Eropa

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Eropa

  1. 1. Sejarah Eropa VIII-VI SM : Peradaban Yunani abad IX-V SM : Peradaban Romawi Kuno Pemikiran filsuf terkenal Socrates, Plato, Aristoteles dan Heredotus Romawi Barat dikuasai Jerman V-XIV M : Penyatuan Eropa Romawi oleh Raja Charlemagne dari Franka. XIV M : Dominasi Gereja (Paus) di Romawi Barat. ―Kegelapan‖ XV M : Konstantinopel di Bizantium (Romawi Timur) dikalahkan Turki Ottoman. Masa Renaisans dimulai. XV-XVI M : Renaisans ditandai dengan perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan (sains, sastra, musik, seperti Leonardo da Vinci, Nicolas Copernicus, Galileo Galilei). Penjelahan di dunia melalui jalur laut dimulai.
  2. 2.  1517 : Protestan dibawah Martin Luther mulai berkembang. XV-XVIII M : Kolonialisasi Eropa dimulai dipelopori Portugal dan Spanyol. 1789 to 1914 : Perubahan sosial, politik dan ekonomi drastis yang dipicu oleh Industrial Revolution, the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. The Industrial Revolution affected socioeconomic and cultural conditions in Britain and North America. Proses Industrialisasi menyebar di dunia, semua mesin industri mulai ditemukan. 1815 : Congress of Vienna menjadi tatanan peraturan dunia. XVIII-XX : Kejayaan Rusia dan Inggris meningkat, Turki Ottoman melemah. XX : The rise and fall of Nazi Germany and of the Soviet Union. The end of the European Colonial empires and initiated widespread decolonization.
  3. 3.  1914 : First World War caused the rise of German Empire and Austro-Hungarian Empire. Triple Alliance - Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria. Triple Entente – France, the United Kingdom and Russia, Italy (1915), Romania (1916) and US (1917). 1917 : First Cold War causes the Russian Revolution. 1919 : Treaty of Versailles, the winners imposed on Germany and recognized the new states (such as Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, Yugoslavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania). Fascism – in Italy (1922), Germany (1933), Spain (after a civil war ending in 1939). Hungary (1944), Romania (1940) and Slovakia (1939) were being independent.
  4. 4.  1939 : Mussolinis Italy and Soviet Union in the "Pact of Steel" and signing a non-aggression pact. 1 September 1939 : Adolf Hitler started the Second World War attacking Poland. Cold War 4-11 Februari 1945 : The Second World War ended by the Yalta Conference as it became the principal zone of contention in the Cold War between the two power blocs, the Western countries and the Communist bloc. The United States and Western Europe (United Kingdom, France, Italy, Netherlands, West Germany, etc.) established the NATO. The Soviet Union and its satellites in Europe (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania) established the Warsaw Pact. Meanwhile, western European countries slowly began a process of political and economic integration, with its aim to unite Europe and prevent another wars.
  5. 5.  9 May 1950 : The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was first proposed by French foreign minister Robert Schuman as a way to prevent further war between France and Germany. I July 1967 : The European Economic Community (EEC) was created by the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community of 1957. The EEC was subsumed into the European Union upon its creation in 1993 by the Maastricht Treaty. Formally renamed as the European Community. The European Union was formally established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force on 1 November 1993,and in 1995 Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the newly established EU. 1989 : Soviet Union is collapsed, which split into fifteen independent states. 1991 : the violent begins in Yugoslavia in the Balkans. Four (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia).
  6. 6. Eropa Barat
  7. 7. Austria LiechtensteinBelgium SpainPortugal GreekNetherland IrelandCyprus GermanSwitzerland ItalyFrance Britain Monaco
  8. 8. Great Britain On 1 May 1707 a new kingdom of Great Britain was created by the political union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland. 1 January 1801 : the union between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. British Empire grew the trade to India, large parts of Africa, and many other territories. Britains dominant controlled the economies of many countries, such as China, Argentina and Siam. After the 1st World War, UK received the League of Nations mandate over former German and Ottoman colonies, and the British Empire had expanded to its greatest extent, covering a fifth of the worlds land surface and a quarter of its population.Politic : Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state of the UK ( Commonwealth countries).
  9. 9.  The monarch has "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn". The UK has an uncodified constitution. The Constitution of UK : disparate written sources, including statutes, judge-made case law and international treaties, together with constitutional conventions. PM and cabinet are formally appointed by the monarch. The UKs three major political parties : Conservative Party, Labour Party , Liberal Democrats. The UK membership : UNSC, the Commonwealth of Nations, G7, G8, G20, NATO, WTO, the Council of Europe, OSCE, and EU. UK military operations in Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq and, most recently, Libya, have followed this approach. 1982 : Falklands War, is the last British war with victorious.
  10. 10. Economy : UK is the third-largest in Europe after Germany and France. Pound sterling is the worlds third-largest reserve currency (after the US Dollar and the Euro). London is one of the three "command centres" of the global economy (alongside New York City and Tokyo), is the worlds largest financial centre alongside New York, and has the largest city GDP in Europe. 2011 : the unemployment rate among 18 to 24 had risen from 11.9% to 20.3%.
  11. 11. Germany After WW II: the western sectors controlled by France, the UK and US, were merged on 23 May 1949 to form the Federal Republic of Germany (Berlin); on 7 October 1949, the Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic (Bonn). West Germany joined NATO in 1955 and was a founding member of EEC in 1957. East Germany joined the Warsaw Pact. Though East Germany claimed to be a democracy, political power was exercised solely by the communist- controlled Socialist Unity Party of Germany. The Berlin Wall, built in 1961 to stop East Germans from escaping to West Germany, became a symbol of the Cold War. The Berlin Wall was fall in 1989. Berlin/Bonn Act (10 March 1994) : Berlin once again became the capital of the reunified Germany, while Bonn obtained the unique status of a Bundesstadt (federal city).
  12. 12.  Active role : in the EU, NATO, peacekeeping force in the Balkans and Afghanistan. Germany domestic law : Germany only can deploy troops for defence roles. 2005 : Angela Merkel became the first female Chancellor of Germany as the leader of a grand coalition.Politic : The president primarily with representative responsibilities and powers. The chancellor is the head of government and exercises executive power, similar to the role of a Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies. Diplomatic network : 229 diplomatic missions abroad and maintains relations with more than 190 countries. 2011 : the largest contributor to the budget of EU (providing 20%) and the third largest contributor to the UN (providing 8%).
  13. 13.  Germany and US are close political allies. 1948 : Marshall Plan and strong cultural ties have crafted a strong bond between the two countries, although Schröders vocal opposition to the Iraq War suggested the end of Atlanticism and a relative cooling of German- American relations. The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program) where the US gave monetary support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to combat the spread of Soviet communism.Economy : Global brands are Mercedes Benz, BMW, Siemen, Volkswagen, Adidas, Audi, Allianz, Porsche, and Nivea. Germany has more 1000 small and medium enterprises.
  14. 14. Spain 16-17th : Spanish Habsburgs - Charles I (1516–1556) and Philip II (1556–1598). The Spanish Empire expanded to include great parts of the Americas, islands in the Asia-Pacific area, areas of Italy, cities in Northern Africa, as well as parts of what are now France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. 19th : nationalist movements arose in the Philippines and Cuba. 1898 : Spanish–American War, fought in the Spring. 1936–39 : The Spanish Civil War. Three years later the Nationalist forces, led by General Francisco Franco (Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy). The Spanish Civil War has been called the first battle of the Second World War.
  15. 15.  Post civil war regime was the Falange formed in 1937; the party emphasized anti-Communism, Catholicism and nationalism. The party was renamed the National Movement (Movimiento Nacional) in 1949. After WW II Spain was politically and economically isolated, and was kept out of the UN. 1960s : Spain registered an unprecedented rate of economic growth in what became known as the Spanish miracle, transition towards a modern economy.Post Franco November 1975: Francos death. Juan Carlos became the King of Spain and head of state in accordance with the law. 23 February 1981: rebel elements among the security forces seized the Cortes in an attempt to impose a military backed government. 30 May 1982 : Spain joined NATO, following a referendum. That year the Spanish Socialist Workers Party came to power, the first left-wing government in 43 years. 1986 : EU.
  16. 16.  1996 : General Elections, the PSOE was replaced in government by the Partido Popular. Spain is a constitutional monarchy, with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament, the Cortes Generales.Territorial disputes : Spain claims Gibraltar, in the southernmost part of the Iberian Peninsula. Then a Spanish town, it was conquered by an Anglo-Dutch force in 1704. 1713 : The legal situation concerning Gibraltar was settled in the Treaty of Utrecht. UN resolutions call on the UK and Spain to reach an agreement. Savage Islands - between Spain and Portugal. Perejil Island - rocky islet located in the South shore of the Strait of Gibraltar, disputed between Spain and Morocco. The armed incident happened in 2002.
  17. 17. France Louis XVI : The French Revolution (1789–1799), was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France that had a major impact on France and indeed all of Europe. France was a member of the Triple Entente when World War I broke out. France was one of the founding members of the NATO (1949). France attempted to regain control of French Indochina but was defeated by the Viet Minh at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954. Charles de Gaulle managed the peace negotiations in 1962 that led to Algerian independence.Politic : French politics are characterised by two politically opposed groupings: one left-wing, centred around the French Socialist Party, and the other right-wing, now its successor the Union for a Popular Movement.
  18. 18.  Membership : UN Security Council with veto rights, G8, WTO, EU and other communities and organizations. 1960s : France has developed close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential driving force of the EU. NATO : France under President de Gaulle, it excluded itself from the joint military command to avoid American domination of its foreign and security policies. However, as a result of Nicolas Sarkozys (much criticised in France by the leftists and by a part of the right) pro- American politics. 4 April 2009 : France rejoined the NATO. In the early 1990s : criticism from other nations for its underground nuclear tests in French Polynesia. 2003 : France vigorously opposed the invasion of Iraq, straining bilateral relations with the US and the UK.
  19. 19.  France has the second largest network of diplomatic missions in the world, second only to the USA. Since 1960 : France is a recognized nuclear state. France has signed and ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and acceeded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.Economy : A member of the G8 group of leading industrialized countries. It is ranked as the worlds fifth largest. 2nd largest economy of Europe by nominal GDP. 2010 : 39 of the 500 biggest companies of the world.
  20. 20. Italy a founding member of EU and NATO.  1955 : Italy was admitted to the UN.  Italy – joined in OECD, GATT/WTO, OSCE, CSCE, G8.  Italy – send the troops under UN Peacekeeping to Somalia, Mozambique, and East Timor and provides support for NATO and UN operations in Bosnia, Kosovo and Albania.  The Parliament of Italy is perfectly bicameral: • The Chamber of Deputies (that meets in Palazzo Montecitorio) • The Senate of the Republic (that meets in Palazzo Madama) Four major political parties : • People of Freedom, The Democratic Party, The Northern League, The Italy of Values
  21. 21. Economy : Italy has a free market economy : ◦ high per capita GDP, ◦ low unemployment rates 2010 : it was the 8th-largest economy in the world. Italy - has a smaller number of global MNC, but there is a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises. Tourism - profitable sectors of the national economy: with 43.6 million international tourist ($38.8 billion). 2008 : The Italian economy is weakened by the lack of infrastructure development, market reforms and research investment, and also high public deficit.
  22. 22. Netherland 1568-1648 : King of Spain Charles V, the Netherlands region was part of the Seventeen Provinces (Belgium, Luxembourg, and some land in France and Germany). Union of Utrecht – a treaty in which 17 provinces promised to support each other against the Spanish army. 1581 : Act of Abjuration - the declaration of independence in which the northwestern provinces officially deposed Philip II. Elizabeth I of England send an English army to aid the Dutch against Spanish. 1648 : Philip IV finally recognized the independence of 7 northwestern provinces (Holland, Zeeland, Groningen, Friesland,Utrecht,Overijssel, and Gelre) in the Peace of Münster.
  23. 23.  Dutch Golden Age was starting as an impact of Renaissance. The Dutch – English disputes arose. 1667 :Treaty of Breda - the Dutch decided to keep the plantation colony of Suriname conquered from the English. The English were left with New Amsterdam, a small trading post in North America, which is now known as New York City. 1795–1814 : French domination, the Bataafse Republiek (Batavian Republic). 1806-1813 : Louis Bonaparte control the Netherlands until Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Leipzig. 1815–1940 : Kingdom of the Netherlands. William I of the Netherlands became King of the Netherlands. 1815: Congress of Vienna - Netherlands with Belgium create a strong country. Luxemburg was gave to William. 1830 : The Belgium independence, 1890 - Luxemburg was separated from Netherland after William III died.
  24. 24.  1912 : World War I - Netherlands remained neutral. 1940–1945 : Second World War - Nazi invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940 as part of their campaign against the Allied forces. Netherlands - was one of the founding members of the Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) grouping. Organization : NATO, ECSC, EEC and EU. 1960-1970’s : time of great social and cultural change, and religious lines. 2001 : Netherlands recognize same-sex marriage, drug’s policy. 2010 : Netherlands Antilles – land of Netherlands in the Caribbean - was dissolved.Economy : The Dutch - rank third in value of agricultural exports ( US and France) with earning $55 billion annually.
  25. 25.  Companies : Unilever, Heineken, financial services (ING), chemicals (DSM), Shell, Philips, ASML) and car navigation Tom-Tom. Index of Economic Freedom : 13th most free market capitalist.Politic : 1815 : The Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy. 1848 : parliamentary democracy. Head of state - Queen Beatrix. The head of government is the PM. Multi-party system : no single party has held a majority in parliament, coalition cabinets had to be formed. 3 families of parties: • The Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), • The social democrats ( Labour Party (PvdA)), • The liberals (Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD))
  26. 26.  2010 :Geert Wilders whose PVV won the election. VVD- led minority government in coalition with CDA. The foreign policy based on four basic commitments: • The Atlantic cooperation, • European integration, • International development, • International law. The more controversial international issues - its liberal policy towards soft drugs.
  27. 27. Greece 1860’s : Russia, the UK and France, decided to intervene in the conflict of Greece against Turks and Egyptian. 1830 : London Protocol - finally recognized the Greek State. 1893 : the Declaration of Public Insolvency - an International Financial Control authority. 1897 : Greco-Turkish War - the badly trained and equipped Greek army was defeated by the Ottomans. Issue in 19th-century : the language question of Greece. Demotic (Ancient Greekor) Katharevousa (purified) Greek. Demotic – officially became national language, but conservatives and the Orthodox Church resisted. This issue would continue to plague Greek politics until the 1970s. All Greeks were united, however, in their determination to liberate the Greek-speaking provinces of the Ottoman Empire.
  28. 28. Greece in the 20th : 1913 : Balkan Wars - The increasing its territory and population. WWI : the opposition - King Constantine I and PM Eleftherios Venizelos. Greece has two government : • a royalist pro-German government in Athens. • a Venizelist pro-Britain one in Thessaloniki. 1917 : The two governments were united to Triple Entente. Greece fought against Turkish nationalists led by Mustafa Kemal Pasha. 1924 : Second Hellenic Republic was declared. 1936 : Ioannis Metaxas as the head of a fascist regime. But Greece remained in good terms with Britain and was not allied with the Axis. German soldiers raising the German War Flag over the Acropolis of Athens. 28 October 1940 : Greco-Italian War – Greek victory over Axis forces.
  29. 29.  The Greek civil war - communist and anticommunist forces. July 1965 : King Constantine IIs dismissal of George Papandreous centrist government. 1973 : a counter-coup established Brigadir Dimitrios Ioannidis as dictator. 1974 : as Turkey invaded the island of Cyprus, the regime collapsed. PM Konstantinos Karamanlis was invited back from Paris where he had lived in self-exile since 1963. 1974 : Greek forces withdrew from NATO, in protest at the Turkish occupation of northern Cyprus. 11 June 1975 : A democratic and republican constitution was promulgated following a referendum, which chose to not restore the monarchy. 1979 : Greece joined to EC
  30. 30.  Andreas Papandreou - Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK), Karamanlis - conservative New Democracy party. 1980 : Greece rejoined NATO. 1999 : relations with Turkey improved when successive earthquakes hit both nations, and Greek lift its veto against Turkeys bid for EU membership. 2001 : Greece adopted the euro. Widespread investments in industrial enterprises and heavy infrastructure, and growing revenues from tourism, shipping and a fast-growing service sector have raised the countrys standard of living. 2000’s : Greece has been hit hard by European sovereign debt crisis. The economic crisis and resultant, sometimes violent protests have roiled domestic politics and regularly threatened European and world financial-market stability in 2010–11.
  31. 31.  Greeces foreign policy - to represent Greece before other states and international organizations; safeguarding the interests of the Greek state and of its citizens abroad; the promotion of Greek culture; the fostering of closer relations with the Greek diaspora; and the promotion of international cooperation. Additionally, Greece has developed a regional policy to help promote peace and stability in the Balkans, the Mediterranean and the Middle East. 3 issues as of particular importance to the Greek state: • Turkish claims over what the Ministry defines as Greek sovereignty over the Aegean Sea and corresponding airspace; • The legitimacy of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus on the island of Cyprus; • The Macedonia naming dispute with the small Balkan country which shares a name with Greeces largest and second-most-populous region, also called Macedonia.
  32. 32. Skandinavia
  33. 33. Denmark 1397: Denmark entered the Kalmar Union with Norway and Sweden « Queen Margaret I ». The Protestant Reformation came to Scandinavia in the 1530s, and following the Counts Feud civil war, Denmark converted to Lutheranism in 1536. Later that year, Denmark entered into a union with Norway. 5 June 1849 – Monarchy Constitution. Head of state – Margaret II. 9 April 1940 : Germanys invasion of Denmark – code named Operation Weserübung. 1948 : Iceland severed ties to Denmark and became an independent republic. The Faroese declining membership in EEC from 1973 and Greenland from 1986, in both cases because of fisheries policies.
  34. 34.  1979 : Greenland gained home rule. Greenland and the Faroe Islands – aren’t members of EU. 1990’s : the Denmark economic increasing on refrigerator, electronic, ship, and auto productions. 1990’s : Social Democratic Party had leading, and did the changes: • Regulating the system and right on field (buying system only for them, who have graduation certificates of agro-education, the fields can’t inherit, the field must be effectively produce) • Reforming state government in three system (municipal level, regional and federal) • The parliament assembly – free attended for all citizens. • The corruption was decreased. • Tax income – companies 37%, citizens 52%, so high.
  35. 35.  2001 : Left-party won the elections fully (Wenstre Party – Paul Newroop Rasmusen) The problems : • 1990’s : Immigration raised up to 7 % from its population (get a social rights, but no works effectiveness). • Decreasing the tax, giving off pregnant • Restricting the immigration’s law (main problem in 2001) • Faroe islands – the biggest oil territory wish to separate, send the letter of intent to UN. Norway support the independent of Faroe. • Greenland – created the self-government (main problem in 20 century). Income of production – 375 million dollars/year. 2002 : Referendum was held in Greenland. 2009 : awarded self-independent.
  36. 36. Political Affair : 2000 : The Russian president visit to Copenhagen, Denmark asking for an excuse on statement on Chechnya conflict. Nuclear issues – AS project in Greenland (Denmark- Russia) 2001 : Russia bans Denmark on fishing in the sea Barentsev. 28-29 October 2002 : The Chechnya congress in Copenhagen (the bad period of Russia-Denmark relations) A. Zakaeva arrest has not been proven (head of Chechnya separatism) 2003 : Russia asks Denmark to give the Maria Fedorovna ()
  37. 37. Sweden 8-11th century : The Swedish Viking Age. The Swedish Vikings and Gutar mainly travelled east and south, going to Finland, the Baltic countries, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine the Black Sea (Baghdad). 17th century : Sweden emerged as a European great power (Gustavus Adolphus). Thirty Years War - Sweden conquered approximately half of the Holy Roman states. 1702 : Charles XII instead turning against Poland- Lithuania and defeating the Polish king Augustus II and his Saxon allies at the Battle of Kliszow. 1709 : After invading Poland, Charles invades Russia which ended in Russian victory (Battle of Poltava). Russia - all the Swedish annexations on the Baltic coast and even Finland.
  38. 38.  18th: Russia which became the highly autonomous Grand Principality of Finland . 1750-1850 : the Sweden population doubled. 1880’s : Mass emigration to America became the only way to prevent famine and rebellion; over 1% of the population emigrated annually. 20th : more 1 million Swedes moved and lived in Chicago than in Gothenburg , Midwestern US, with a large population in Minnesota, and Canada. The government innovations - sponsored programs of enclosure, aggressive exploitation of agricultural lands, and the introduction of new crops (potato). 1870-1914 : Sweden began developing the industrialized economy that exists today. WWI : Sweden supported Norwegian resistance, and in 1943 helped rescue Danish Jews from deportation.
  39. 39.  WWII : Sweden - part of the Marshall Plan and participated in the Organization of Economic Co- operation and Development (OECD). 1 January 1995 : Sweden joined the EU. Sweden - the chair of EU from 1 July to 31 December 2009. The Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading political role since 1917 (Russian revolution). After 1932: cabinets have been dominated by the Social Democrats. Only five general elections (1976, 1979, 1991, 2006 and 2010) have given the centre-right bloc enough seats in Parliament to form a government. 1970s : poor economic performance 1990s : the fiscal crisis, Swedens political system has become less one-sided, and more like other European countries.
  40. 40.  2006 : general election the Moderate Party (the Centre Party, Liberal Peoples Party, and the Christian Democrats formed the centre-right Alliance) for Sweden and won a majority of the votes. Cold War : Sweden combined its policy of non- alignment and a low profile in international affairs with a security policy based on strong national defense.
  41. 41. Norway 994 : Two centuries of Viking raids adopted of Christianity (by King Olav Tryggvason). 13th: Norway expanded its control overseas to parts of the British Isles, Iceland, and Greenland. 1319 : Magnus Erikson inherited the throne as King Magnus VII of Norway. Both Sweden and Denmark were united (Kalmar Union). 1521: After Sweden broke out of the Kalmar Union, Norway remained with Denmark until 1814. 1812 : After Denmark–Norway was attacked by UK and France (Battle of Copenhagen). 1814 : Treaty of Kiel - to cede Norway to the king of Sweden. 17 May 1814 : independence of Norway (Christian Frederick), also called Norwegian Constitution Day.
  42. 42.  7 June 1905 : the peaceful separation of Norway from Sweden. 1905-1907 : Christian Michelsen – PM of Norway. WWI-WWII : Norway also proclaimed its neutrality, but Norway was invaded by German forces on 9 April 1940. 1945-1962 : the Labour Party held an absolute majority in the parliament. PM Einar Gerhardsen, embarked on economics, emphasizing state financed industrialization, cooperation between trade unions and employers organizations. Norway received the Marshall Plan. 1969: the company Phillips Petroleum discovered petroleum resources at the Ekofisk field west of Norway. 1973: the Norwegian government founded the State oil company, Statoil.
  43. 43.  Norway - a member of the European Free Trade Area (EFTA). Constitution of Norway - adopted by the US Declaration of Independence and French Revolution of 1776 and 1789. Norwegians enjoy the second highest GDP per- capita (after Luxembourg) and fourth highest GDP (PPP) per-capita in the world. The Norwegian economy is an example of a mixed economy (capitalist welfare state featuring a combination of free market).
  44. 44. Finlandia 12th-19th : Finland was a part of Sweden. 1809–1917 : was an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire. The October Revolution in Russia changed the game anew, as radical communists took power in Russia. 6 December 1917 : The Finnish Declaration of Independence from Russia in was followed by a civil war in which the red side was defeated with German support. 27 January 1918 : the official opening shots of the war were fired in two simultaneous events. This sparked the brief but bitter civil war. The White (Imperial Germany), prevailed over the Reds.
  45. 45.  After the war, social and political enmity was sown between the Reds and Whites and would last until the Winter War and beyond.  1920 - Treaty of Tartu : the Finnish–Russian border was determined by the largely following the historic border but granting Pechenga and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland. World War II : as essentially three separate conflicts: the Winter War (1939–40), the Continuation War (1941–44), and the Lapland War (1944–45). 1990-an : Pemerintahan - Koalisi Partai Social Democrat dan Konservatif. Parlement election 1991 Konservatif menang, Sosial Demokrat bergabung dengan Partai Kanan «Partai Agraria» dalam koalisi oposisi. PM Ekso Aho – menyelesaikan masalah ekonomi nasional dan pasar dunia.
  46. 46.  1994 : Presiden Mauno Koivisto kalah, Martti Ahtisaari menang dengan 54% suara. Martti : Integrasi EC dan NATO ditentang oposisi. 1995 : Paabo Lipponen (Social-Democrat) menang dalam parlemen election. PM Paabo mengubah UU, memaksimalkan fungsi parlemen, dan bergabung dengan EC. Program : • Asuransi negara, • Dana sosial - misal : untuk janda – pendidikan dan kebutuhan anak dapat bantuan pemerintah. • Dukungan anak dan keluarga muda - misal : anak pertama – 90 euro, kedua – 130, ketiga- 15, seterusnya -172 tiap bulannya. Kebutuhan keluarga muda dibantu organisasi sosial, tujuannya agar tidak ada pelanggaran hak anak dalam keluarga.
  47. 47. • Perang melawan korupsi – sistem kontrol pemerintah dalam perbankan sangat ketat, tidak boleh membuka rekening rahasia. Pejabat wajib mencetak laporan dan mempublikasikan keuangannya tiap tahun. • Dampak positif : 2002 - kasus korupsi yang terjadi setelah 30 tahun bersih. Kontrol pemerintah – tidak ada satupun menteri yang dapat membeli mobil baru jika tidak melaporkan keuangannya. Sumber pendapatan negara – pusat olahraga es dunia, pariwisata, industri elektronik, Permasalahan dalam negeri 1990-an : • Pembangunan Atom Power plant – pertentangan antara partai «Hijau» dan Sayap kiri «pengikut Lepponen», tidak disetujui EU. • 11 0ct 2002 : aksi terrorisme menewaskan 60 warga Finlandia
  48. 48.  Political Affairs : • 1990-an : Kepentingan politik - hub.dengan Rusia. • 1992 : Perjanjian Kerjasama dan dagang Rus-Finland. • 1999 : Finland – perwakilan resmi EU untuk masalah Yugoslavia. • T. Halonen – menentang masuknya Finlandia ke dalam NATO dengan alasan besarnya pengeluaran pertahanan. Finland seharusnya bisa menjadi jembatan antara Eropa dengan Rusia. • PM Lipponen – cepat atau lambat perlu gabung dengan NATO «Laut Baltic». • 2000 : President Election – Tarya Halonen «Social Democrat Party» menang, arah politik : integrasi ke Eropa, tidak dalam NATO, percepatan ekonomi, kesejahteraan sosial, prinsip politik netral, perlindungan perempuan, dan keadilan.
  49. 49. • 2002 : Pertumbuhan ekonomi di pulau Karel «Rusia- Finland». Keanggotaan : 1955 : Finland joined the UN, the OECD in 1969, EU in 1995, and the eurozone at its inception in 1999.
  50. 50. Middle and East Europe
  51. 51. RussiaI. Ancient Russia (IX—XIII века)II. Novgorod Russia (862—882)III. Kiev Russia (882—1240); (распад)IV. Udelniy Russia (XII—XVI века)V. Novgorod Republic (1136—1478)VI. Vladimir Tsar (1157—1389)VII. Russia and Litovsk Tsar (1236—1795)VIII. Moscow Tsar (1263—1547)IX. United RussiaX. Russian Tsar (1547—1721)XI. Russian Emperor (1721—1917)XII. Russia Republic (1917)XIII. Soviet Russia (1917—1922)XIV. Alternative EducationXV. Soviet Union (1922—1991)XVI. Russian Federation (с 1991)
  52. 52.  Rusia berasal dari bahasa Yunani yaitu Rusi «Руси», yang kemudian berganti menjadi Moskoviya «Московия» abad XV. 862 : Seorang bernama Rurik bermigrasi dari Kiev dan mulai mendirikan wilayah pemukiman dan kerajaan kecil di Novgorod. 882 : Keturunan Rurikovich memerintah di Kiev, termasuk kedalamnya Slavia Timur. Novgorod dan Kiev disatukan pada masa Oleg. 980- 1015 : Vladimir I menyatukan semua tanah Slavia ke dalam Kiev Rusi. 988 : Vladimir I melakukan pembabtisan diri dan menjadikan Kristen Ortodox sebagai agama di Rusia. 1206 : Kaisar Mongolia Han mulai menyerang ke wilayah Rusia.
  53. 53.  1211 : Asia Tengah mulai melebarkan sayap kekuasaan agama. Iran mulai hadir di Zakaukasus, armenia, ajerbaizan, Georgia harus dikosongkan. 1547 : Raja pemerintah Moscow Ivan IV «Иван IV Грозный» pertama kali resmi menjadi Kaisar seluruh wilayah Moscow, Novgorod dan Kiev. 1554—1557 : Perang dengan Swedia berlangsung. 1601 : Masa Kelam - Gagal panen selama 2 tahun, harga meningkat 100 kali lipat. Penduduk mulai memakan kucing, anjing, dan hewan pengerat . 1700-an : Peter I memenangkan perang dengan Swedia dan Polandia. 1712 : St.Peterburg menjadi ibukota Rusia dan pusat pemerintahan «Dinasti Romanov» 1797-1867 : Sejarah hubungan Rusia-Amerika.
  54. 54.  7 Februari 1855 : Rusia dan Jepang menandatangani perjanjian dagang dan perbatasan , disebut Perjanjian Simoda. • Simoda, Hakodate dan Nagasaki untuk Rusia. • Ditetapkan perbatasan Dalniy Vostok. • Rusia : pulau Urup ke Utara dan Sakhalin sepenuhnya. • 4 pulau : Iturup, Kunashir, Shikotan dan Habomai masuk kedalam kepulauan Kuril. • Penafsiran Jepang 4 pulau tersebut tidak termasuk kedalam kepulauan Kuril. • Perjanjian Simoda menjadi dasar permasalahan kedua negara.  1917 : Revolusi Bolshevik. Kerusuhan digerakkan oleh kelompok Cekoslovakia. Kelompok Cekoslovakia anggotanya adalah bangsa Ceko dan Slovakia yang menjadi narapidana perang Austria-Hungaria.
  55. 55.  7 Februari 1855 : Rusia dan Jepang menandatangani perjanjian dagang dan perbatasan , disebut Perjanjian Simoda. • Simoda, Hakodate dan Nagasaki untuk Rusia. • Ditetapkan perbatasan Dalniy Vostok. • Rusia : pulau Urup ke Utara dan Sakhalin sepenuhnya. • 4 pulau : Iturup, Kunashir, Shikotan dan Habomai masuk kedalam kepulauan Kuril. • Penafsiran Jepang 4 pulau tersebut tidak termasuk kedalam kepulauan Kuril. • Perjanjian Simoda menjadi dasar permasalahan kedua negara.  1917 : Revolusi Bolshevik. Kerusuhan digerakkan oleh kelompok Cekoslovakia. Kelompok Cekoslovakia anggotanya adalah bangsa Ceko dan Slovakia yang menjadi narapidana perang Austria-Hungaria.
  56. 56.  Februari 1945 : Yalt Conference - Stalin menyatakan siap perang dengan Jepang, 6 bulan setelah Jerman dikalahkan Soviet. Sekutu menjamin Soviet untuk mendapatkan kepentingannya yaitu Dalniy Vostok, Sakhalin Selatan, kepulauan Kuril, Port Arthur, dan jalur kereta api Cina Timur. 26 Juni 1945 : Potsdam Declaration – Soviet joined America, UK and China ―kekalahan tanpa syarat bagi Jepang‖. 1940-an : Setelah kematian Stalin, politik Soviet di Samudera Pasifik mengalami perubahan. Soviet mendukung gerakan kemerdekaan nasional dan anti kolonialisme di Asia (Indonesia, Vietnam, dan Filiphina). 1950-an : AS mendeklarasikan doktrin «anti- communism».
  57. 57.  1954-1975 : Indo-China Conflict – Russia, US, China, Vietnam. 1989 : The end of Soviet Union Period – 15 republic (CIS : Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirgystan, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Moldova )
  58. 58. Balkan (South Europe)
  59. 59. Yugoslavia 1918 : Kingdom of Yugoslavia (under King Alexander I) 1929 : renamed the country Yugoslavia. Alexander attempted to create a centralized Yugoslavia (dictator). Communist ideas were banned in Yugoslavia. 1934 : The king was assassinated in Marseille, France by Ivan Mihailov (Macedonian Revolutionary Organization). 1934–1941 : Yugoslavia pressured by Fascist Italy and Germany. 25 March 1941 : Prince Paul submitted to the fascist pressure and signed the Tripartite Treaty in Vienna. 27 March 1941 : a coup détat by Senior military officers (Dušan Simović). 6 April 1941: Hitler attacked Yugoslavia and Greece.
  60. 60.  Two factions of resistance forces : the communist- led Yugoslav Partisans (led by Josip Broz Tito ) and Chetniks (Draža Mihajlović). Chetnik transformed into Serb nationalist militia ( dependent on Axis). Partisans carried on their guerrilla. 1944 : The Partisans denied the supremacy of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and Marshal Josip Broz was elected by referendum starting as a prime minister. 7 April 1963 : Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Josip Broz Tito as President for Life). Each republic and province Yugoslavia had its own constitution, supreme court, parliament, president and prime minister. But Tito is the top president. 1970–1971 : The suppression of national identities for Croatian autonomy. 1989 : Economic crisis 1970’s called bankrupt firms entire Yugoslavia. w.
  61. 61.  The Crisis effect : • 248 firms were liquidated, • 89,400 workers were laid off, • the adoption of the IMF programmes, • An additional 20% of the work force, or half a million people, were not paid wages to avoid bankruptcy. • The largest bankrupt firms and lay-offs were in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Kosovo. • This was a turning point in Yugoslavia. 4 May 1980 : After the death of Tito, ethnic tensions grew in Yugoslavia. The constitutional crisis in all republics: Slovenia and Croatia demanded for looser ties within the Federation, the Albanian majority in Kosovo demanded the status of a republic, Serbia sought absolute, not only relative dominion over Yugoslavia.
  62. 62.  Slobodan Milošević restore pre-1974 Serbian sovereignty. Other republics, denounced this move as a revival of great Serbian hegemonism. The ethnic Albanian miners in Kosovo organized ethnic conflict between the Albanians and the non-Albanians. 1980’s : 80% of the population of Kosovo ethnic- Albanians were the majority. The number of Slavs in Kosovo is 10%. January 1990 : the extraordinary 14th Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia was convened. The Serbian delegation, led by Milošević, insisted on a policy of "one person, one vote", which would empower the plurality population, the Serbs. 1990 : each of the republics held multi-party elections.
  63. 63.  Yogurt Revolutions : Slobodan Milošević installed his proponents in Vojvodina, Kosovo and Montenegro. 1990 : the republics of Slovenia and Croatia proposed transforming Yugoslavia into six republics (right to self-determination). 25 June 1991 : Slovenia and Croatia became the first republics to declare independence from Yugoslavia. Ceasefire was agreed upon the Brioni Agreement, recognized by representatives of all republics, the international community pressured Slovenia and Croatia to place a three-month moratorium on their independence. 1992 : Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as a successor to the previous state. In 2003 : it was reconstituted as a political union called the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.
  64. 64.  September 1991 : the Republic of Macedonia also declared independence. 27 November 1991 : the result of the conflict, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted UN Security Council Resolution 721(peacekeeping operations). 9 January 1992 : the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb assembly proclaimed a separate "Republic of the Serb people of Bosnia and Herzegovina". February–March 1992: the government held a national referendum on Bosnian independence from Yugoslavia.
  65. 65. Baltic States
  66. 66. Baltic States 18th century : The Russian Empire controlled over Baltic. 1918 : Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania became sovereign nations by declaring independence (Bolshevist Russia). 1939: Following the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, the Soviet Army entered eastern Poland (as military bases in the Baltic states). June 1940: the Red Army occupied all of the territory of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, and installed pro-Soviet governments. August 1940 : The "elected" parliaments of the three countries formally applied to "join" the Soviet Union. The Soviet Unions attempts : • instituting the Russian Language as the only working language and other such tactics, • at sovietization of its occupied territories.
  67. 67.  1944 : the German occupations. with the passive agreement of the US and Britain (see Yalta Conference and Potsdam Agreement). 1947 : the forced collectivisation of agriculture began. Baltic Way - one of the most spectacular events when a two-million-strong human chain stretched. 6 September 1991 : Soviet Union recognized the independence of three Baltic states. The last Russian troops were withdrawn from there in August 1994].Economy : January 2011 : Estonia adopted the euro, whilst Latvia and Lithuania do not have a specified date, but Lithuania hopes to do the same in the following years and Latvia in 2014.
  68. 68. Politic : The system - parliamentary democracies (unicameral parliaments that are elected by popular vote to serve 4 year terms – Riigikogu of Estonia, Saeima of Latvia and Seimas of Lithuania). Latvia and Estonia - the president is elected by parliament, Lithuania - semi-presidential (the president is elected by popular vote). Baltic countries has declared itself to be the restoration of the sovereign nations (1918–1940). Contention - Soviet domination over the Baltic nations during the Cold War period had been an illegal occupation and annexation. US, UK, and all other Western democracies - always considered the forcible incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union to be illegal.
  69. 69.  Australia - support of Baltic freedom in 1974, did recognize Soviet dominion. Integration with Western Europe was chosen as the main strategic goal. 2004 : the Baltic nations become members of the NATO and EU. The separated friendship developed between Baltic ministers of foreign affairs and the Nordic ministers of foreign affairs (the Council of the Baltic Sea States in 1992). 13 June 1994 : co-operation among governments Baltic Council of Ministers.

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