Drought-Tolerant Plants for North and Central Florida

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Drought-Tolerant Plants for North and Central Florida

  1. 1. Drought-Tolerant Plants for North and Central Florida Gary Knox
  2. 2. 2 Drought-Tolerant Plants for Nor th and Central Florida Drought- ought-T for NorthDrought-Tolerant Plants for North and Central FloridaPrepared by: Gary Knox, Professor, North Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Quincy, FloridaCopyright 2005 by University of Florida Cooperative Extension ServicePublished September 2005Instructional materials for Water, Water, Everywhere?, including teacher’s guide,participant workbooks, fact sheets, PowerPoint presentations, a video viewerguide, and public service announcements are available for download from the IFASDisaster Handbook Web site <http://disaster.ifas.ufl.edu>.Development of Water Water Everywhere was supported by USDA Special Needs Grant2001-41210-01188.Cover images — Upper left: Native Plant Society of Texas Lower left: Sarasota County Cooperative Extension Right: Shirley Denton
  3. 3. Drought-Tolerant Plants for North and Central Florida Drought- ought-T for North 3 “Drought” “DroughtWhat is “Drought” and “Drought Stress?”In nature, water is usually the most limiting factor for plant growth. This is also the case inhome or commercial landscapes. If plants do not receive adequate rainfall or irrigation, theresulting drought stress can reduce growth more than all other environmental stressescombined.Drought can be defined as the absence of rainfall or irrigation for a period of time sufficientDroughtto deplete soil moisture and injure plants.Drought stress results when water loss from the plant exceeds the ability of the plant’s rootsDroughtto absorb water and when the plant’s water content is reduced enough to interfere withnormal plant processes.In Florida, plants may frequently encounter drought stress. Rainfall is very seasonal, andperiodic drought occurs regularly. Because Florida’s soils are typically sandy and have lowwater-holding capacity, many plants may experience drought stress after only a few dayswithout water. During drought, local governments may place restrictions on landscape irriga-tion in order to conserve potable water, and landscape plants may become subject todrought stress. Using drought-tolerant plants in the landscape can reduce the likelihood ofplant injury due to drought stress.How Does Drought Stress Affect Plants?How Drought AffA plant responds to a lack of water by halting growth and reducing photosynthesis and otherplant processes in order to reduce water use. As water loss progresses, leaves of somespecies may appear to change color — usually to blue-green. Foliage begins to wilt, and if theplant is not irrigated, leaves will fall off and the plant will eventually die.Drought symptoms resemble salt stress because high concentrations of salts in the rootzone cause water loss from roots. Close examination of environmental and cultural condi-tions should help identify the specific problem.How Long Before Drought Stress Develops?How Before Drought DevThe time required for drought injury to occur depends on the water-holding capacity of thesoil, environmental conditions, stage of plant growth, and plant species. Plants growing insandy soils with low water-holding capacity are more susceptible to drought stress thanplants growing in clay soils. A limited root system will accelerate the rate at which drought
  4. 4. 4 Drought-Tolerant Plants for Nor th and Central Florida Drought- ought-T for Northstress develops. A root system may be limited by the presence of competing root systems, bysite conditions such as compacted soils or high water tables, or by container size (if growingin a container). A plant with a large mass of leaves in relation to the root system is prone todrought stress because the leaves may lose water faster than the roots can supply it. Newlyinstalled plants and poorly established plants may be especially susceptible to droughtstress because of the limited root system or the large mass of stems and leaves in compari-son to roots.How Does Environment Affect Drought Stress?How Envir vironment Aff DroughtAside from the moisture content of the soil, environmental conditions of high light intensity,high temperature, low relative humidity and high wind speed will significantly increase plantwater loss.The prior environment of a plant also can influence the development of drought stress. Aplant that has been drought stressed previously and has recovered may become moredrought-resistant. Also, a plant that was well-watered prior to drought will usually survivedrought better than a continuously drought-stressed plant. to Reduce Eff DroughtWhat Changes Can Be Made to Reduce Effects of Drought in theLandscape?The landscape environment can be modified to reduce or prevent drought stress by irriga-tion, mulching, providing shade, and creating windbreaks. Reducing the overall water re-quirements of the landscape is best achieved by initially designing the landscapes for waterconservation, including efficient irrigation systems, proper watering, and the use of drought-tolerant plants where appropriate. For more information, check these resources: • Florida Yards and Neighborhoods Web site: <http://hort.ufl.edu/fyn/> • Landscape Design for Water Conservation, Florida Extension Fact Sheet ENH-72 • Coping with Drought in the Landscape, Florida Extension Fact Sheet ENH-70 • Managing Your Florida Lawn Under Drought Conditions, Florida Extension Fact Sheet ENH-157 • Improving Drought Tolerance in Your Florida Lawn, Florida Extension Fact Sheet ENH-57 • Watering Your Florida Lawn, Florida Extension Fact Sheet ENH-9
  5. 5. Drought-Tolerant Plants for North and Central Florida Drought- ought-T for North 5Note: Fact sheets are available through the Florida Extension Service Publications Web site:<http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu>. Characteristics Drought- ought-TWhat are the Characteristics of Drought-Tolerant Plants?Some species have an inherent tolerance of drought because they have evolved in aridareas, regions with frequent drought, or regions with soils of low water-holding capacity.Some species have anatomical or physiological characteristics that allow them to withstanddrought or to acclimate to drought.All plants have a waxy coating on their leaves called “cuticle,” but some species have devel-oped exceptionally thick cuticles that reduce the amount of water lost by evaporation fromthe leaf surface. Leaf hairs, which reduce air movement at the leaf surface, are anothermeans of reducing evaporation from the leaf. Since the amount of surface area exposed tothe atmosphere affects evaporation, leaf size and thickness are other adaptations, withthicker leaves and smaller leaves being more resistant to water loss.Some species have evolved large surface root systems to quickly absorb rainfall, while otherspecies grow deep root systems to tap deep water tables. Some plants avoid drought bydropping their leaves during droughts, and quickly regrowing new leaves when environmentalconditions improve.
  6. 6. 6 Drought-Tolerant Plants for Nor th and Central Florida Drought- ought-T for North Drought- ought-TLists of Drought-Tolerant PlantsThe plants listed in the following tables have been reported to tolerate drought stress betterthan most landscape plants. Although these plants are considered drought-tolerant, newplantings will require regular irrigation for 6 weeks to 6 months or more before they becomeestablished well enough to be effectively drought-tolerant. Trees larger than two inchescaliper (two inches in diameter) will take longer to establish.Plants are listed in one of five categories: • Trees • Palms • Shrubs • Groundcovers • VinesWithin each list, plants are listed in alphabetical order according to scientific name. Commonnames are also given. Plants native to Florida are indicated, and the region of adaptationwithin north and central Florida is given for each plant. North Florida (N) extends fromPensacola to Jacksonville and south to Ocala; central Florida (C) consists of the area fromOcala south to Punta Gorda and Fort Pierce. Nor th North Central South
  7. 7. Drought-Tolerant Plants for North and Central FloridaDrought- ought-T for North 7 TreesCommon Name Scientific Name Scientific Native? Native? Region of AdaptationBox elder Acer negundo Yes NBauhinia, Orchid tree Bauhinia blakeana, ----- C B. purpurea, B. monandraBottlebrush Calistemon spp. ----- CPignut hickory Carya glabra Yes N, CCatalpa Catalpa spp. Some NCedar Cedrus spp. ----- N, CHackberry, Sugarberry Celtis spp. Some N, CRedbud Cercis canadensis Yes N, CCitrus Citrus spp. ----- N, CSmoke tree Cotinus spp. Some NHawthorn Crataegus spp. Some N, CCypress Cupressus spp. ----- NLoquat Eriobotryia japonica ----- N, CCoral tree, Cockspur coral tree Erythrina crista-galli Yes CEucalyptus, Gum tree Eucalyptus spp. Some CEvodia Evodia spp. ----- N, CFig Ficus carica ----- N, CHoneylocust Gleditsia triacanthos Yes NSilk oak Grevillea robusta ----- CAmerican holly Ilex opaca Yes N, CYaupon, Yaupon holly Ilex vomitoria Yes N, CJacaranda Jacaranda mimosifolia ----- CSouthern red cedar Juniperus silicicola Yes N, C
  8. 8. 8 Drought-Tolerant Plants for Nor th and Central Florida Drought- ought-T for North TreesCommon Name Scientific Name Scientific Native? Native? Region of AdaptationJuniper Juniperus spp. Some N, CCrape myrtle Lagerstroemia indica, ----- N, C L. fauriei, L. (indica x fauriei)Laurel Laurus nobilis ----- CMacadamia nut Macadamia integrifolia ----- COsage orange Maclura pomifera ----- NSouthern magnolia Magnolia grandiflora Yes N, CMulberry Morus spp. Some N,CWax myrtle Myrica cerifera Yes N,CJerusalem thorn Parkinsonia aculeata ----- N, CBay Persea spp. Some N, CSand pine Pinus clausa Yes N, CSlash pine Pinus elliottii Yes N, CJapanese black pine Pinus thunbergiana ----- NPistachio Pistacia spp. ----- N, COriental arborvitae Platycladus orientalis ----- N, CPodocarpus, Yew podocarpus Podocarpus macrophyllus ----- N, CNagi podocarpus Podocarpus nagi ----- CWhite poplar Populus alba ----- NChickasaw plum Prunus angustifolia Yes N, CCherry laurel Prunus caroliniana Yes N, CCherry plum Prunus cerasifera ----- NHoptree Ptelea trifoliata Yes N, CChapman oak Quercus chapmanii Yes C
  9. 9. Drought-Tolerant Plants for North and Central FloridaDrought- ought-T for North 9 TreesCommon Name Scientific Name Scientific Native? Native? Region of AdaptationHolly oak Quercus ilex ----- N, CBluejack oak Quercus incana Yes N, CTurkey oak Quercus laevis Yes N, CLaurel oak Quercus laurifolia Yes N, CBur oak Quercus macrocarpa Yes N, CMyrtle oak Quercus myrtifolia Yes CWater oak Quercus nigra Yes N, CPin oak Quercus palustris ----- N,CChestnut oak Quercus prinus Yes N,CShumard oak Quercus shumardii Yes N, CPost oak Quercus stellata Yes N, CCork oak Quercus suber ----- N, CBlack oak Quercus velutina Yes N, CLive oak Quercus virginiana Yes NSumac Rhus spp. Some N, CLocust Robinia spp. Some NSoapberry Sapindus spp. Some N, CJapanese pagoda tree, Sophora spp. Some N, CNecklace podTamarisk Tamarix spp. ----- N, CPond cypress Taxodium ascendens Yes N, CBaldcypress Taxodium distichum Yes N, CElm Ulmus spp. Some N, CZelkova Zelkova serrata ----- N, CJujube Ziziphus spp. ----- N, C
  10. 10. 10 Drought-Tolerant Plants for Nor th and Central Florida Drought- ought-T for North PalmsCommon Name Scientific Name Scientific Native? Native? Region of AdaptationPaurotis palm Acoelorrhaphe wrightii Yes CQueen palm Arecastrum romanzoffianum ----- CPindo palm Butia capitata ----- N, CEuropean fan palm Chamaerops humilis ----- N, CSago palm Cycas revoluta ----- N, CCanary Island date palm Phoenix canariensis ----- N, CPygmy date palm Phoenix roebelenii ----- CNeedle palm Rhapidophyllum hystrix Yes N, CLady palm Rhapis excelsa ----- N, CDwarf palmetto Sabal minor Yes N, CCabbage palm Sabal palmetto Yes N, CSaw palmetto Serenoa repens Yes N, CWindmill palm Trachycarpus fortunei ----- NCalifornia fan palm, Washingtonia filifera ----- N, CDesert fan palmMexican fan palm, Washingtonia robusta ----- N, CWashington palm
  11. 11. Drought-Tolerant Plants for North and Central FloridaDrought- ought-T for North 11 ShrubsCommon Name Scientific Name Scientific Native? Native? Region of AdaptationGlossy abelia Abelia x grandiflora ----- NSweet acacia Acacia farnesiana ----- N, CCentury plant Agave americana ----- N, CAloe Aloe ----- CLead plant Amorpha canescens Yes N, CChokeberry Aronia spp. Some N, CSage, Sagebrush Artemisia spp. ----- N, CEastern baccharis, Baccharis halimifolia Yes N,CGroundsel bush, Salt bushMentor barberry Berberis x mentorensis ----- NJapanese barberry Berberis thunbergii ----- NSilver sea oxeye Borrichia arborescens Yes CButterfly bush Buddleia spp. ----- NCactus Cactaceae family Some N, CBeauty berry Calicarpa americana Yes N, CBottlebrush Callistemon spp. ----- N, CDwarf natal palm Carissa grandiflora ‘Prostata’ ----- CSenna, Cassia Cassia alata (Senna alata) ----- N, CRosemary Ceratiola ericoides Yes N, CHedge cactus Cereus peruvianus ----- N, CQuince Chaenomeles spp. ----- NSweet fern Comptonia peregrina Yes NPampas grass Cortaderia selloana ----- N, CCotoneaster Cotoneaster spp. ----- NSouthern bush honeysuckle Diervilla sessifolia Yes N, CCoral bean, Cherokee bean Erythrina herbacea Yes N, C
  12. 12. 12 Drought-Tolerant Plants for Nor th and Central Florida Drought- ought-T for North ShrubsCommon Name Scientific Name Scientific Native? Native? Region of AdaptationPascuita, Crown of thorns, Euphorbia spp. ----- CPencil treePineapple guava Feijoa sellowiana ----- N, CFig Ficus carica ----- N, CKumquat Fortunella japonica ----- CAfrican daisy Gamolepis chrysanthemoides ----- CBroom, Woadwaxen Genista spp. ----- N,CSea buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides ----- N,CSt. John’s-wort Hypericum spp. Some N, CGallberry Ilex glabra Yes N, CYaupon, Yaupon holly Ilex vomitoria Yes N, CJuniper Juniperus spp. Some N, CLantana Lantana spp. ----- N, CEnglish lavender Lavandula angustifolia ----- NBush clover Lespedeza spp. Some N, CTexas sage Leucophyllum frutescens ----- N, CMatrimony vine, Lycium spp. Some N, CChristmas berryRusty lyonia Lyonia ferruginia Yes N, CWax myrtle Myrica cerifera Yes N, CMyrsine Myrsine guianensis Yes CMyrtle Myrtus communis ----- N, COleander Nerium oleander ----- N, CIndian fig, Prickly pear Opuntia ficus-indica Yes N, CDevils-backbone Pedilanthus tithymaloides Yes CPhotinia, Redtop ----- N, C
  13. 13. Drought-Tolerant Plants for North and Central FloridaDrought- ought-T for North 13 ShurbsCommon Name Scientific Name Scientific Native? Native? Region of AdaptationPittosporum Pittosporum spp. ----- N, COriental arborvitae Platycladus orientalis ----- N, CCape leadwort, Plumbago Plumbago auriculata ----- CPodocarpus, Yew podocarpus Podocarpus macrophyllus ----- N, CNagi podocarpus Podocarpus nagi ----- N, CCherry laurel Prunus caroliniana Yes N,CPomegranate Punica granatum ----- N,CFirethorn Pyracantha spp. ----- N, CIndian hawthorn Raphilepis spp. ----- N, CBuckthorn, Indian cherry Rhamnus spp. Some N, CSumac Rhus spp. Some NRose Rosa spp. ----- N, CRosemary Rosemarinus officinalis ----- N, CButchersbroom Ruscus aculeatus ----- N, CInkberry Scaevola plumieri Yes CBoxthorn Severina buxifolia ----- N, CBuffalo-berry Shepherdia spp. ----- N, CJapanese pagoda tree, Sophora spp. Some N, CNecklace podSpiraea Spiraea spp. ----- NBay cedar Suriana maritima Yes CYellowbells, Yellow elder Tecoma stans Yes CBlueberry, Sparkleberry Vaccinium spp. Some N, CViburnum Viburnum spp. Some N, CChaste tree Vitex agnus-castus ----- N, CYucca Yucca spp. Some N, CCoontie Zamia floridana Yes N, C
  14. 14. 14 Drought-Tolerant Plants for Nor th and Central Florida Drought- ought-T for North Groundcovers Groundco ers oundcovCommon Name Scientific Name Scientific Native? Native? Region of AdaptationAloe Aloe spp. ----- CBromeliads Bromeliaceae family Some CBeach bean Canavalia maritima Yes CHottentot fig Carpobrotus edulis ----- CBearberry cotoneaster Cotoneaster dammeri ----- NBermudagrass Cynodon dactylon ----- N, CGolden creeper Ernodea littoralis Yes CPurpleleaf wintercreeper Euonymus fortunei ‘Coloratus’ ----- NCreeping fig Ficus pumila ----- N, CTrailing fig Ficus sagittata ----- CSunrose Helianthemum nummularium ----- N, CBeach sunflower Helianthus debilis Yes N, CDaylily Hemerocallis spp. ----- N, CSt. John’s-wort Hypericum spp. Some N, CMorning glory Ipomoea spp. Some N, CJuniper Juniperus spp. Some N, CLantana Lantana spp. ----- N, CGopher apple Licania michauxii Yes CMatchweed Lippia nodiflora Yes N, CLiriope Liriope spp. ----- N, CBahiagrass Paspalum notatum ----- N, CCinquefoil Potentilla spp. ----- N, CRosemary Rosemarinus officinalis ----- N,CSea purslane Sesuvium portulacastrum Yes N, C
  15. 15. Drought-Tolerant Plants for North and Central FloridaDrought- ought-T for North 15 Groundcovers Groundco ers oundcovCommon Name Scientific Name Scientific Native? Native? Region of AdaptationPurple heart Setcreasea pallida ----- N, CCape honeysuckle Tecomaria capensis ----- CRice-paper plant Tetrapanax papyriferus ----- N, CAsiatic jasmine Trachelospermum asiaticum ----- N, CPuncture vine Tribulus terrestris ----- N, CSociety garlic Tulbaghia violacea ----- N, CSea oats Uniola paniculata Yes N, CZoysiagrass Zysoia spp. ----- N, C
  16. 16. 16 Drought-Tolerant Plants for Nor th and Central Florida Drought- ought-T for North VinesCommon Name Scientific Name Scientific Native? Native? Region of AdaptationCrossvine Anisostichus capreolata Yes N, CBouganvillea Bouganvillea spp. ----- CTrumpet creeper Campsis spp. Some N, CMarine ivy Cissus incisa Yes N, CDrummond clematis Clematis drummondii ----- N, CTexas clematis Cematis texensis ----- N, CPurpleleaf wintercreeper Euonymus fortunei ‘Coloratus’ ----- NCreeping fig Ficus pumila ----- N, CCarolina yellow jasmine Gelsemium sempervirens Yes N, CMornign glory Ipomoea spp. Some N, CHoneysuckle Lonicera sempervirens Yes N, C‘Dropmore Scarlet’ honeysuckle Lonicera (hirsuta x sempervirens ----- N, C ‘Dropmore Scarlet’‘Golden Flame’ honeysuckle Lonicera x heckrotti ‘Gold Flame’ ----- N, CMatrimony vine, Lycium spp. Some N, CChristmas berryVirginia creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia Yes N, CFlame vine Pyrostegia venusta ----- CCape honeysuckle Tecomaria capensis ----- CConfederate jasmine Trachelospermum jasminoides ----- N, CGrape Vitis spp. Some N, CJapanese wisteria Wisteria floribunda ----- NNative wisteria Wisteria frutescens Yes N,C
  17. 17. Drought-Tolerant Plants for North and Central Florida Drought- ought-T for North 17AfterwordWhy should we care about drought?Why we drought?We expect that every time we turn a faucet’s handle that plenty of fresh, drinkable water willflow out. Whenever we turn on the hose to clean the car, water the plants or wash the dog,we know that water will flow. Most people take for granted the ready availability of water forshowers, toilets, and pools, but this is not always the case. Author John Steinbeck wrote inhis novel East of Eden, “And it never failed that during the dry years the people forgot aboutthe rich years, and during the wet years they lost all memory of the dry years. It was alwaysthat way.”Water management in the United States is very efficient, and most water users never reallyfeel the impact of water shortages. Nevertheless, recent years have seen significantdroughts in the United States. As populations continue to grow in the U.S. and throughoutthe world, demand for water is constantly increasing. During the past 50 years, groundwaterdepletion has spread from isolated pockets to large areas in many countries. One example isin the High Plains of the central U.S., where more than half of the groundwater storage hasbeen depleted in some areas. In South Florida, water management officials have predictedthey will run out of groundwater by 2020.Added to the population increases and the increased demands for groundwater are theeffects of drought. In recent years, many areas of the U.S. have suffered severe droughts —periods of years during which rainfall is much less than normal. During such periods, morewater must be drawn from the ground to irrigate yards and farms, however, because rainfallis reduced, groundwater is not replenished. This vicious cycle makes the effects of droughtmore severe.Drought comes with a high cost. For some, it may mean only minor inconveniences, such asmodest water restrictions, but any enterprise that requires water can be severely impacted.Anyone who tends plants, whether on a small scale or large scale, soon feels the impact ofdrought. Businesses that depend on water must use more water to compensate for dryconditions and also pay more for the water they use. Hay production decreases duringdrought, and hay must be imported into the drought area to keep livestock alive. Drought isan insidious kind of disaster. You don’t know you’re in a drought until you are many monthsinto it, and as it continues, it slowly takes a greater and greater toll.The key is that we must not lose “all memory of the dry years.” Even during times of normalprecipitation and groundwater levels, citizens should be aware of how to use water wisely.Increased environmental awareness and improved irrigation practices like the ones outlinedin this program can make a difference. With proper preparedness, the effects of drought canbe minimized.
  18. 18. 18 Drought-Tolerant Plants for Nor th and Central Florida Drought- ought-T for NorthAbout the IFAS Disaster Information Program IFAS Disaster Information ProgramThe IFAS Disaster Information Program is an on-going project with the goal of producing a comprehensiveinformation source for the general public, Extension agents, emergency preparedness and response profession-als, and government. Water, Water, Everywhere? is the latest addition to this collection, which includes:# The Disaster Handbook — The cornerstone of the IFAS Disaster Information Program is the Disaster Disaster Handbook, a two-volume set that contains over 350 publications. Volume One contains a wide variety of information that can help people and communities prepare for, survive, and recover from disasters. Special chapters are devoted to Home Recovery and Farm Recovery. Volume Two covers many specific Tw disasters, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, extreme heat and cold, lightning, wildland fires, hazardous materials and more. Each chapter has appropriate information for the general public, homeowners, businesses, agricultural producers... in short, for all sorts of groups. The Disaster Handbook materials are designed so that they can be duplicated locally and distributed. This allows local professionals and community leaders to quickly develop appropriate packets of information customized to immediate local needs. All Disaster Handbook publications are also available for download from the IFAS Disaster Information Web Site. Check the Web site also for updated and new materials.# Triumph Over Tragedy Video Series — The IFAS Disaster Information Program has produced three videos riumph Over Tragedy that cover specific disaster topics. For each video, an extensive manual provides additional resources to help in creating your own workshops. Surviving the Storm: Coordination, Communication, and Coopera- Surviving Storm: Coordination, tion is an introductory video which will be of interest to general audiences. This video shows the impor- tance of citizens, government and private industry working together to confront disaster situations. Helping Four-Legged Friends Sur vive the Storm covers many important issues concerning small and Four our-Legged Friends Survivvive Storm large animals -- and their owners -- during a disaster. Much of the footage in this video is based on Florida experiences. A Community Response to Managing Post-Disaster Stress talks about the emotional and Response to Post-Disast ost-Disaster psychological challenges posed by disasters. This is an overlooked area and one that the general public and service providers should understand more fully.# Public Service Announcements — The Disaster Handbook contains over 70 scripts for public service Service announcements (PSA) that can be used by local radio stations. Over 40 of these scripts have been recorded and are available for direct download by radio stations on the Internet from RadioSource.net. adioSource.net adioSource.ne PSAs are avaiable in English and Spanish.The radio spots are available from RadioSource.net in MP3 and WAV formats. Make broadcasters and emergency managers in your vicinity aware of this resource.# Agrochemicals and Security: A Training Module for the Safe and Secure Storage of Pesticides and grochemicals Training for Safe Storage Pesticides Fer tilizers — The new security environment has prompted the farm community to re-examine how the ertilizer tilizers chemicals that are part of its daily work are handled. Agricultural chemicals have been used in two of the most significant terrorist incidents in the U.S., the World Trade Center Bombing of 1993 and the Okla- homa City Bombing of 1995. Also, another fertilizer, anhydrous ammonia, has become the target of drug manufacturers for the production of methamphetamine, now a significant law enforcement issue through- out the U.S. Agrochemicals and Security includes six units that cover the following topics: Introduction: grochemicals Agrochemicals and Security — Why It Matters; Chemicals and Safety; Homeland Security and Fertilizers; Homeland Security and Pesticides; Security and Anhydrous Ammonia; and, Developing a Hazard Mitiga- tion Plan. Units can be used separately or in combinations depending on audience needs. Each unit consists of a narrative which gives background material, a PowerPoint presentation which parallels the narrative, pre- and post-tests, an evaluation, and table-top exercises for selected units. Web: <http://disaster.ifas.ufl.edu> er.if On the Web: <http://disaster.ifas.ufl.edu>
  19. 19. Drought-Tolerant Plants for North and Central FloridaDrought- ought-T for North 19

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