy (50% - Periodical improvement of curriculum, interactive - 20 world class Centres of Excellence Access in tertiary education and 33% workforce with learning - Innovation culture among students tertiary qualification) - Versatility and marketability of graduates - 10% research findings are comercialised - Higher Education Human Capital Development Fund- - 100, 000 PhD or equivalent prestige scholarship (specific group) Thrust 4 Strengthening of Higher Education Thrust 7 Institutions (HEIs)83 Reinforcing Delivery Systems of MoHE - One to two Apex Universities - MoHE as a facilitator among existing HEIs - Best delivery systems - Three HEIs among top 100 and one - Effective implementation and in the top 50 of the world monitoring renowned universities - KPI-perfomance-based - Autonomy with Key Perfomance - Prudent spending of government allocation Indicator under MoHE - Selection of top management Public - 75% lecturers with PhD qualifications HEIs based on merits - towering - Rating of HEIs based on KPI| education in malaysia personality Thrust 6 Thrust 5 Enculturation of Lifelong Learning Intensifying Internationalisation - Recognition of lifelong learning through MQF - Collaborative networking with foreign HEIs - Recognition of Prior Learning Experience - Average 10% overall enrolment are international students, - Increase participation of lifelong learning by adults especially in Private HEIs - Alternative pathways and programme mobility - 5% international students in competitive courses - Sending students for post doctoral studies in renowned international universities - 15% international teaching staff at Research Universities - Student mobility with credit transfer - Malaysian International Scholarship Figure 4.7 : The National Higher Education Strategic Plan
    • It is our desire not only to produce quality teachers but to ensure thatthey remain in service and continue to contribute with excellence to the National Education System Y.B. Dato’ Seri Hishammuddin bin Tun Hussein Minister of Education Malaysia
    • CHAPTER 5 Teacher EducationIntroductionThe Teacher Education Division (TED) is the main teacher training agency of the Ministry of Education (MOE). It isresponsible for the training of both primary and secondary school teachers in the country through its 27 institutes ofteacher education. While the main focus is on the preparation of pre-service teachers, these institutes also offer shortcourses for in-service teachers. In addition to the 27 institutes, the TED has also set up the English Language TeachingCentre (ELTC), a specialist institution for the training of in-service English language teachers. ELTC offers training coursesfor both in-service English teachers and administrators at national and regional levels. The TED will be setting up six in-service centres to meet the growing demand for continuous professional development of teachers.These training institutions provide a comprehensive range of courses at certificate, diploma and basic degree levels.These courses are founded on the principles enshrined in the National Philosophy of Education and the Philosophy ofTeacher Education and are aimed at producing teachers who are knowledgeable, who possess high moral values, arecompetent users of technology and are ethical, responsible, resilient, context-sensitive and context-adaptiveprofessionals. It is hoped that teachers with these outstanding personal and professional attributes will become effectiveand efficient providers of education.Historical BackgroundThe first national teacher training initiative started in 1878 withthe founding of the Singapore Malay Teachers College inSingapore. Then, in 1900 the Malacca Malay College was formedwith an intake of 24 trainees.The TED has therefore been involvedin teacher training for more than 80 years. By 1990, the TED has atotal of 31 teacher training colleges (TTCs) under its purview.With the relocation of some colleges, the TED has now 28institutions of teacher education.In the early years, basic pre-service teacher training was providedonly at the certificate level. It was only in the 1990s that atwinning programme was started with the collaboration of fiveUnited Kingdom institutions for the training of English languageteachers at degree level. In 1996, the basic certificate levelprogramme was upgraded to diploma level. The salary scheme ofall serving certificate level teachers was readjusted to the pay International Languages Teacher Education Trainingscheme of diploma teachers. On 13 July 2005, the Cabinet approved Institute (ILITE)the upgrading of TTCs to Institutes of Teacher Education Malaysia(ITEM). With the change in status, ITEM are now able to conductbasic degree level teacher training courses and will eventually be conferring degrees of their own. 87 | education in malaysia
    • List of Institutes of Teacher Education Malaysia (ITEM) No. Teacher Education Institute (TEI) State 1 Institut Perguruan Temenggong Ibrahim Johor 2 Institut Perguruan Sultan Abdul Halim Kedah 3 Institut Perguruan Kota Bharu Kelantan 4 Institut Perguruan Perempuan Melayu Melaka Melaka 5 Institut Perguruan Raja Melewar Negeri Sembilan 6 Institut Perguruan Tengku Ampuan Afzan Pahang 7 Institut Perguruan Ipoh Perak 8 Institut Perguruan Persekutuan Pulau Pinang Pulau Pinang 9 Institut Perguruan Gaya Sabah 10 Institut Perguruan Tawau Sabah 11 Institut Perguruan Kent Sabah 12 Institut Perguruan Keningau Sabah 13 Institut Perguruan Miri Sarawak Sarawak 14 Institut Perguruan Rajang Sarawak 15 Institut Perguruan Batu Lintang Sarawak 16 Institut Perguruan Kuala Terengganu Terengganu 17 Institut Perguruan Sultan Mizan Terengganu 18 Institut Perguruan Bahasa-bahasa Antarabangsa Kuala Lumpur 19 Institut Perguruan Islam Selangor 20 Institut Perguruan Darulaman Kedah 21 Institut Perguruan Bahasa Melayu Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 22 Institut Perguruan Ilmu Khas Kuala Lumpur 23 Institut Perguruan Teknik Kuala Lumpur 24 Institut Perguruan Tuanku Bainun Pulau Pinang 25 Institut Perguruan Tun Hussein Onn Johor 26 Institut Perguruan Tun Abdul Razak Sarawak 27 Institut Perguruan Perlis Perlis Source : Teacher Education Division, Ministry of Education Malaysia Table 5.1 : Institutes of Teacher Education Malaysia (ITEM)Pre-service Teacher EducationPre-service courses are open to GCE ‘O’ level equivalent MCE school leavers and also to university graduates. The basicacademic requirements and duration of study are dependent on the courses offered. The pre-service courses which areoffered by the TED and conducted by the ITEM are: the Post-Graduate Teacher Training Course; the Degree Programmefor MCE-level school leavers and the Malaysian Teaching Diploma Course. 88 | education in malaysia
    • A. The Post-Graduate Teacher Training ProgrammeThe courses under this programme which have been implemented since 2006 are: i. The full-time post-graduate Teacher Training Course ii. The full- time j-QAF post-graduate teacher training course for primary school teachers for the teaching of Jawi, Al-Quran, Fardu ‘Ain and the Arabic language. iii. The post-graduate teacher training course for government-aided religious schools iv. The post-graduate teacher training course for Acheh teachers. (This is a Government-to-Government initiative by the Ministry of Education, Malaysia to help develop a pool of teachers to replace those who perished in the tsunami which devastated parts of Indonesia in 2006). v. The degree-level Special Education Teacher Training CourseB. Teacher Training Programmes for SPM/MCE School LeaversThere are four courses available for GCE ‘O’ equivalent SPM-level school-leavers. These are: i. Bachelor of Education Programme (B.Ed.) The first intake of 1500 students for the Bachelor of Education programme was in July 2004.The training period is five-and-a-half years, inclusive of a one-and-a-half year Foundation Course. As of July 2007, a total of 6117 students have completed the Foundation Course and 3532 students have begun the four-year First Degree programme in the 27 ITEM. ii. Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.TESL) Programme The B.Ed TESL programme is a collaboration between the Ministry of Education (MOE) and local as well as foreign institutes of higher education, The candidates for this course are those with excellent results in the Malaysian Certificate of Examination. This is a long-term collaborative venture and the first intake for this six- year programme was in 2002. The last intake was in 2006. Trainees on this six-year programme undergo a two- year Foundation Course and upon successful completion, begin a four-year degree programme. Seven local institutions of higher education and three foreign institutions are involved in this programme.The foreign partners in this link programme are the University College of St. Mark and St. John (United Kingdom); Queensland University of Technology, Macquarie University (Australia);Victoria University of Wellington and the University of Auckland (New Zealand). iii. The Teacher Training Programme for Excellent Students (Overseas) Programme The candidates for this programme are selected from amongst students who excelled in the (‘O’ Level equivalent) SPM examinations. They pursue a first degree in one of the following disciplines: physics, chemistry, biology, English, and Special Education (in Clinical Psychology, Occupational Therapy, Speech pathology and Audiology).They are sent to established universities in the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Upon completion of their degree, these graduates will return home to pursue a one-year Post-Graduate Teacher Training Course in local institutions before being appointed as teachers. iv. Teaching of Foreign Language Overseas Link - Programme There are two programmes involved, as follows : a) Bachelor of Arts in the Science of Language and Information (French as a Foreign Language) Programme This is a link-programme established by the MOE with the University of French-Comte, France. A total of 15 students are selected annually for a two-year preparatory course at the International Languages Institute Teacher Education Institute (ILITE), following which they enrol on a four-year programme. They spend three years at the French-Comte University and the final year at the International Languages Teacher Education Institute (ILITE) to obtain this degree. 89 | education in malaysia
    • b) Bachelor of Education in German Language and Linguistics Programme This six-year programme includes a two-year foundation programme and a four-year degree course. Students on this programme spend one year of the foundation course studying German at the ILITE and another year at the Goethe Institute in Germany. They then spend a further three years at the University of Malaya and a final year at ILITE before being awarded their degrees.v. Malaysian Diploma in Teaching Programme The two courses under this programme aim to equip future teachers with pedagogical skills and content knowledge. These courses are: a) The In-service Course for Government-Aided Religious School Teachers b) The Pre-school Teacher Training course for “TABIKA KEMAS” teachers (sponsored by the Ministry of Rural- Urban Development) and for “TABIKA PERPADUAN” teachers sponsored by the Department of National Integration and Unity. The table below summarizes the information presented above. Pre-service Courses in Institutes of Teacher Education Malaysia No Level Programme Duration Target 1 B.Ed.(TESL) twinning programmes School with local and foreign higher education institutions of leavers with Degree higher education SPM leavers Bachelor of Education (International Languages) Programme 5.5 years qualifications Teaching of a Foreign Language Overseas Link - Programme 2 Full Time Post Graduate Teacher Training Course for Primary and Secondary Teachers 1 years First Degree Post Graduate Post Graduate Teacher Trainig Course for Primary School Holders Teachers (school-based training mode) 1.5 years (minimum) Post Graduate j-QAF Teaches Training Course School 3 Diploma Full Time Malaysian Teaching Diploma Course Leavers Malaysian Diploma in Teaching Course 3 years Having SPM (using the School-based Training Mode) qualifications Table 5.2: Pre-service Courses in Institutes of Teacher Education Malaysia 90 | education in malaysia
    • In-service Teacher EducationIn-service training is very important for the personal and professional development of teachers. It provides them theopportunity to be informed about the latest developments in education in general and in particular, their areas ofspecialization. It enables teachers to be updated and upskilled so that they are better able to discharge their professionalduties in line with current developments. It keeps teachers informed of government goals, concerns and initiatives foreducation. It also creates awareness of the ensuing demands on them as well as the impact these will have at thechalkface.In-service Training Centresi) English Language Teaching Centre (ELTC)With the ever growing demand and need to produce a high quality teaching force, the TED has set up with the approvalof the Cabinet, a specialist centre in 2002 to upgrade serving English language teachers in terms of pedagogical contentknowledge and skills. ELTC offers a range of short and long-term customised in-service courses for teachers and officersas well as consultancy services for the MOE and countries in the region. ELTC also sets standards for the teaching ofEnglish in the classroom and in ITEM. It is set to be the point of reference for English language teaching in the country.ii) In-service Teacher Training CentresSix (6) in-service centres have been proposed in six different geographical zones to provide needs-based training toteachers within the zone. Courses provided are of very short duration.In-service Training programmesVarious in-service programmes employing a variety of suitable and effective training modes to raise the professionalcompetence of teachers and improve students’ academic performance have been implemented. These include thefollowing:a) Teachers’ Professional Improvement Programme (short courses)b) Teachers’ Professional Improvement Programme (long courses)c) Teachers’ Academic Improvement Programmed) Rural School Teachers’ Out-Reach Programme 91 | education in malaysia
    • In-service Courses No. Level Programme Duration Target 1 Academic A degree programme for non-gradute/Teacher 3 years Improvement Training College-trained teachers A degree programme in the teaching of on 1-3 years In-service International Language (French, Japanese and German) Teachers 2. Professional Enhancing learning through effective co-curricular Long Term and Improvement planning and implementation Short Term Table 5.3: In-service Programmesi. Short-term professional development programmes for teachers include:l In-service Courses for Smart School Teachers - These courses were implemented in 2006 by all ITEM throughout the nation. Subjects include Malay Language, Islamic Education, Living Skills, History and Local Studiesl English for the Teaching Mathematics and Science Courses first conceptualised and introduced by the English Language Teaching Centre, Malaysia (ELTC). The Teacher Education Division is responsible for improving the proficiency of Maths and Science teachers who have to deliver the curriculum in English.l The Smart School Course - The course for Smart Schools was introduced in 1998 and offered to teachers who have basic computer skills The main aim of this course is to enhance teaching and learning using ICT tools and skills.ii. Long-term professional development programmes for teachers include the various one-year Specialist Teaching Certificate courses and the 14-week professional development courses.iii. Academic qualification enhancement programmes for teachers include:l A Degree Programme for Non-Graduate Teachers: Candidates for Science, Information Technology, Interactive Multimedia, Engineering and TESL Degree programmes attend 14-week foundation courses at various ITEM. Upon successful completion, they follow a three-year degree programme with a 1 + 3 structure. The first year of the degree is done in the ITEM and the remaining two years, in the twinning university.l A Distance Learning Degree Programme by Open University Malaysia (OUM): This programme was introduced to overcome the shortage of graduate secondary school teachers especially in critical subjects.iv. Out-reach programmes for rural school teachers include:l Professional Enhancement Projects for Rural School Teachers using the “Persiangan Salinatan” Model: The purpose of this project is to encourage and motivate teachers to develop a context-adaptive indigenous pedagogy. Emphasis is given to the development of numeracy, literacy, science, English and the use of ICT.l The Orang Asli and Penan (Indigenous Peoples) School Adoption Programme: The aim is to help the Orang Asli (indigenous) and Penan pupils acquire basic literacy and numeracy. A variety of approaches, strategies, and modules are used to enable them to acquire these basic skills. 92 | education in malaysia
    • Teachers Professional Guidance in ICT ProjectThe main aim of this project is to enable teachers to use ICT in their teaching and learning in the classroom.The teachingand learning materials produced by teachers will be uploaded onto the MOE’s website to be shared and used by otherteachers. Management of Co-curricular ActivitiesThe TED through the 27 ITEM provides teachers the theoreticalunderpinnings on which co-curricular activities are based. It alsoprovides them opportunities to acquire the knowledge and skills toplan and manage co-curricular activities in schools. In fact, the co-curriculum is a core component of the pre-service teacher trainingcurriculum and underscores the aim of the MOE to:i. Provide opportunities for future teachers to enhance their physical and emotional well-being and also hone their leadership qualities through active participation in co-curricular activities; andii. Gain knowledge and skills for managing co-curricular activities in schools. Aminuddin Baki Institute (IAB)IntroductionThe Aminuddin Baki Institute (IAB) is an MS ISO 9001:2000 certified MOE staff training agency which provides training ineducational leadership and management. It conducts courses for officers from State Education Departments, DistrictEducation Offices, Principals, Head Teachers, Senior Assistants as well as support staff. IAB also conducts on-demandeducation-related courses for international clientele. It also conducts and provides consultancy services for staffdevelopment programmes locally and abroad.Training ProgrammesMore specifically, among the course conducted by IAB are the following: l National Professional Qualification for Headship (NPQH) This course consists of three main components namely lecture, practicum and attachment. During the practicum, candidates are placed in schools for two weeks. During the attachment, candidates select eight leadership and management domains and prepare three portfolios. The domains are curriculum management, co-curriculum management, student welfare management, financial management, office management and administration, physical environment management, human resource development and management, and rural development management.The year-long course has two phases comprising theoretical input for six months at IAB and a six-month-long practicum in a school. Qualified candidates are enrolled at Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris for their first degree.They may then pursue a post-graduate degree in Principalship at the University of Malaya. l School Leadership and Management Course This four-week course was first introduced in 1985 for newly appointed headmasters and principals. 93 | education in malaysia
    • l Special Degree Programme for Headmasters List of Courses Offered in IAB This degree programme is designed to improve the academic and professional standards of headmasters and MOE officers. It is in line with the policy to have 50% graduate teachers in primary schools by l Staff Development 2010. This programme, started in 2005, involves eight public higher l Finance Management education institutions namely, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris; the l Organisational Counselling National University of Malaysia; the International Islamic University of l Quality Management and MS ISO 900 Malaysia; University of Malaysia, Sabah; University of Technology, l Management in TESL Malaysia; University of Northern Malaysia; MARA University of l Management in Community Technology and the Tun Hussein Onn University. In 2006, a total of 473 Education headmasters were selected to follow this programme. They are l Management in Evaluation of expected to get their first degree in leadership and management by Educational Programme 2009. It is compulsory for these headmasters to attend intensive l Strategic Management lectures for three years. There are four lecture modules a year and each l Management in Peer Group lecture module lasts four weeks. Besides attending lectures, they have Counselling to fulfil their usual responsibilities at school. l Management in Human Resource l Short-Term Courses l Management in Parenting These courses are designed based on the operational needs of the Education school leaders and managers. The main aim is to groom a second l Workshop in Writing of Cases in echelon of educational leaders. Short-term courses vary from one to Educational Management two weeks in duration. These courses focus on writing, research, evaluation, fitness, language as well as curriculum and institution Figure 5.1: List of Courses Offered in IAB management.Other institutions which implement teacher education programme are: Courses Offered in Master of i. University Pendidikan Sultan Idris Education Programme ii. University of Malaya l Studies in Malay Language• Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) l l Studies in Malay Literature Studies in TESL l Curriculum management and Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) has a Development long history of involvement in teacher l Testing and Evaluation in education. It was founded by R.O.Windstedt Education in 1917 as the Sultan Idris Teaching College. l Pedagogy Then, in 1959 the name was changed to l Educational Psychology Sultan Idris Teacher Training College and it l Educational technology only trained Malay teachers for primary l Guidance and Counselling schools. In 1997, it was upgraded and is now l Information technology a full-fledged university. l Mathematics l Educational Science: Physics, Chemistry and Biology l Science l Business Management and Accountancy l Arts l Music l Sports Science Figure 5.2: List of Courses Offered in Master of Education Programme in Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) 94 | education in malaysia
    • • University of Malaya In 1999, the National Principalship Centre of the University of Malaya started its Masters programme on Principalship. This centre which is now known as the National Principalship Institute conducts this masters course as a full-time, 12- month and 42- credit programme. Courses Offered in Principalship Programme at the Master Level l School Management l Legal Aspects in Eucation Management l School Leadership l ICT for School Management l Research and Statistics l Instruction and Supervision l Human Resource Management in Education l Project Management l Management of Individuals’ Development l Issues in Education and School l School Finance and Account Management Management Figure 5.3: List of Courses Offered in Principalship Programme at the Masters LevelTeachers WelfareTeachers are provided with staff quarters in remote, rural and urban areas. New housing complexes are continually beingbuilt and existing ones renovated. Where possible, new staff housing is sited near schools. Teachers can also make useof loan facilities to buy personal computers.• Teachers’ QuartersGovernment housing for teachers has been built using anumber of housing development packages. Theseinclude :l Privatisation of teachers’ quarters projectl Turnkey pilot project (phase 2)l Turnkey project (phase 2A)l Direct purchase of teachers’ quarters projectl Limited tender teachers’ quarters building project (Miri)l Public Works Department teachers’ quarters building project 95 | education in malaysia
    • • Special Allowance for Teachers in Rural/Remote AreasThe MOE decided that a total of 872 teachers in remote areas throughout thenation are entitled to receive a special rural allowance which varies fromRM500, RM1000 and RM1500 depending on the location.• Excellent Teachers l The Appointment of Super Principals (JUSA C & DG 54) In its efforts to enhance the teaching profession, the MOE has created Premier Grade C and DG 54 posts for school principals. l Quota-based Posts for Excellent Teachers The MOE has also created the post of Excellent Teacher at the DG32, DG44 and DG 48 grades. The rationale for the excellent teacher post is to raise teacher performance and enhance credibility. Excellent teachers are role models who inspire other teachers to improve their performance and teaching quality.• Award for Innovative TeachersThe Innovative Teacher Award was first introduced for the purpose of encouraging as well as acknowledging teachers’efforts in producing innovations that help to improve the teaching and learning processes in classrooms. This award isdivided into three categories namely, primary school (individual), secondary school (individual) and group. In addition, aspecial award is also be given to the winner from among these three categories. The winner of this Innovative TeacherAward is announced during the national level Teacher’s Day Celebrations.• Expert TeachersExpert teachers are those who are recognized as specialists in specific subjects and are active in co-curricular activities.The selection is based on the evaluation and recommendation of the School Inspectorate. These expert teachers areplaced on a higher salary scale and are expected to assist teachers in their own specialist area. 96 | education in malaysia
    • Teachers Day16 May has been gazetted as Teacher’s Day to commemorate thedate in 1956 when the Federal Legislative Council accepted theReport of the Education Committee and recognized it as layingthe foundation of the National Education Policy.The objective of Teachers’ Day are as follows: i. To highlight teachers’ roles in nation-building and national development. ii. To create awareness of the important role of teachers in Malaysian society among parents, students and the wider public. iii. To encourage unity and harmony among teachers. iv. To enhance the teaching profession. v. To improve teachers’ efficacy through conferences, seminars and other events conducted on Teacher’s Day. 97 | education in malaysia
    • The challenges of future education organizations require objectives,perspectives, vision and commitment. The effectiveness is best measured and controlled by local initiatives and accountability. Dato’ Seri Dr. Abdul Shukor bin Abdullah Director-General of Education Malaysia (1998-2001)
    • Y. B. Dato’ Seri Hishammuddin Tun Hussein Minister of Education Malaysia Y. B. Dr. Ir. Wee Ka Siong Y. B. Dato’ Razali Ismail Deputy Minister of Education I Deputy Minister of Education II Y. Bhg. Tan Sri Dr. Zulkurnain Haji Awang Y. Bhg. Dato’ Hj. Alimuddin Hj. Mohd Dom Secretary - General Of Education Director- General of Education Y.Bhg. Datuk Haji Kamaruzaman Y. Bhg. Datuk Fatimah Md. Deni Hj. Mohd Noor Deputy Secretary - General Deputy Secretary - General (General Development) (General Management) Y. Bhg. Dato’ Hjh. Noor Rezan Y. Bhg. Dr. Haili Dolhan Y. Bhg. Datin Asariah Bapoo Hashim Deputy Director - General Mior Shaharuddin Deputy Director - General (General Policy & Educational Deputy Director - General(General Education Operations) Development) (General Professional Development) 100 | education in malaysia
    • 2OO8 MINISTER OF EDUCATION Y.B. Dato Seri Hishammuddin Tun Hussein DEPUTY MINISTER I DEPUTY MINISTER I Y.B. Dr. Ir. Wee Ka Siong SECRETARY-GENERAL Y.B. Dato Razali Ismail PTD TURUS III Tan Sri Dr. Zulkurnain Haji Awang DIRECTOR-GENERAL PPPS TURUS III Dato Haji Alimuddin Haji Mohd Dom DEPUTY SECRETARY- DEPUTY SECRETARY- GENERAL GENERAL HUMAN RESOURCE (General Development) (General Management)101 MANAGEMENT UNIT PTD Utama A PTD Utama A PTD M54 DIRECTOR GENERAL Dewan Bahasa Undersecretary Undersecretary Human Resource Director DEPUTY DIRECTOR - DEPUTY DIRECTOR - DEPUTY DIRECTOR - dan Pustaka Development GENERAL Utama B Terbuka Management Matriculation GENERAL GENERAL PTD Utama B PTD Utama C Utama C (Terbuka) (General Policy & (General Education Operations) (General Professional Educational Development) Development) PPPS Utama A PPPS Utama A CHIEF EXECUTIVE PPPS Utama A Malaysian Undersecretary Undersecretary Undersecretary Examination Council Finance Competency Policy & International Director Public PPPS Utama C Director Educational PTD Utama C Development & Relations School Director Teacher Evaluation Planning & Research PTD Utama C PPPS Utama B Management Education| education in malaysia PTD Utama C PPPS Utama A PPPS Utama B MANAGING DIRECTOR Undersecretary Undersecretary Institute of Translation Procurement & Undersecretary Internal Audit Malaysia Asset Management Psycology & Director Curriculum Director Utama C (Terbuka) JA W54 Development Islamic Education Rector Teacher PTD Utama C Counselling PPPS Utama B PPPS Utama B Education Institutes Utama C (Terbuka) MSIA (IPG) HQ Chief Accountant Undersecretary Accounts Undersecretary Director Technical & School Audit Director Director AKT Khas C Education Vocational Education JA W54 Educational Aminuddin Baki Sponsorship PPPS Utama B Technology Institute PTD M54 PPS Utama C PPPS Utama B Undersecretary Legal Advisor Director Special Information & Director Malaysian PU L52 Education Chief Inspectorate Communications Examination PPPS Utama C Inspectorate & Technology Syndicate Quality Assurance PTM Khas C PPPS Utama B PPPS Utama B Director Residential Undersecretary & Cluster School Director Management Service Management Text Book PPPS Utama C PTD M54 PPPS Utama C Director Sports, Arts & Co-curriculum Undersecretary Director National PPPS Utama C Corporate Affairs Book Council PTD M54 Malaysia PPPS DG52 Director Private Education PPPS DG52
    • CHAPTER 6 Educational AdministrationIntroductionThe structure and organisation of educational administration in Malaysia is centralised and its administrative structurehas four distinct hierarchical levels namely, federal, state, district and school.The institutions representing these levels arethe Ministry of Education (MOE), the State Education Departments (SED), the District Education Offices (DEO) and theschools. On the 1 March 2008, the structure was realigned according to its various functions.The Federal LevelAt the federal level, the Ministry of Education is responsible for the effectiveimplementation of the education policy and the administration of the entireeducation system. The head of the ministry is the Minister who is a memberof the Cabinet and assisted by two Deputy Ministers. The Secretary-General of Education, who is responsible for all administrative affairs, isassisted by a Deputy for Development Sector and a Deputy forManagement Sector.The Director-General of Education is responsible forall professional matters and is assisted by a Deputy for Policy andEducational Development Sector, a Deputy for Education OperationsSector and a Deputy for Professional Development Sector.Based on the new restructuring, there are 36 divisions at the federallevel functioning under five sectors. Sixteen main divisions are directlyunder the responsibility of the Director-General, while the other 15divisions and three agencies are under the responsibility of theSecretary-General.Policy and Educational Development SectorThere are six divisions operating under this sector. The Minister of Education, Malaysiadivisions are : MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, MALAYSIA 1. The Educational Planning and Research Division 2. The Curriculum Development Division 3. The Educational Technology Division STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT 4. The Malaysian Examination Syndicate 5. The Textbook Division 6. The Malaysian National Book Council DISTRICT EDUCATION OFFICES SCHOOLS Figure 6.1 : Flowchart of MOE’s Management and Administration 103 | education in malaysia
    • List of State Education DepartmentsNO JABATAN PELAJARAN NEGERI Line1. Jabatan Pelajaran Perlis (JPNPEL) Tel : 04-9761177 Jalan Tun Abdul Razak, 01990 Kangar, Faks : 04-9767080 Perlis Indera Kayangan. http : // Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Kedah (JPNKED) Tel : 04-7331311 Kompleks Pendidikan, Jalan Stadium, Faks : 04-7317242 05604 Alor Star, Kedah Darul Aman. http : // Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Pulau Pinang (JPNPP) Tel : 04-6575500 Jalan Bukit Gambir, 11700 Pulau Pinang Faks : 04-6582500 Pulau Pinang http : // Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Perak (JPNPER) Tel : 05-5015000 Jalan Tun Abdul Razak, 30640 Ipoh Faks : 05-5277273 Perak Darul Ridzuan http : // Jabatan Pelajaran Selangor (JPNSEL) Tel : 03-55186500 Jalan Jambu Bol 4/3e, Seksyen 4, 40604 Shah Alam, Faks : 03-55102133 Selangor Darul Ehsan http : // Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Sembilan (JPNS) Tel : 06-7653100 Jalan Dato Hamzah, 70990 Seremban Faks : 06-7639969 Negeri Sembilan Darul Khusus http : // Jabatan Pelajaran Melaka (JPNMEL) Tel : 06-232 3776/777/778/779 Jalan Istana, 75450 Bukit Beruang, Faks : 06-232 0500 Melaka http :// Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Johor (JPNJOH) Tel : 07-2332256 Wisma Pendidikan,Jalan Tun Abdul Razak Faks : 07-2385789 80604 Johor Bahru, Johor Darul Takzim http :// Jabatan Pelajaran Pahang (JPNPAH) Tel : 09-5715700 Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25604 Kuantan Faks : 09-5734857 Pahang Darul Makmur http :// Jabatan Pelajaran Terengganu (JPNTER) Tel : 09-6244500 Jalan Bukit Kecil , 20604 Kuala Terengganu Faks :09-6227207 Terengganu Darul Iman http :// Jabatan Pelajaran Kelantan (JPNKEL) Tel : 09-7418001 Jalan Doktor, 15000 Kota Bharu Faks :09-7482554 Kelantan Darul Naim http :// Jabatan Pelajaran Negeri Sabah (JPNSAB) Tel : 088252224 Tingkat 4,5 dan 7, Rumah Persekutuan Faks :088234828 88300, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah http :// Jabatan Pelajaran Sarawak (JPNSAR) Tel : 082-243201 / 253546 /256195 Bangunan. Tun Datuk Patinggi Tuanku Haji Bujang Faks : 082-246750 Jalan Simpang Tiga, 93604 Kuching, Sarawak http :// Jabatan Pelajaran Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan (JPNLAB) Tel : 087-583351 / 583351 / 583357 Aras 10, Blok 4, Kompleks Ujana Kewangan, Faks : 087-583352 Peti Surat 81097, 87020 Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan. http :// Jabatan Pelajaran Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur (JPNKL) Tel : 03-62037777 Persiaran Duta, Off Jalan Duta, Faks : 03-62037788 50604 Kuala Lumpur. http :// Jabatan Pelajaran Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya (JPNPUT) Tel : 03-88849428 Aras 3, Blok E2, Presint 1, Parcel E Faks : 03-88849429 62604 Putrajaya http :// Table 6.1 : List of State Education Departments 104 | education in malaysia
    • • The Educational Planning and Research DivisionThe Educational Planning and Research Division (EPRD) was established in 1963. Its main function was to plan, conductresearch, evaluate and collect educational data. In 1970, the EPRD was appointed as the Secretariat to the EducationalPlanning Committee. With this appointment, the EPRD became the main planning and coordinating committee of theMOE. Its role as the leading agency in educational policy planning, research, evaluation, data management anddocumentation was further emphasised in the Cabinet Committee Report 1979.The main functions of the EPRD are in the areas of educational macro planning, policy research, policy analysis andevaluation. The division also monitors the implementation of educational policies and programmes. The developmentand management of the Educational Management Information System (EMIS) is another important function of thedivision. The Documentation Centre which serves as the primary educational resource centre and depository fordocuments and publications of the ministry is managed by this division. The division also functions as the ParliamentarySecretariat to the MOE. There are seven sectors and one unit in EPRD which are: 1. Macro Planning Sector 2. Policy Planning Sector 3. Policy Research and Evaluation Sector 4. Educational Data Sector 5. Projection Sector 6. Documentation Sector 7. Quality Sector 8. Administration UnitFunctions of the division:1. To plan, formulate, monitor and analyse the development and implementation of educational programmes and infrastructure.2. To plan and coordinate educational programmes, prepare reports and secure financial assistance from external aid and regional cooperation.3. To plan, formulate and monitor the implementation of education policies.4. To provide and coordinate information on education in assisting parliamentary affairs for the MOE.5. To conduct educational research and evaluation as well as comparative research at the international level.6. To manage, provide and coordinate the collection of data and education information using education information application systems such as Education Management Information System (EMIS), Executive Information System (EIS), Geographical Information System (GIS) and Religious Schools Data Base (MASSA).7. To manage and coordinate the development in the collection of educational information and resources and acts as a centre of information and data in the MOE.8. To provide, analyse and coordinate the projections for enrolment and class, placement of teachers in primary and secondary schools as well as matriculation colleges based on type of school, level and state.9. To provide consultation and expertise in relation to education laws, rules and policies, planning of education development, research, evaluation and management of education data and information. 105 | education in malaysia
    • • The Curriculum Development DivisionThe Curriculum Development Division was first established as a unit in 1973 under the Educational Planning andResearch Division. In 1974, its responsibility was widened and the unit became known as the Curriculum DevelopmentCentre responsible for the formulation and development of pre-school, primary and secondary school curricula based onthe National Education Philosophy. In 2008, the centre was restructed as the Curriculum Development Division.Functions of the division: 1. To design and develop school curriculum. 2. To train and monitor teachers in the implementation of school curriculum. 3. To design and disseminate curriculum support materials. 4. To conduct research for the development and evaluation of curriculum.• The Educational Technology DivisionThe Educational Technology Division (ETD) was first established in 1949 as an Audio-Visual Section. In 1956, this sectionwas placed under the Teacher Training Division and in 1963, it was managed by the School Division. Educational Radiofirst began in 1946 as educational radio broadcast under the Ministry of Information. In 1972, the Audio-Visual Sectionand the Educational Radio became the Educational Media Services Division. In the same year, educational television wasalso introduced.In 1989, this division was renamed the Educational Technology Division which comprises six sections, namely, the Trainingand Audio-Visual Materials Section, Educational Radio, Educational Television, Evaluation and Research, Engineering andthe Educational Resource Centre Section. ETD’s roles have expanded in line with the needs and development ofeducation. Now, ETD roles are no longer restricted to educational media services, but also in assisting the managementof School Resource Centres. ETD and its network that comprises of the State Educational Technology Division and TeacherActivity Centres are responsible in converting all schools in the country into smart schools.Functions of the division: 1. To monitor, evaluate and analyse educational policies related to the use of educational technology in enhancing the teaching and learning process. 2. To provide support and assistance to encourage the use of educational technology. 3. To design, produce and disseminate teaching and learning materials (printed media, radio, television, CD-ROM, and multimedia). 4. To plan, monitor, coordinate and evaluate the implementation of: l school resource centres; l the reading programmes; and l the Smart School and Making Schools Smart programmes. 106 | education in malaysia
    • • The Malaysian Examination SyndicateThe Malaysian Examination Syndicate was established as the Examinations Unit in the ministry on 3 May 1956. Its role wasto implement a common system of examinations for all schools in line with the recommendations of the Razak Report.In 1957, the unit was known as the Malaysian Examination Syndicate. Initially, the Examinations Syndicate conductedentrance examinations for admission to secondary schools (MSSEE), the Lower Certificate of Education Examination (LCE)and examinations on behalf of the Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. In 1978, the syndicate took over theresponsibilities in conducting the Malaysia Certificate of Education Examinations (MCE) from the Cambridge LocalExaminations Syndicate. Today, it is responsible for organising and conducting all public examinations for schools fromprimary to upper secondary levels. The syndicate also administers external examinations on behalf of foreign examiningbodies.Functions of the division: 1 To formulate policies and regulations on educational tests and measurement based on the National Philosophy of Education and the curriculum objectives. 2 To formulate specification for various forms of educational tests and measurement, methods of administration, forms of reporting and quality control of all tests. 3 To develop testing and measurement instruments as well as methods of marking and evaluating students’ performance based on the curriculum. 4 To coordinate, produce, print and distribute tests. 5 To conduct and monitor both public and external examinations. 6 To process data and registration of candidates, issue examination results and certificates and analyze examination statistics. 7 To upgrade the quality of educational tests and measurement as well as monitor educational standards through research. 8 To provide service, advice and consultancy in the field of educational testing and measurement. 9 To grant approval to educational institutions to have/hold examinations, to conduct observations on the examinations and to enforce examinations regulations, guides and directives. 107 | education in malaysia
    • • The Textbook DivisionThe division first began as the Textbook Bureau on 15 May 1967 under the Educational Planning and Research Division(EPRD). In 1969, this bureau became part of the School Division. It came under the jurisdiction of the EPRD again foranother two years. On 7 February 1972, it became a separate Division responsible for monitoring and coordinating theuse, purchase and sale of textbooks besides ensuring the quality of textbooks used in schools. In 1975, the managementand implementation of the Textbook Loan Scheme came under its jurisdiction. On 15 July 1988, the Bureau was officiallyrenamed as the Textbook Division.Functions of the division: 1. To manage policy matters relating to publishing. 2. To manage textbook procurement. 3. To manage the Textbook Loan Scheme and the open market needs. 4. To manage activities on textbook awareness. 5. To manage research and development programmes on textbook.• The Malaysian National Book CouncilThe Malaysian National Book Council, formerly known as the Majlis Kemajuan Buku Kebangsaan Malaysia, was establishedin 1968. Since 1981, the council conduct activities to promote reading habits and to monitor the development of thebook industry in the country in concurrent with the National Book Policy. As a professional body, the council acts as anational advisor for the book industry.Functions of the council: 1. To coordinate all activities regarding the development and progress of the book industry. 2. To initiate discussions between the Malaysian government and international publishers concerning the distribution of books and copyrights. 3. To organise Kuala Lumpur International Book Fair and the National Book Award.Education Operations SectorThere are seven divisions operating under this sector. The divisions are : 1. The Regular School Management Division 2. The Islamic Education Division 3. The Technical and Vocational Education Division 4. The Special Education Division 5. The Residential and Cluster School Management Division 6. The Sports, Arts and Co-curriculum Division 7. The Private Education Division 108 | education in malaysia
    • • The Regular School Management DivisionThe School Management Division is responsible for implementing educational policies through the planning,formulation, coordination and monitoring of various school programmes and the management of teachers and students.This division is headed by a Director and two Deputy Directors.Primarily, the division sets guidelines on the management of schools which are implemented with the cooperation ofsixteen State Education Departments and 130 District Education Offices. It handles the requirement, placement andtransfer of teachers as well as the administration of schools, students’ discipline, welfare, health, nutrition, and counsellingin schools.Functions of the division: 1. To plan, coordinate and monitor programmes related to school affairs. 2. To implement policies and manage programmes related to teacher affairs such as teacher requirement, placement, transfer and enhancement of teachers’ professionalism. 3. To implement policies, plan, coordinate and manage programmes related to students affairs such as enrolment and placement of students, development of students’ personality through co-curricular activities, student welfare, student exchange programme and student integration.• The Islamic Education DivisionThis division started as the Religious Education Unit in 1961 under the School Division. The division was responsible inproviding support to People Religious Schools (Sekolah Agama Rakyat) and the teachers. In 1973, the Unit was upgradedto become a Religious Education Division headed by a Director. In 1983, the name of Religious Education Division waschanged to Islamic Education Division. In 1995, the role and task of the Division was increased with the addition of theMoral subject under its supervision. With that, Islamic Education Division was upgraded to the Islamic and MoralEducation Department (JAPIM). In March 2008, after the re-structuring process of the MOE, JAPIM was changed to IslamicEducation Division and it was placed under the purview of the Education Operations Sector.Functions of the division: 1. To formulate the policy for Islamic Education and Arabic Language. 2. To coordinate the placement and transfer of Islamic Education teachers. 3. To coordinate programmes to improve the teaching and learning and the promotion of Islamic Education teachers. 4. To monitor the achievement of National Religious Secondary Schools (SMKA) and supervise the State Religious Schools (SAN) and People’s Religious Schools (SAR). 5. To develop the curriculum for Islamic Education (core and elective) and Arabic Language. 6. To monitor religious activities (dakwah) in schools. 109 | education in malaysia
    • • The Technical and Vocational Education DivisionThe role of the division is to ensure the continuity and success of technical and vocational education in the countrythrough the implementation of a comprehensive curriculum of the technical schools. Its duties include research,planning, implementation, coordination, supervision and monitoring of the development of the national technical andvocational education. It aspires to raise the quality and quantity of science and technology students in line with theNational Education Philosophy which aims to produce skilful and competent human resources to meet industrial andcommercial demands.The sectors under this division are the Technical and Vocational Management Sector; the Academic Management Sector;the Technical and Vocational Research and Development Sector; and the Technical and Vocational Education StaffDevelopment Sector.Functions of the division: 1. To formulate the policies and goals of technical and vocational development. 2. To ensure the implementation and coordination of technical and vocational education institutions. 3. To plan, devise and evaluate the effectiveness of technical and vocational curriculum. 4. To provide services in planning, evaluating, implementing, supervising and monitoring of the technical and vocational education development.• The Special Education DivisionThe Special Education Division which was established in 1995, is responsible in providing education for children withspecial needs. Its main objectives are to provide relevant education opportunities and facilities for students with specialeducational needs; to provide opportunities for students to develop their talent and potential; to prepare sufficient andup-to-date teaching and learning materials and to ensure sufficient teachers are trained in special education. It aims atproviding education services to expand the existing potential of students with special needs to the maximum in ensuringa meaningful quality of life for the future.The division manages schools for children with special needs. These schools are widely known as special schools. Thedivision also coordinates inclusive education programmes in the main stream schools. It also conducts research anddevelops curriculum for special education. The education emphasises physical, emotional, spiritual and intellectualdevelopment. It aims at providing these children with the foundation for higher education and enabling them to beindependent and build a career.Functions of the division: 1. To plan and manage all primary and secondary schools for children with special needs. 2. To plan and coordinate integration and inclusive programmes for schools with children with special needs. 3. To plan, coordinate and evaluate policies and regulations from the aspect of balanced education opportunity, help service and support for students with special educational needs and vocational special education policy. 4. To develop curriculum, activities and matters related to special education affairs. 5. To plan, research and evaluate special education. 6. To develop training and staff development programmes. 7. To coordinate Special Remedial Education Programme. 110 | education in malaysia
    • • The Sports, Art and Co-curriculum DivisionThe division was formerly known as the Physical Education and Sports Department which was established in 2003 tomanage sports programmes such as Sports for All and Sports for Excellence as well as to develop the potential of thestudents in sports. In 2008, the role of the Sports, Art and Co-curriculum Division’s has expanded and is currentlyresponsible for the policy, planning and implementation of sports, co-curriculum and arts development programmes andactivities in all government schools. The division is also responsible for the development and operation of the SportsSchools and Arts School in every state. In addition, it is responsible for identifying and selecting students who have thepotentials to be placed in the sports school and arts school in order to further develop their capability and potential inthe area of sports, arts and academic.At present, there are two sports schools in Malaysia, which are the Bukit Jalil Sports School in Kuala Lumpur and theBandar Penawar Sports School in Johor; and two Arts Schools namely, Johor Arts School and Sarawak Arts School. Theprimary function of the Sports Schools and the Arts Schools is to nurture and develop potential young athletes, artistsand performers and inculcate a lifelong interest in sports, arts and various co-curriculum activities.Functions of the division: 1. To enhance students’ participation and excellence in sports, arts and co-curricular activities. 2. To enhance knowledge and training in sports and games amongst teachers and sports officials. 3. To enhance students’ participation towards sports excellence at the international level. 4. To enhance students’ ability and potential in sports and academic.• The Private Education DivisionThis division was formerly known as the Private Education Department until it was restructured in 2007 and became adivision.Functions of the division: 1. To manage the establishment and registration of all the private education institutions from pre-school to secondary education level, including expatriates and international schools. 2. To monitor and supervise the private education institutions to ensure that they adhere to the policy and provision of law. 3. To supervise the registration of teachers in private educational institutions. 4. To develop the legislations concerning data and information management of all the institutions. 5. To conduct research to formulate policies concerning private education. 6. To promote private education overseas. 111 | education in malaysia
    • Professional Development SectorThere are three divisions operating under this sector. The divisions are : 1. The Teacher Education Division 2. The Aminuddin Baki Institute 3. The School Inspectorate and Quality Assurance• The Teacher Education DivisionThe Teacher Education Division is responsible for organising pre-service and in-service teacher education programmesto produce professional, competent and dedicated teachers in line with the National Education Philosophy and TeacherEducation Philosophy. The division is headed by a Director and two Deputy Directors who led the Pre-service TrainingSector and the In-service Training Sector. There are nine units under this division, which are the Institutes of TeacherEducation Management Unit, the Policy Unit, the Planning Unit, the In-service Training Unit, the Students’ Affair Unit, theTeacher Selection and Placement Unit, the Curriculum Unit, the Assessment and Examination Unit, the Information andCommunication Technology Unit, and the Research and Development Unit. At present, the division oversees 27 Institutesof Teacher Education and the English Language Teaching Centre (ELTC).Functions of the division: 1. To plan and design the teacher education curriculum. 2. To prepare the projection of teacher requirement and intake. 3. To manage the intake and placement of teacher trainees. 4. To conduct assessment and evaluation of teacher education programmes. 5. To monitor co-curricular activities and matters pertaining to teacher trainees. 6. To manage in-service training programmes. 7. To manage the development of information and communication technology in Institutes of Teacher Education. 8. To promote research and development in teacher education. 9. To promote professional development in education by providing financial allocation and services.• Aminuddin Baki InstituteThe goal of the MOE is to upgrade the quality of education as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of the educationaldelivery system through the development of personnel in educational management and leadership at all levels. In theearlier stage, the Malaysian Education Staff Training Institute (MESTI) was part of the Teacher Training Division in the MOE.The establishment of MESTI was based on the Report of The Cabinet Committee Review of the Implementation ofEducational Policy 1979. At the end of 1984, MESTI changed its name in line with its function as a training institution ineducational management for the entire MOE. It was renamed the National Institute of Educational Management (NIEM).As a result of this change, NIEM was no longer a part of the Teacher Training Division but was conferred the status of aseparate division within the MOE. 112 | education in malaysia
    • On 14 March 1988, the NIEM was renamed as Aminuddin Baki Institute (IAB) in memory and honour the late AminuddinBaki who was the Chief Education Advisor for the Federation of Malaya (Malaysian Director-General of Education). IABcontinued to play a key role as a training institute under the leadership of several directors. Its main objective is toenhance and further strengthen the expertise in the field of educational management whilst ensuring a strong nationaleducational foundation that is forthrightly entrenched on the successful implementation and appreciation of universalgood values and norms.Functions of the division: 1. To plan and formulate programmes and develop best practices in educational leadership and management. 2. To implement various staff development programmes for educational managers. 3. To develop teacher profesionalisme in educational leadership and management.• The School Inspectorate and Quality AssuranceThe School Inspectorate and Quality Assurance, as a separate independent department, is directly responsible to theMinister. It was established with the appointment of the Chief Inspector in 1957. The School Inspectorate is responsibleto ensure that the standards of the teaching and learning are developed and maintained. This is done throughinspections and visits to schools. Normal inspections, full inspections, follow-up inspections, as well as thematic andspecial inspections are conducted regularly in schools.Functions of the School Inspectorate and Quality Assurance: 1. To formulate the policy and plan the operational activities of the School Inspectorate. 2. To develop the National Education Standard as the benchmark to quality education. 3. To ensure that educational institutions adhere to the education policies. 4. To ensure that the selection for National Most Promising School Award, Education Minister’s Quality Award and Excellent Teacher Programme is fulfilled. 5. To ensure that the inspection guidelines for educational institutions are implemented efficiently and effectively. 6. To ensure that the school inpectors provide professional guidance and advice to teachers and schools. 7. To prepare formal reports on school inspections to the Minister of Education.Development SectorThere are four divisions operating under this sector. The divisions are : 1. The Development Division 2. The Finance Division 3. The Procurement and Asset Management Division 4. The Accounts Division 113 | education in malaysia
    • • The Development DivisionThe Development Division (DD) was established in 1997 and was known as the Development and Supply Division. On 1October 1995, this division was restructured and given a new name, The Development, Privatization and Supply Division.It was later known as the Development and Procurement Division (DPD) on 21 October 2003. However, on 16 July 2007,once again the DPD has been restructured. As a result two separate divisions were established namely DevelopmentDivision (DD) and Procurement and Asset Management Division (PAMD).The Development Division (DD) is responsible for developing educational infrastructures and coordinating theimplementation of physical projects under the MOE.Functions of the division: 1. To plan, process and control the development expenditure as well as monitor the progress of the projects. 2. To plan and manage the development expenditure for the division. 3. To coordinate the implementation of all educational development projects with the Ministry of Finance, State Education Department, Department of Public Works, as well as private consultants and other divisions in the MOE. 4. To produce physical and financial progress report for all development projects in the MOE.• The Finance DivisionThe Finance Division is responsible for the optimum allocation of financial resources for the MOE expenditureprogrammes through annual budget estimates. It subsequently monitors the financial performance of the programmes.The division is responsible for preparing the annual estimates of education expenditure. It plays an important role inensuring all financial and accounting procedures set by the government are adhered to. Besides coordinating specialallowances, it also manages the schemes for vehicle and computer loans for education officers.• The Procurement and Asset Management DivisionThe Procurement and Asset Management Division was established on 16 July 2007.Functions of the division: 1. To plan, manage and implement the procurement of supplies and services to fulfil the needs of the MOE. 2. To provide optimum level of supplies and services with quality towards fulfilling the education policies. 3. To plan and manage assets and maintenance programmes/activities. 4. To monitor and evaluate the procurement of supplies, services, asset and infrastructure maintenance programmes/activities. 114 | education in malaysia
    • • The Accounts DivisionThe Accounts Division was set up on 15 October 2007 and started its operations on 1January 2008. Formerly, the divisionoperated under the Finance Division as a branch. It functions as an accounting department for the MOE, headed by theChief Accountant.The functions of the division: 1. To mobilise the programmes and activities in the aspects or finance and accounts management. 2. To provide support service of finance management to all divisions of the MOE, through the accounting system. 3. To provide accounting service to ensure accuracy and efficiency of all transactions.The Management SectorThere are seven divisions functioning under this sector. The divisions are as follow: 1. The Human Resource Management Division 2. The Competency Development and Evaluation Division 3. The Psychology and Counselling Division 4. The Education Sponsorship Division 5. The Information and Communication Technology Division 6. The Service Management Division 7. The Corporate Affairs Division• The Human Resource Management DivisionThe Human Resource Management Division (HRMD) was formerly known as the Organisational Development andServices Division. It is entrusted to provide a strong organisational structure and to manage human resources in the MOE.The division is responsible for the planning of human resource needs of the MOE which include personnel, service, rulesand disciplinary actions, wages, allowances, promotion and liaison with the Teachers’ Union. Management of non-teaching staff serving in the MOE is also under the purview of this division. 115 | education in malaysia
    • • The Competency Development and Evaluation DivisionThe Competency Development and Evaluation Division was established in January 2007 to develop an assessmentsystem and administer a comprehensive assessment instrument that meets the international standard. It aims to producecompetent personnel in line with the aspirations of the MOE.Functions of the division: 1. To prepare for and monitor the Efficiency Level Assessment of MOE’s personnel. 2. To determine the standard value as a complement to Efficiency Level Assessment component. 3. To prepare the examination specifications and course curriculum. 4. To appoint the panel for examination and assessment. 5. To verify and certify the Efficiency Level Assessment results. 6. To investigate appeals of the Efficiency Level Assessment results.• The Education Sponsorship DivisionPreviously, Sponsor and Scholarship Section was under the management of Higher Education Division. On 1 January1979, Scholarship Division was established to centralize all the needs related to the management of sponsorship andscholarship. However, in 2008, the Scholarship Division has been transformed to Education Sponsorship Division in linewith the restructuring process of the MOE.Functions of the division: 1. To administer the disbursement of scholarships to education officers and students in local and foreign universities (in-service and pre-service). 2. To provide education loan to education officers. 3. To monitor the repayment of loans and breach of contract. 4. To manage matters regarding the services and finance of training posts. 116 | education in malaysia
    • • The Information and Communication Technology DivisionThe Information and Communication Technology Division is responsible for planning, developing and maintaining ICTinfrastructure for the use of the divisions under the MOE. To ensure prudent and coordinated usage of ICT and thesecurity of the MOE’s ICT assets, the division is also responsible for the formulation of relevant policies and guidelines. Itis also the secretariat for the MOE’s Information and Computerisation Committee. Its main objectives are to provide anintegrated management information system, a secure and reliable ICT infrastructure, as well as a highly-competent ICTpersonnel.Functions of the division: 1. To provide computerised processing service and manage the computer centre of the MOE. 2. To develop internet-based applications. 3. To develop application systems such as Scholarship Integrated Information System, Personnel Information System Database, Financial Management Information System and Selection System for admission to local universities, teacher training institutes, boarding schools and, technical and vocational schools.• The Service Management DivisionThe Service Management Division is responsible for managing matters in relation to the post and service of the MOE topmanagement level and coordinating the nomination for awards and titles at state and federal levels. It also handles theapplication of education officers who wish to go abroad and manages the physical security of MOE buildings and officespace.• The Corporate Affairs DivisionThe Corporate Affairs Division serves as the secretariat for regular meetings of the MOE high ranking officials on generaladministrative matters.The division plays a role in inspiring the corporate image of the MOE through public relations andmedia activities.Functions of the division: 1. To plan and organise quality enhancement programmes for MOE. 2. To provide consultation services for quality enhancement programmes to members of the organization. 3. To plan and organise the implementation of MOE’s corporate image enhancement programmes with stakeholders, clients and mass media. 4. To manage all the matters pertaining to customers’ service, public complaints management and Public Complaints Bureau (BPA). 5. To promote the MOE’s policies, programmes, and activities towards establishing a positive image through strategic and effective promotional management and publicity. 6. To manage and organize the MOE’s publications for promotion and source of information. 117 | education in malaysia
    • Divisions Directly Under The Secretary General• The Matriculation DivisionThe Matriculation Division was set up on 10 March 1999 to standardise all matriculation programmes organised by thelocal universities.The matriculation programme is the preparatory programme for SPM holders to further their educationto tertiary level in the field of science, technology and accountancy in local institutions of higher learning. To ensureuniformity, students will have the same curriculum of the programme at all matriculation colleges and private institutionsof higher learning.The objectives of this division are to produce more matriculation graduates for the first degree programme in theprofessional sector and to increase their knowledge and skills to fulfil the requirements in various sectors.Functions of the division: 1. To manage and monitor the matriculation student intake, placement and the welfare of the students. 2. To plan and coordinate the implementation of academic programmes. 3. To administer the matriculation assessment and examinations. 4. To manage the intake, placement and service of the teachers and staff. 5. To coordinate the budget allocation, trust fund and scholarships for the students. 6. To monitor the development and maintenance of the infrastructure and facilities in Matriculation Colleges.• The Policy and International Relations DivisionThe MOE has become increasingly involved in the nation’s efforts to internationalize education by establishing closerbilateral relations with other countries in the field of education. The Policy and International Relations Division isresponsible for activities involving regional and international cooperation among nations in the field of education. Thisdivision handles all bilateral and multilateral agreements between Malaysia and other countries concerning education.The division has also played a prominent role in enhancing Malaysia’s image in regional and international organizations.The functions of the division: 1. To plan, organize and coordinate bilateral and multilateral cooperation between Malaysia and other countries. 2. To plan, organize and enhance Malaysia’s participation and cooperation in international bilateral and multilateral programmes and activities. 3. To coordinate agreements based on MOUs on education between Malaysia and other countries. 4. To act as a focal point for the MOE in the planning and coordinating of international and regional programmes and activities by UNESCO, APEC, ASEAN, SEAMEO and others. 5. To organize and coordinate applications for financial support, expertise and fellowship from regional and international organizations and institutions. 6. To act as the Secretariat for National Commission for UNESCO Malaysia, organize and coordinate programmes, and establish cooperation with National Commission for UNESCO in other countries. 118 | education in malaysia
    • 7. To coordinate Ministers and Senior Officials of other countries’ visits to Malaysia. 8. To coordinate visits by the Ministers and Senior Officials of the MOE to other countries. 9. To organise and coordinate administrative and financial management of the Office of the Permanent Delegation of Malaysia to UNESCO in Paris; 10. To organise on matters related to the Cabinet for the MOE. 11. To organise Senior Official Meetings of the MOE.• The Internal Audit DivisionThe Internal Audit Division (IAD) is an independent division directly under the Secretary-General.The main role of the IADis to assist the management to identify flaws in its financial management especially in compliance with the prevailingfinancial laws, regulations and procedures. This division is also responsible for providing assurance and consultancyservices to the management on the control system and governance process of the MOE. In addition, the divisionconducts objective and analytical examinations of a programme or activity to determine whether the programme oractivity is managed in an economical, efficient and effective manner.This division is also responsible to increase the accountability and the financial management of the responsibilitycentres, and to provide support services such as workshops specially on ‘Terms of Control’ , expenditure, trust accountand asset management.Functions of the division: 1. To examine and evaluate system and procedures in organisations to ensure efficiency in internal audit. 2. To ensure that the organizations abide to the policy, laws and regulations. 3. To examine and evaluate the operations in the organizations in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, economic and relevance. 4. To follow-up the audit report/observation highlighted by the National Audit Department. 5. To propose improved processes and procedures in order to enhance the organization operation and to increase the accountability of financial management. 6. To submit the Internal Audit Report to the Financial Management and Account Committee. 7. To prepare and submit the Annual Audit Plan and Annual Audit Report to the Secretary-General for approval. 8. To provide information to the Financial Management Advisory Division. 119 | education in malaysia
    • • The School Audit DivisionEducation Rules (Accounts and Audit) 2002 under Section 130 of the Education Act 1996 (Act 550) requires allgovernment schools, government-aided schools which receives financial aid and Islamic Education Schools to producetheir annual Financial Statement for the year ended 31 December to the School Audit Division before 31st March thefollowing year for audit purpose.In order to comply with this ruling, the School Audit Division conducts three audit approaches:- l Financial Audit l Compliance Audit l Programmes Audit on Financial AidThe School Audit Division has 19 State School Audits throughout Malaysia (except Sarawak) and the headquarters is inKuala Lumpur.Functions of the division: 1. To examine and certify financial statements of all government and government-aided schools. 2. To ascertain that the management and financial controls in the schools are properly implemented and comply with the financial regulations and procedures. 3. To comment on the financial position of the school. 4. To ensure government-assisted programs are utilised effectively.The audit reports are submitted to the Heads of Responsibility Centres and school managers, while the consolidatedannual schools’ audit report is submitted to the Minister of Education.The Statutory Bodies Under The Ministry of Education• Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP)The Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) was established on 22 June 1965, with its original name, the Balai Pustaka. As aresult of the Malay Language and Literature Congress III which was held in Singapore and Johore Bahru on 16-21September 1956, the Government had agreed to adopt the resolution of the congress which proposed the change ofname from Balai Pustaka to Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.In 1959, through the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Ordinance, DBP changed its status to a statutory body. DBP is governedand controlled by the DBP Board of Control. All the DBP Branches and Regional offices also undertake the same role ofachieving the objectives of DBP. The main objective of the DBP is to ensure extensive use of the national language for allpurposes. 120 | education in malaysia
    • Functions of the DBP: 1. To build and develop the national language in all fields including science and technology. 2. To develop literary talents particularly in the national language. 3. To publish or provide assistance in the publishing of books, magazines, periodicals and other literary forms in the national language and other languages. 4. To standardize spelling and pronunciation.• The Malaysian Examinations CouncilThe Malaysian Examinations Council (MEC) is a statutory body, established on 1 February 1980 under the Malaysian Lawand Examinations Council Act 225. The main objective of its establishment is to conduct specific examinations and allmatters crucial or related to such examinations.Functions of the council: 1. To prepare the regulations and schemes of examination. 2. To study, revise and design the examination syllabus. 3. To set and prepare question papers and examination materials. 4. To coordinate the registration of candidates. 5. To coordinate the administration of the examination and the marking of answer scripts. 6. To process and check examination results. 7. To set standards for papers and subjects as well as release of results. 8. To investigate appeals of examination results. 9. To train the secretariat and personnel in MEC. 10. To conduct research on the candidates’ performance and other matters related to examinations. 121 | education in malaysia
    • • The Malaysian National Institute of TranslationThe Malaysian National Institute of Translation (MNIT) was established in September 1993. It is a translation organisationwhich offers translation and interpretation services in various languages at the national and international level. Thepurpose of MNIT is to facilitate the development of a national translation industry. The institute deals with mattersrelating to translation and interpretation. It is guided by the corporate philosophy of creating a scientific and progressivesociety, striving to enrich the repository of knowledge and promoting the competetiveness of the nation in regionaleconomics.Decision Making at Federal LevelDecision making at the Ministry of Education is performed through a system of committees. These committees areestablished to facilitate inter-division and intra-division decision making.The Educational Planning Committee (EPC)The Educational Planning Committee ((EPC) is chaired by the Minister of Education. It is the highest decision making bodyon education at the federal level. The secretariat of this committee is the Educational Planning and Research Division.There are steering committees with specific terms of reference assigned to formulate policy guidelines as well as tocoordinate and monitor the implementation of educational policies. Apart from these committees, there are several otherforums which discuss educational policy, planning and implementation issues.Educational Administration At State LevelThe implementation of the educational policies and planning set at the federal level is carried out by 16 State EducationDepartments, Ministry Of Education.The State Education Departments (SED)The State Education Department (SED) coordinates and monitors the implementation of national educationprogrammes, projects and activities besides providing feedback to the central agency for overall planning. Theadministration of education at the state level is the responsibility of the State Director of Education. 122 | education in malaysia
    • Educational Administration At District LevelFor more effective control and management, District Education Offices were set up in June 1982 in all states except Perlisand the Federal Territory. The offices serve as an effective link between the schools and the State Education Department.Educational Administration At School LevelThe administration of education at the school level is the responsibility of the Principal/Headmaster who is both theadministrative and instructional leader in the school. The Principal/Headmaster is assisted by the Academic SeniorAssistant who is responsible for administrative aspects of the school organisation, the Student Affairs Senior Assistantwho assists in all matters related to student welfare and the Co-curricular Senior Assistant who manages the school co-curricular activities. Primary schools with double sessions have Afternoon Supervisors who assist the Headmaster insupervising the daily administrative and instructional activities of the afternoon session. The Policy Decision - Making Structure Figure 6.2 : The Policy Decision - Making Structure 123 | education in malaysia
    • Education For All (EFA)Education for All (EFA) is a global commitment and initiative to provide education to all children, youths and adults, andit is consistent with the aspiration that everyone has a right to education. During the 1990 World Conference onEducation for All in Jomtien, Thailand, 155 nations, 150 Government and Non-government organization representatives,the general public, donors and the media pledged to provide basic education for all children and to improve literacyamong adults.During the 2000 World Education Forum held in Dakar, Senegal, 1100 participants representing Government and Non-government organizations, the general public, donors and the media reaffirmed their commitment to achieving EFAgoals by the 2015, focusing on six key areas. The six key areas are as follow:Key Area 1 Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children.Key Area 2 Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good qualityKey Area 3 Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills programmes.Key Area 4 Achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adultsKey Area 5 Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring that girls have full and equal access to basic education of good quality.Key Area 6 Improving all aspects of the quality of education and striving for excellence so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills.In the 2000 forum, members countries agreed to commit to the Dakar Framework for Action on EFA. The Framework forAction includes a Mid-Decade Assessment (MDA) to evaluate each nation’s progress towards the six goals of EFA. Theinputs from the assessment provide direction to UNESCO in planning follow-up actions in ensuring that all membernations achieve the EFA goals by 2015 or sooner.The Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) has implemented and monitored the progress of EFA and prepared the Mid-Decade Assessment Report (MDAR). This initiative is conducted through the EFA Steering Commitee and EFA WorkingCommittee established at the MOE. 124 | education in malaysia
    • EFA Steering CommitteeThe EFA Steering Committee is co-chaired by the Secretary-General ofEducation and the Director-General of Education.The members comprise of: i Ministry of Education (MOE) ii. Economic Planning Unit iii. Ministry of Finance iv. Ministry of Higher Education v. Ministry of Human Resources vi. Ministry of Entrepreneur and Cooperative Development vii. Ministry of Woman, Family and Community Development viii. Ministry of Rural and Regional Development ix. Ministry of Youth and Sports x. Ministry of Health xi. Ministry of Defense xii. Ministry of Information xiii. Department of Registration xiv. Department of Statistics xv. Department of Social Welfare xvi. State Religious Department xvii. NGOs xviii. International agencies / organizationsTechnical Working CommitteeThe Technical Working Committee comprises six committees responsible for each of the EFA Goals and a TechnicalCommittee on EFA data and indicators. These Working Committees are made up of representatives from variousministries that are concerned with the six goals.The Working Committee and the Chair for the committees are as follows: i. Goal 1 - Curriculum Development Division ii. Goal 2 - Public Schools Management Division iii. Goal 3 - Department of Technical & Vocational Education iv. Goal 4 - Aminuddin Baki Institute v. Goal 5 - Educational Planning and Research Division vi. Goal 6 - Enforcement Division vii. Technical Working Committee (data and indicators) - Educational Planning and Research DivisionThe policy of providing 11 years basic education, with automatic promotion at all levels, was introduced in 1992 toincrease access and equity in education and to reduce the dropout rate among students.To ensure EFA goals are met, theMOE introduced compulsory primary education in 2003 and expanded educational oppurtunities of at least six years ofprimary education to all Malaysian.The implementation of compulsory education was accompanied by an increase in theparticipation level at primary schools in Malaysia from 92.6% in 2000 to 96.4% in 2005. The provision of free textbooksand the elimination of special fees for all students in primary and secondary government and vernacular schools in 2008are among the efforts to ensure that EFA Goals are achieved. 125 | education in malaysia
    • In 2006, the MOE introduced the Educational Development Master Plan (EDMP). The EDMP is a comprehensive planoutlining the focus, key strategies and plans for an education relevant to current and future needs. The EDMP seeks toovercome all gaps and shortfalls in education.The MOE aims to ensure all schools and students have equal opportunitiesto excel regardless of the location, socioeconomic background and achievement levels of the students. Among the effortscarried out by MOE to ensure the achievement of the EFA goals are: l the development of education infrastructures and facilities in rural areas of Sabah and Sarawak; l the efforts to increase student enrolment and reduce incidences of dropout among students; and l the provision of aid through the Supplementary Food Program, School Milk Program, Poor Students’Trust Fund (KWAPM), Tuition Voucher Scheme, scholarships, hostel facilities, and the Special Education Allowance for students with special needs.Education does not end after the eleventh year of basic education.The Government encourages life long and continuouslearning. This is evident in the numerous opportunities that have been provided through the establishment of variousinstitutions that offer a myriad of programmes and facilities for Malaysians to pursue education and skills training.Internalization Policy and GoalsInternationalization is a strategic initiative that is intended to realize Malaysia’s aspirations of becoming a hub foreducational excellence. This policy has two objectives. The first objective is to increase and improve the quality of thenational education system in order to enhance the competitiveness of Malaysian education products in this globalisedworld.The second objective is to raise the profile of selected Malaysian education institutions, programmes and activitiesas well as Malaysian education experts in the international arena so as to make them a point of reference for foreigncountries and international agencies in specific areas of education.One of the reforms needed in education has been the need to develop and promote internationalization throughout theeducation system especially in areas of the curriculum and other related aspects. Internationalization is interpreted andpromoted by MOE through its various efforts and activities. However, this has not been an easy task as there are differentconcepts on how these international projects should be implemented. These different concepts are reflected by thedifferent levels of involvement and different approaches used towards the idea of internationalization.Programmes Implemented to Promote Internationalizationof Education in MalaysiaInitiatives that promote internationalization of education in Malaysia are actively being planned and implemented by therespective divisions in the MOE.l Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in the Field of Education between Malaysia and Other Countries MOE has been intensifying efforts to develop and strengthen bilateral cooperation in the field of education with several countries all over the world. The bilateral links are mutually bound by the signing of MoUs that delineates areas of cooperation which would mutually benefit both Malaysia and its affiliated counterparts. The MoUs have been taken to indicate MOE Malaysia’s endeavour to increase partnerships at the international arena.Through these partnerships, the schools, teachers and students in Malaysia have gained invaluable and enriching experiences that have in many ways developed their personalities and a sense of identity as well. Since 1982, Malaysia has signed 17 MoUs in the field of education with various countries including Brunei, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, Cambodia, Ireland, Germany, Vietnam, China, Iran, Libya, Guinea, Jordan, Yemen, 126 | education in malaysia
    • Singapore and Thailand. Malaysia, being represented by the MOE Malaysia, has embarked upon a vital mission to establish links with other countries to not only promote educational programmes but also to learn from others through educational activities that would be of mutual benefit to both Malaysia as well as its affiliates. The MOE views internationalization from two perspectives, namely home and abroad. However, both the home and abroad programmes have the same common understanding i.e. internationalisation with the purpose of integrating an international, intercultural cum global dimension both through curricula and co-curricular programmes at the secondary and primary level. This function when operationalized based on the MOU’s will provide opportunities for Malaysia to form collaborations and establish networking on various cooperation. Some of the areas include: 3 Exchange programmes for teachers, students and education officers with affiliated countries; 3 Attachment programmes; 3 Joint conference / seminars; 3 Study visits; 3 Exchange of scholarships; 3 International competitions; and 3 Other forms of educational cooperation. The Joint Working Group (JWG) Meeting that is held between Malaysia and the countries that it has signed a MoU with is one of the most pertinent aspects of the MoU.The JWG Meeting which is regularly held every 12 to 18 month serves as an essential platform that paves the way for bilateral discussions. These discussions include the exchange of information and deliberations on the latest educational development in both countries as well as future collaborations that can well benefit the teachers and students of the countries involved. The internationalization process takes place rapidly through these meetings as the meetings opens up opportunities for both countries to understand each other’s needs and capabilities. Through mutual exchange of knowledge and expertise, Malaysian education officers, teachers and students learn to value their own potential as well as respect others. All of the above efforts ensure continuous recognition and transparency between education systems through planned cooperation activities operationalized via international agreements. Some of the bilateral activities that have been implemented are: 3 Provision of consultancy services and expertise in educational planning, research and assessment through courses for education officers from abroad as well as attachment programmes; 3 Provision of management, leadership, assessment and ICT, courses for middle management education officers; 3 Provision of training for training for 100 teachers from Acheh as part of the Tsunami Aid Programme for Indonesia; 3 Placement of 59 students from Southern Thailand in two residential Federal Religious Secondary Schools in Malaysia; and 3 Training of 10 Malaysian teachers in Beijing, Republic of China in Chinese language teaching methodologyl School Linkages The MOE has taken earnest steps to promote school linkages between Malaysian schools and their counterparts across the world. Currently, there are over 70 schools in Malaysia that has established links with various schools all over the world. numerous activities have been carried out between schools that not only provide interesting activities for the students, but also create a significant bond between them. Some students have been fortunate enough to be able to visit the other schools. However, in some cases, they welcome their friends over and embark upon various activities that enrich their knowledge of people from other parts of the world. These activities have in many ways created internationalization opportunities; the opportunities to learn from others about their culture, language, food, niche areas and even history. The Policy and International Relations Division and the Schools Division of the MOE work together to promote the linking up of schools in Malaysia with their foreign counterparts. The Malaysian School International Link Programme (MSILP) is the MOE’s initiative that offers students more 127 | education in malaysia
    • effective and enjoyable learning experiences that enable them to develop a broader and deeper understanding of the world. Some of the activities that have been implemented as part of the programme are: 3 Cultural performance; 3 Student Exchange Programme (Japan, China, Indonesia); 3 Student and teacher overseas visits; 3 Scouts Jamborees; 3 Audio and video conferencing; and 3 Sharing of experiences and online communication between smart schools and overseas schools. Schools which are involved in this programme include smart schools (ICT), cluster schools (cultural activities, hockey, cricket, and scouting), special education schools as well as several international schools.l Multilateral Cooperation The Ministry of Education Malaysia is actively involved in various international education organizations. Its participation in these activities between 2001 and 2007 has been extremely beneficial. Malaysia is an active member of international organisations such as UNESCO, ISESCO, SEAMEO, ASEAN, COMMONWEALTH, APEC, APCEIU and JICA. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) is one of the 18 specialised agencies of the United Nations. It is established in London on 16 November 1946 and comprised of 193 Member States and six Associated Members. UNESCO’s mission is to enhance and promote international intellectual cooperation and develop cooperation through technical assistance and ethical action to further universal respect for justice, rule of law, human rights and fundamental freedom without distinction of race, sex, language, or religion in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations through education, science, social science, communication and culture. The MOE Malaysia represents the Government of Malaysia at UNESCO. Malaysia has benefited greatly from her membership in UNESCO through active participation in international and regional conferences and workshops fully sponsored by UNESCO, the funding of projects under the participation programme and the provision of free technical and consultancy services in all areas of UNESCO’s fields of competence. Malaysian participation in conferences, seminars, meetings and workshops has not only enriched their knowledge and enhanced their skills but has also enabled them to network among themselves and with their colleagues in the Member States in areas of their competence. A number of workshops and activities related to education were organised under the auspices of UNESCO between from 2005 and 2007. They include: l UNESCO Workshop: Issues on Communication and Information (1st and 2nd Series) (2005 and 2006); 128 | education in malaysia
    • l UNESCO Asia-Pacific Conference in Preparation for the World Conference on Arts Education (Korea, 2006);l 17th Session of IHP Intergovernmental Council UNESCO (Paris, 2006);l Workshop on UNESCO School Net Tele-collaboration and Evaluation Activities (Thailand, 2006);l East and South East Asia Education for All Mid-Decade Assessment Capacity Building Workshop (Thailand, 2006);l 3rd Session of the IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System (Bali, 2006);l 3rd Meeting of the Asia Pacific Information Network (APIN) (Kuala Lumpur, 2007); andl Training / Seminar for UNESCO New Officials (Kuala Lumpur, 2007). Membership in UNESCO SubsidiariesMalaysia joined UNESCO in 1958. Since then, Malaysia has participated not only as an observer, but also as a member inmany of the subsidiary organs of UNESCO, especially in the International Bureau of Education (IBE) and the InternationalHydrological Programme (IHP) in 1968. Some of the activities that the Ministry has been involved in are as follows:l Intergovernmental Council of the International Programme for Development of Communication (IPDC) (2001- 2005)l Intergovernmental Council of the Management of Social Transformation Programme (MOSTI) (2005 – 2006)l Council of The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) (2003 – 2007)l Council of The International Bureau of Education (IBE) (2003 – 2007)l Intergovernmental Council of the International Hydrological Programme (IHP)(2003 – 2007)l Intergovernmental Council for The Information For All Programme (IFAP)(2005 – 2009) Collaboration with the International Bureau of Education (IBE) and the International Institute of Educational Planning (IIEP) The MOE Malaysia was invited by IBE to participate in the seminar/workshop on Learning How to Live Together in Bosnia at the end of 2007. The theme of this seminar is consistent with the First Thrust of the Educational Development Master Plan (EDMP) 2006- 2010. Collaborative links between the MOE and the IIEP have been forged to facilitate the Ministry’s efforts to implement School-based Assessment. The MOE participated in several courses and seminars related to educational assessment, organized by the IIEP, in 2008. Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (ISESCO) Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (ISESCO) is a specialized international organization working within the framework of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, specializing in the fields of education, science, culture and communication. The MOE Malaysia has participated in the following ISESCO conferences: l The Cultural Encounter of Public Education Student Candidates in the Islamic Countries for the Students Research Contest on Makkah Al-Mukarramah (2005)l Training Session on Educational Administration of ISESCO in IAB, Malaysia (2006)l Regional Training Session for Staff of National Commissions and Focal Points in ISESCO English Speaking Member States (2007) 129 | education in malaysia
    • Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) The Association of Southeast Asian Nations or ASEAN was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok. Presently there 10 members of ASEAN includes Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei Darussalam, Vietnam, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Cambodia The ASEAN Vision 2020 adopted by ASEAN leaders on the 30th anniversary of ASEAN, agreed on a shared vision of ASEAN as a concert of Southeast Asian nations, outwards looking, living in peace, stability and prosperity, bonded together in partnership in a dynamic development and in a community of caring society.MOE Malaysia is the focal point of ASEAN Senior Officials Meeting on Education (SOM-ED), whereby the Secretary Generalof MOE Malaysia holds the Chair of the SOM-ED.The vision of a cohesive and integrated ASEAN has been realised through good working relationships between Malaysiaand other ASEAN countries such as Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos as well asMyanmar. This cohesive effort has been especially evident in the internationalisation of education within the region.The following are some of the activities that have been carried out:l Involvement and interaction among youths from within the ASEAN regionl Establishment of, and access to an online repository for teaching and learning materials from ASEAN member countriesl Identification of education centres of excellence and universities in niche areasl Developing the ASEAN Qualifications Framework to establish common quality standards within the regionl Credit transfers as well as fostering mobility of students and academicians within ASEANl Forums to facilitate the development of core values in education that guide the development of an ASEAN workforce that is creative, critical and dynamicSoutheast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO) The Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO) was established on 30 November 1965 as a chartered international organization with the purpose to promote cooperation in education, science and culture in the Southeast Asian region for a better quality of life. South East Asia Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO) consists of 11 member countries which include, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor Leste and Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The recent 43rd SEAMEO Council Conference (SEAMEC) was held in Kuala Lumpur on 15 March 2008. It was during this meeting that the Minister of Education, Malaysia was elected as the President of 43rd SEAMEC.With the Minister of Education of Malaysia elected as President of SEAMEC, the Chair of the High Officials of SEAMEO was accorded to The Secretary General of MOE Malaysia. Both Chairs will be held by Malaysia until the 44th SEAMEC which will be convened early 2009. The MOE Malaysia has also participated in the yearly regular programmes organized by the SEAMEO Centres of Excellence such as SEAMEO Innotech, SEAMEO Voctech SEAMEO RECSAM. In addition, several conferences organized by SEAMEO Secretariat and SEAMEO Centres saw active participation by students, teachers and officials of MOE Malaysia such as : 130 | education in malaysia
    • l Transition For Youth Success : Creating Pathways For Work And Life 25 – 27 November 2008, SEAMEO INNOTECH, PHILIPPINESl VTE Research And Networking 2008- An International Conference Of Senior Administrators, Policy Makers, Researchers And Other Practitioners, 7- 8 July 2008,Surabaya, Indonesial 43rd RELC International Seminar On Language Teaching In A Multi Lingual World :Challenges And Opportunities, 21 - 23 April 2008, SingaporeBesides participating in conferences, Malaysia has also provided assistance to several less developed SEAMEO countriesin curriculum design and development as well as the development of instructional materials.Collaboration between ASEAN and SEAMEO The High Official Meeting of SEAMEO and The ASEAN SOM ED have been held back to back prior to the convening of the SEAMEC and ASED. These two events are held annually, again on a rotational basis by the member countries. A joint statement between ASEAN and SEAMEC will be issued after each meeting held. In this respect, common areas of cooperation in education is further enhanced through the decisions made through both meetings. On future cooperation in education, the ministers agreed that the focus should be on implementing EFA by 2015 and that future cooperation under East Asia Summit (EAS) would be undertaken through the relevant SEAMEO Centres under the coordination of the SEAMEO Secretariat in close cooperation with the ASEAN Secretariat.The vision of a cohesive and integrated ASEAN has been realised through good working relationships between Malaysia andother ASEAN countries such as Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos as well as Myanmar. Thiscohesive effort has been especially evident in the internationalisation of education within the region.The following are some of the activities that have been carried out:l Involvement and interaction among youths from within the ASEAN regionl Establishment of, and access to an online repository for teaching and learning materials from ASEAN member countriesl Identification of education centres of excellence and universities in niche areasl Developing the ASEAN Qualifications Framework to establish common quality standards within the regionl Credit transfers as well as fostering mobility of students and academicians within ASEANl Forums to facilitate the development of core values in education that guide the development of an ASEAN workforce that is creative, critical and dynamicThe Commonwealth The Commonwealth is an association of 53 independent states consulting and cooperating in the common interest of their peoples and in the promotion of international understanding. The Commonwealth Secretariat is the main intergovernmental agency of the Commonwealth, facilitating consultation and co-operation among member governments and countries. The Conference of Commonwealth Education Ministers (CCEM), held every three years, is the most significant meeting in the Commonwealth education calendar. The conference is held to discuss issues of mutual concern and interest; to discuss challenges faced in the Commonwealth arounda given theme; and to identify priority areas for action for the next three years. Since 2005, the MOE Malaysia has been anactive participant at the conferences organized by the CCEM in Edinburgh, Scotland (15th CCEM) and Capetown, SouthAfrica (16th CCEM). Representatives from the MOE Malaysia also attended the workshop on Gender Analysis of Classroomand Schooling Processes in Secondary Schools: Drawing Policy Implications in Seychelles in 2007. Malaysia has beengiven the honour of hosting the 17th CCEM in 2009. 131 | education in malaysia
    • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Human ResourcesDevelopment Working Group (HRDWG) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is the premier forum for facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia Pacific Region. The Human Resources Development Working Group (HRDWG) was established in 1990 and is driven by its goal of promoting the well-being of all people in the region through economic growth and development. One of the eleven working groups within APEC, the HRDWG has three sub- networks which focus separately on education (Education Network: EDNET), capacity building (Capacity Building Network: CBN) and labour and social protection (Labour and Social Protection Network: LSPN).Besides attending the annual APEC HRDWG meetings, MOE participatedin the APEC Youth Forum for Sustainable Development – StrengtheningCo-operation Among the Youth in Asia - Pacific Region (2006) organizedunder the auspices of the APEC HRDWG. Since 2002, APEC has allocatedfunding to the MOE Malaysia for the organization of the following fourseminars:l APEC Seminar of the Best Practices in the Teaching and Learning of Science and Mathematics in Primary School (2003)l APEC Seminar of the Best Practices and Innovations in the Teaching and Learning of Science and Mathematics in Primary School (2004)l International Colloquium on Education Assessment : East Meets West (2005)l APEC Conference on Evaluation as a Tool in Educational Planning : Best Practices in Evaluation of Educational Programmes (2007)The MOE has also been involved in the APEC Learning Community Builder Conferences (ALCoB) Project organized by theInstitute of APEC Collaborative Education (IACE) South Korea since 2003. The following are some of the outcomes of thisproject:l ICT Model School Network with schools in Koreal Cultural and knowledge exchange through the development of websites, teleconferencing and home stays. SMK Victoria was the winner of the teleconferencing competition of the APEC ICT Model School Network (2006).l The APEC e-learning Programme, sponsored by the Institute for APEC Collaborative Education (IACE), offers representatives from participating countries access to the latest developments in the theory and practice of e- learning.Training programmes and collaborative and individual studies have also been carried out in several phases. Officers from the Ministry of Education participated in the 7th Phase in September 2007.Asia-Pacific Centre of Educational for International Understanding (APCEIU)Asia-Pacific Centre of Education for International Understanding (APCEIU) is established in 2000 in Korea as a UNESCOCategory II Institute for the promotion of education for international understanding towards a culture of peace in theregion. Member countries are committed to infusing a set of agreed values in their education systems in order to fosterInternational Understanding. The MOE Malaysia was involved in the following situational analysis studies:l Survey Education for International Understanding (2007)l Current Situation of EIU in Education in Malaysia, presented at the Consultation Meeting on Development of EIU Policy in Korea in September 2007. 132 | education in malaysia
    • Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA)Founded in 1974, the Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA) is an implementation agency for technicalassistance, focusing on system building, organisation strengthening and human resource development that enablesdeveloping countries to pursue their own sustainable social economic development. Some of the programmesconducted under JICA are as follow:l The Disaster Prevention In Schools course in Kobe, Japan was an in-service course conducted in collaboration with JICA, Japan.l Japan ASEAN Youth Friendship Programme was a short term course for youth conducted with the aim to encourage Malaysian youth to emulate and learn the word ‘ethics’ and the positive attitudes of the Japanese. International ExhibitionsThe MOE has participated in several international education exhibitions. Participation in these exhibitions is intended tohighlight Malaysia’s achievements in education and its progress in women’s rights since the country achieved itsindependence 50 years ago. The exhibitions include the following:l 50 years of Malaysia’s Education & Accomplishment in Paris (2007)l The Successes and Progress of Malaysian Women, in Paris (2006)l ICT Conference and Exhibition in conjunction with 43rd SEAMEO Council Conference and 3rd ASED Meeting (2008) Official Overseas Visits The Minister of Education visited several countries between 2005, 2007 and 2008 in order to foster bilateral relationships in the field of education. The Minister visited the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Switzerland, South Africa, Brunei, Vietnam, Singapore, Indonesia and the Republic of China. The international community’s recognition of Malaysia’s education system was signalled in the appointment of the Minister of Education as the deputy president of SEAMEO (Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization) at the 42nd SEAMEO Conference by SEAMEC (SEAMEO Council Conference) in March 2007 in Bali, Indonesia. Further recognition was achieved when Malaysia obtained the largest number of votes among countries in the Asia Pacific region to be elected to the UNESCO Executive Board for the period 2008 - 2011 at the 34th UNESCO General Conference. With the above appointment, the Minister of Education chairs the seat of the president of SEAMEO which prompts him to visit the regional SEAMEO Centres and the neighbouring SEAMEO Member countries. 133 | education in malaysia
    • ReferencesBasic School Information January 2008. Ministry of Education, Malaysia.Educational Development in Malaysia and Oman: Two Success Stories 2008. Ministry of Education, Malaysia and Sultanate of Oman, Ministry of Education.Education in Malaysia 2001. A Journey to Excellence. Ministry of Education, Malaysia.Laporan Tahunan 2006. Kementerian Pelajaran MalaysiaLaporan Tahunan 2007. Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.Maklumat Pendidikan Khas 2006. Jabatan Pendidikan Khas. Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.Manual Prosedur Kerja. Pengurusan Biasiswa Kecil Persekutuan dan Biasiswa Kelas Persediaan Universiti. Bahagian Biasiswa Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.Panduan Eksekutif Sekolah Menengah Agama. Jabatan Pendidikan Islam dan Moral. Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.Panduan Pengurusan Sekolah Berkesan (2006). Bahagian Sekolah Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.Pelan Induk Pembangunan Pendidikan (PIPP) 2006-2010. Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.Pelan Strategik Pengajian Tinggi Negara: Melangkaui 2020, Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi Malaysia.Pendidikan di Malaysia (2004).: Sejarah, Sistem dan Falsafah. Sufean Hussin. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.Pendidikan di Malaysia (2005).: Memartabatkan Kecemerlangan Pendidikan Negara. Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.Pendidikan di Malaysia (2007). Memartabatkan Kecemerlangan Pendidikan Negara. Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.Pengajian Malaysia (2004).: Kenegaraan dan Kewarganegaraan. Edisi Kedua. Nazaruddin Hj. Mohd, et all. Prentice Hall.Perangkaan Pendidikan Malaysia 2007. Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.Portal Pendidikan Utusan.Program Nilam. Konsep dan Panduan Pelaksanaan di Sekolah. Bahagian Teknologi Pendidikan. Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.Quick Facts 2007. Educational Planning and Research Division, Ministry of Education Malaysia.Quick Facts 2008. Educational Planning and Research Division, Ministry of Education Malaysia.Rancangan Malaysia Kesembilan, 2006-2010. Jabatan Penerangan Malaysia.Written report, information and statistics from respective divisions in the Ministry of Education, (Website of Educational Planning and Research Division, Ministry of Education, Malaysia).