Theme: Singapore’s and Myanmar’s Heritage Done By: Glenn Ang Boon Hwee(28) Fabian Ho Kai Bin(27) 2E8 Submission Date:06/03/2009 Submit To: Ms Siti Subject: Home Economics Semester 1 and 2,2009 Ho Jun Yi(29) Ashely Anil Saran(25)
Dishes Malay chinese Myanmar Indian Nasi Lemak Nasi Goreng Mee Rebus Goreng pisang Soto Ayam Roti Prata Malay Rojak Mee Goreng Mee Siam Nasi Bryani Bee-hoon Goreng Satay Qway-Teow Goreng Mee Soto Roti John Ayam Nasi Soup Tulang Bo-Bo Cha-Cha Kueh lapis Oneh-Oneh Char Qway-Teow Wanton Mee Hokkien Mee Yong-Tao-Foo Soup Chicken rice Bah-Kut Teh Fried Nian-Gao Carrot Cake Steam Fish steamboat Duck Rice Pork Chop Roasted Pig Siew-Mai Har-Gao Chee-Chong Fan Qwey-Teow Soup Shark-Fin’s Soup Instant Noodle With Abalone Fried Hor-Fun Indian Curry Toseh Chapati Indian Rojak Roti Prata Mutu Curry Wadik Kambing soup Moun Hin Ga Fried Myanmar Tofu Oun Nau Khau Hswe
Malay Food Chinese food Indian food Types of cuisine
Char Kway Teow
Introduction We will be doing a fusion meal, which consist of key ingredients from each ethnic group found in singapore and our adopted country for the Asian Youth games, Myanmar. Before doing the fusion meal, we will be doing a booklet for guidelines for our easy reference. The booklet contains a few topics, which help us in our decision of what meal we will make. Pictures of the fusion dish will also be taken. It has a few requirements, such as healthiness, appeal and taste. The meal will be made using healthy method, so the recipe must be modified to make it healthier.
1)What are the key ingredients commonly used by the Chinese ? Answer: Chicken Stock, Vegetables (E.g.: Parsley, Spinach), Dark Soy Sauce, Pepper Seeds, Soy Sauce.(Recipes and Wikipedia) 2)What are the key ingredients commonly used by the Indians? Answer: Curry Powder, Curry Leaves, Chili Powder, Chopped Onions, Ghee(Wikipedia) 3)What are the key ingredients commonly used by the Myanmars? Answer: Chopped Onions, Chopped Garlic, Curry Powder, Chili Powder, Mixed sauce (Dark & Light Soy Sauce) (Wikipedia) 4)What are the key ingredients commonly used by the Malays? Answer: Coconut Milk, Shrimp paste, Chili, Curry(Wikipedia) 5) What is the definition of healthy? Answer: Healthy for me is categorized by 3 requirements; 1. Body's Health 2. Mind's Health 3. Spiritual's Health Body Health: A.K.A the physical health. Means, physically you r good. no injuries, no fever, etc, etc. Mind's Health: its about IQ, knowledge, intelligence. Spiritual Health: this is more about EQ. emotional, feelings.
6)What is the definition of fusion dish Answer: A fusion dish is something that is created using traditional ingredients from different culture 7)How to make a dish healthy? Put less oil, less salt, less sugar etc and put more vegetables.(Home Econs Textbook) 8)What are the healthier cooking methods we used. Answer: Grilling, Steaming, Stir-Frying(Home Econs Secondary 1 textbook) 9)What spices are not commonly used? Answer: Saffron, Pure fennel pollen, Tasmanian Pepper Berries 10)What is AYG about? Answer: The plan for the Youth Games was part of Singapore’s bid to stage the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics (YOG). The purpose is to allow youths to use the chance to benchmark their performances against youth teams from Asian nations. 11)What age group does our fusion dish cater more towards? Answer: The adults(our member) 12) Is there possible of spices of one etonic group overlap another? Answer: Yes(our member) 13) Does the modification make the recipe healthy? Answer:Yes(our member) 14) Is ginger most commonly use spices among all spices? Answer:Yes(our member) 15)Is Hainanese chicken rice same as chicken rice? Answer:No(Our member)
AYG is Asian Youth Games. Great Athletes from Asia would come together to compete for position in Asia for various sports. The Singapore Asian Youth Games 2009 will see an estimated 1000 athletes aged between 14 and 17 from 45 countries competing in more than 80 sporting events . But due to time and resource constrains, it was reduced to only nine sports.
Definition And Information Of Key Words Key Words
It is a meal where all the components are part of a dish. For example, a pasta with vegetables and chicken gets everything together without requiring you to prepare three separate dishes. One dish meal can be prepared on a dish, pot or pan,etc. 2) One Dish Meal Definition And Information Of Key Words Key Words
The dish must be appealing to attract people to eat it. Appealing is evoking or attracting interest and desire. Appetising food make food taste nice, looks good and smells great. It is good to have a variety of colours, shapes, flavours and textures. Using a range of ingredients and cooking methods will make the food more appealing. 3) Appealing Definition And Information Of Key Words Key Words
Being healthy means to be feel good all the time. We can keep fit by exercise more. We must be kind and good to our body by considering what food we eat and only eat fried food sometimes. We must eat healthy food using healthy cooking methods, especially fruits and vegetables. In this way we will achieve energy balance. To make a healthy meal, the cooking method must be healthy and the ingredients must be modified to be healthy and the serving size must be appropriate. 4) Healthy Definition And Information Of Key Words Key Words
Singapore Heritage include the Chinese, Malay and Indian. The heritage consists of places that the memories of each ethnic group. It also have places which are popular and holds memories of people of the past and the process to a better future, such as the National Museum Of Singapore. The heritage also consists of arts and music, such as the Singapore Art Museum and the Esplanade. 5) Singapore’s Heritage Definition And Information Of Key Words Key Words
Nasi Lemak Nasi Goreng Mee Rebus Goreng pisang Soto Ayam Roti Prata Rojak Mee Goreng Mee Siam Nasi Bryani Bee-hoon Goreng Satay Kway-Teow Goreng Mee Soto Roti John Nasi Ayam Soup Tulang Kueh lapis Oneh-Oneh Bo-Bo Cha-Cha Malay Cusines
Char kway-Teow Wanton Mee Hokkien Mee Yong-Tao-Foo Soup Chicken rice Bah-Kut Teh Fried Nian-Gao Carrot Cake Steam Fish steamboat Duck Rice Pork Chop Roasted Pig Siew-Mai Har-Gao Chee-Chong Fan kway-Teow Soup Shark-Fin’s Soup Instant Noodle With Abalone Fried Hor-Fun Chinese Cusines
Indian Cusines Aloo Tikki Bengali Red Dal Curry Chana Masala Chapati Curry Chicken Dal Kofta Curry Gulab Jamun Indian Chickpeas Indian Lamb With Spinach Indian Curry Kambing soup Indian Rojak Roti Prata Masalah Chicken Navratan Korma Samosas Tandoori Chicken Toseh Vathal Kozhambu Sag Paneer
Moun Hin Ga Fried Myanmar Tofu Duck curry Kyarsan Chet Ah Kyaw Laphet Myanmar cusines Danbauk or biryani Butter Rice Akyaw wrapped-banana Laphet Salad Shwe Kyi Htamane Chicken curry Pumpkin Soup Shan soaked noodle Noodle with corn starch prawn-curry Shan fish tomato Kyauk Kyaw
Star Anise Its unique shape attracted me to make this spice the special icon on my web site. The spice is the almost ripe, dried, star-shaped multiple fruit of the tree Illicium verum, which is a member of the magnolia family (Magnoliaceae). The small, red-brown, star-shaped fruits contain 6-8 unevenly sized, boat-shaped individual fruits 12-17 mm in length, each containing a glossy brown, egg-shaped seed. The fruits contain the same essential oil as aniseeds. The tree is also called the "Indian Almond". The tree can grow up to 25 feet (8 metres). It is an evergreen that will grow out of seeds and cultivated that way. CINNAMON Cinnamon comes from the bark of the cinnamon trees. In Malay spices vocabulary, it is called "kayu manis" literally meaning sweet wood. The cinnamon that we normally see at grocery stores and that we use daily usually comes from cassia tree. This is much cheaper than the true cinnamon which originates from Sri Lanka (Ceylon). The flavor of true cinnamon is more subtle and delicate compared to the stronger, spicier cassia. The light, intricate flavor of Ceylon cinnamon makes it the cinnamon of choice for dishes which do not have a lot of conflicting flavors competing. It will star in such dishes as custard, cinnamon ice cream, Dutch pears, stewed rhubarb, steamed puddings, dessert syrups, or mixed into whipped cream.
CARDAMOM Cardamom is one of the world’s very ancient spices. It is native to the East originating in the forests of the western gnats in southern India, where it grows wild. Today it also grows in Sri Lanka, Guatemala, Indo China and Tanzania. Cardamom pods are generally green but are also available in bleached white pod form. They are dried in the sun or bleached with sulphur fumes. In Malaysia, the bleached version is more common and I was a bit surprised to see the green variety when I was living in England. Malay cooks use the pods whole instead of powder form. Cloves Cloves are the dried, unopened, nail-shaped flower buds of the evergreen Syzygium aromaticum. They are reddish-brown in color and have a strong, aromatic flavor and aroma. Cloves are an important ingredient in the spice blends of Sri Lanka and North India. They are used in garam masala, briyanis, and pickles. Clove is a key flavor contributor to ketchup and Worchestershire sauce seasoning blends. Chinese and German seasonings also depend on cloves to flavor meats and cookies.
Chinese key ingredients Light Soy Sauce Dark Soy Sauce Sesame Oil Bok Choy Chinese cabbage Choy Sum Chinese Broccoli Corn Five Spice Powder Ginger Oyster Sauce Potato Starch Pak Choy Rice Wine Spring Onion
A systematic review of research indicates that cinnamon may reduce fasting blood sugar
Due to a toxic component called coumarin, European health agencies have warned against consuming high amounts of cassia
Cassia sticks are extremely hard, are usually made up of one thick layer, and can break an electric spice or coffee grinder if one attempts to grind them without first breaking them into very small pieces.
They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea, to which honey is often added as a sweetener; sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. The juice from old ginger roots is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisine to flavour dishes such as seafood or mutton and vegetarian recipes. Powdered dry ginger root is used to spice gingerbread and other recipes. Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 parts fresh for 1 part ground, although the flavours of fresh and dried ginger are not exactly interchangeable.
Ginger is also made into candy, is used as a flavouring for cookies, crackers and cake, and is the main flavour in ginger ale—a sweet, carbonated, non-alcoholic beverage , as well as the similar, but spicier ginger beer which is popular in the Caribbean.
The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger root is caused by a mixture of zingerone, shogaols and gingerols, volatile oils that compose about one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger.
Ginger has a sialogogue action, stimulating the production of saliva, which makes swallowing easier.
Light soy sauce is a thin opaque, dark brown soy sauce. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning, since it is saltier, but it also adds flavour. Since it is lighter in color, it does not greatly affect the colo u r of the dish. The light soy sauce made from the first pressing of the soybeans , which can be loosely translated as first soy sauce or referred to as premium light soy sauce. An additional classification of light soy sauce, shuānghuáng , is double-fermented to add further complexity to the flavour. These latter two more delicate types are usually for dipping.
Dark soy sauce is a dark and thick soy sauce that is aged longer and contains molasses to give it its special appearance. This seasoning is mainly used during cooking since its flavour develops under heating. It has a richer, slightly sweeter, and less salty flavour than light soy sauce. Dark soy sauce is partly used to add colo u r and flavour to a dish.
A n oyster sauce of good quality should be made by condensing oyster extracts, the white broth produced by boiling oysters in water. This opaque broth is then reduced until a desired viscosity has been reached and the liquid has caramelised to a brown colour. No other additives, not even salt, should be added to the sauce, since the oysters should provide all the savoury flavour.
Vegetarian oyster sauce is prepared from oyster mushrooms, is also popular and generally lower in price. It may contain more taste if less mushroom extract is used to reduce costs .
Most of the oyster sauces available on the market contain added monosodium glutamate (MSG). Though in recent years MSG-free varieties can also be found. The taste of MSG and non-MSG variants is similar .
Oyster sauce is used to enhance the flavour of many savoury foods. It is also often used as a topping for steamed vegetables, and in stir-fries.
Dishes for which oyster sauce is commonly used include:
Bamboo steamed broccoli
Steamed cabbage with Chinese black mushroom
Beef with broccoli and mushrooms (popular Chinese-American dish)
Light sesame oil has a high smoke point, and is suitable for deep-frying, while heavy (dark) sesame oil (from roasted sesame seeds) has a slightly lower smoke point is unsuitable for deep-frying, instead it can be used for stir - frying of meats or vegetables; making of omelette. Most in Asia used Roasted Sesame Oil for seasoning, particularly in East Asian cuisine.
Chinese uses Sesame Oil for preparation of meals for women during confinement (a period after a lady given birth).
Sesame oil is most popular in Asia, including the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, where its widespread use is similar to that of olive oil in the Mediterranean.
Applying sesame oil to the hair is said to result in darker hair. It may be used for hair and scalp massage.It is believed to reduce the heat of the body and thus helps in preventing hair loss.
Sesame oil is used in the manufacture of pickles . Refined sesame oil is used to make margarine in Western countries.
Sesame oil is used in the manufacture of Ayurvedic drugs .
A solvent in injected drugs or intravenous drip solutions . A cosmetics carrier oil . C oating stored grains to prevent weevil attacks. The oil also has synergy with some insecticides
Vitamins and Minerals Sesame oil is a source of vitamin E. Vitamin E is an anti-oxidant and has been correlated with lowering cholesterol levels. As with most plant based condiments, sesame oil contains magnesium, copper, calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin B6. Copper provides relief for rheumatoid arthritis. Magnesium supports vascular and respiratory health. Calcium helps prevent colon cancer, osteoporosis, migraine and PMS. Zinc promotes bone health. Besides being rich in Vitamin E, there is insufficient research on the medicinal properties of sesame oil. However, the following claims have been made. Oil pulling Sesame oil is one of the few oils recommended for use in oil pulling. (sunflower oil is the other oil recommended). Stress and tension Various constituents present in the sesame oil have anti-oxidant and anti-depressant properties. Therefore proponents encourage its use to help fight senile changes and bring about a sense of well-being . Adherents for its therapeutic use reports claims of feeling better than when not using it. Sesame Oil
Rice wine is an alcoholic beverage made from rice. Unlike wine, which is made by fermentation of naturally sweet grapes and other fruit, rice "wine" results from the fermentation of rice starch converted to sugars. This process is similiar to that used to produce beer; however, beer production employs a mashing process to convert starch to sugars whereas rice wine uses the different amylolytic process. Alcoholic beverages distilled from rice were exclusive to East and Southeast Asian countries, with knowledge of the distillation process reaching India and parts of South Asia later through t rading .
Rice brew typically has a higher alcohol content (18-25%) than wine (10-20%), which in turn has a higher alcohol content than beer (3-8%).
A spring onion , also commonly known as, scallion, green onion, or salad onion, is associated with various genus Allium that lack a fully-developed bulb. Harvested for its taste, they are milder than other onions and may be steamed or set in salads in western cookery and cooked in many Asian recipes. Diced scallions are often used in soup, noodle and seafood dishes, and in sauces in eastern dishes, after removing the bottom quarter-inch or so of the root end.
Broccoli possesses abundant arboreal, luscious, fleshy, flower heads, usually green in colour, arranged in a tree-like fashion on branches sprouting from a thick, edible, sturdy, meaty stalk. The mass of flower heads is surrounded by leaves. Broccoli most closely resembles cauliflower .
There are 3 common types of broccoli: Sprouting Broccoli, Romanesco Broccoli, Purple cauliflower.
Broccoli have vitamin C, vitamin A, folic acid, calcium, and fiber. Broccoli is an important calcium source for those who don't consume dairy products. Calcium does more than build strong bones. Research shows that this mineral may play a role in the control of high blood pressure, and it may work to prevent colon cancer. Beta-carotene and vitamin C are important antioxidants that have been linked to a reduced risk of numerous conditions, including cataracts, heart disease, and several cancers. Broccoli is a fiber find. Not only is it a rich source, but half of its fiber is insoluble and half is soluble, helping to meet your needs for both types of fiber. Broccoli provides a health bonus in the form of protective substances that may shield you from disease. They are linked to lower rates of cancer. Broccoli naturally contains two important phytochemicals -- indoles and isothiocyanates. Broccoli has a substance in the isothiocyanate, called sulforaphane, that increases the activity of a group of enzymes in our bodies that squelch cancer-causing agents.
The cabbage is a leafy garden plant of the Family Brassicaceae (or Cruciferae), used as a vegetable. It is usually green but in some varieties red or purplish.Cabbage is normally green, but, if left to rot, can turn sickly brown. The sharp or bitter taste sometimes present in cabbage is due to glucosinolate(s).
It contains significant amounts of glutamine, an amino acid, which has anti-inflammatory properties. It is a source of indole-3-carbinol, or I3C, a compound used as an adjuvent therapy for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, a disease of the head and neck caused by human papillomavirus (usually types 6 and 11) that causes growths in the airway that can lead to death. It also has highly effective antioxidant. It boosts the body’s immunity to diseases.
Cabbage is often added to soups or stews. Cabbage soup is popular in central Europe and eastern Europe, and cabbage is an ingredient in some kinds of borscht. Garbure (from Provençal garburo ) is a thick soup of cabbage or other vegetables with bacon. Cabbage may be an ingredient in kugel , a baked pudding served as a side dish or dessert. Cabbage is also used in many popular dishes in India.
Boiling tenderizes the leaves and releases sugars, which leads to the characteristic "cabbage" aroma. Boiled cabbage has become stigmatize d because of its strong cooking odor and the belief that it causes flatulence. Boiled cabbage as an accompaniment to meats and other dishes can be an excellent source of vitamins and dietary fiber. It is often prepared and served with boiled meat and other vegetables as part of a boiled dinner .
Five-spice powder is a seasoning in Chinese cuisine.
One common recipe includes tunghing or "Chinese cinnamon" (also known as rougui , the ground bark of the cassia tree, a close relative of true cinnamon), powdered cassia buds, powdered star anise and anise seed, ginger root, and ground cloves.
Another recipe for the powder consists of huajiao (Sichuan pepper), bajiao (star anise), rougui (cassia), cloves, and fennel seeds.
It is used in most recipes for Cantonese roasted duck, as well as beef stew. It is also used as a marinade for Vietnamese broiled chicken. The five-spice powder mixture has followed the Chinese diaspora and has been incorporated into other national cuisines throughout Asia.
Sweet corn is a variety of maize with a high sugar content. Sweet corn is the result of a naturally-occurring recessive mutation in the genes which control conversion of sugar to starch inside the endosperm of the corn kernel.
Cooked sweet corn has significant antioxidant activity, which can substantially reduce the chance of heart disease and cancer . The scientists measured the antioxidants' ability to quench free radicals, which cause damage to the body from oxidation. Cooked sweet corn also releases increased levels of ferulic acid , which provides health benefits, such as battling cancer .
A gluten-free flour made from cooked, dried and ground potatoes.It is used as a thickener. Potato starch flour is not the same as the potato flour, potato flour is ground from the entire dried potato and is heavier and denser than potato starch flour.
Potato Starch is made through an extensive process of washing, sometimes cooking, and then separating the starch present in potato cell walls so that it can be made into powdered or liquid form. In cooking, potato starch is often considered a substitute thickener for cornstarch or white flour. However, it has a higher heat point than cornstarch, so it may be important for certain foods that require high temperatures.
Choy sum is a Chinese phrase meaning “stems and flowers.” It is used to refer to a flowering vegetable closely related to bok choy which produces thick, crunchy stalks, yellow flowers, and lush green leaves. It is used in a variety of Chinese foods, usually stir fries and soups .
Unlike other leafy green relatives, choy sum is cultivated specifically for the tender, crunchy stems and flavorful flowers, which have a hint of a mustard-like bite. Green choy sum produces greenish to yellow stalks and leaves with yellow flowers, while white choy sum has white stalks, and strongly resembles bok choy except that the bunches also include the bright yellow flowers. All of the parts of the plant are edible.
Bok choy, is classified as a cabbage. Nonetheless, bok choy bears little resemblance to the round European cabbages found in western supermarkets, or to Napa Cabbage for that matter. Its white stalks resemble celery without the stringiness, while the dark green, crinkly leaves of the most common variety is similar to Romaine lettuce. The Chinese commonly refer to bok choy .
Classic pa k choy has white, crunchy stems and dark green leaves, both of which are edible. In China, the smaller the vegetable is, the more favorably it is viewed, because small pak choy plants tend to be more tender. Tender young pak choy only needs to be cooked very briefly, and the leaves take even less time to cook than the stems.
Many cooks like to use pak choy in stir fries, and it can also be used in soups, curries, spring rolls, and a variety of other dishes. The flavor of pak choy is very mild, with a hint of a tangy bite which is different from its mustard family, and this vegetable is also very healthy.
Indian Key Ingredient Carom (ajowain) Black Cardamom (kala eliachi) Black Peppercorns (kali mirchi) Black Salt (kala namak) Cloves (lavang or laung ) Coconuts Cumin Seeds Dried Mango (amchoor) Fennels Seeds (sounf) Fenugreek (methi)
Indian Key Ingredient Green Cardamom Pods (eliachi) Lime Juice Mace (Javitri) Mustard Seeds Mint Leaves Nigella Seeds (kalonji) Nutmeg Poppy Seeds (khus khus) Sugarcane Juice Sesame Seeds (til)
condiment. The fresh young leaves of this herb is used to flavour and garnish soups,salads and meat dishes. This fragrant spice is used for sauces and as a CORRIANDER SEEDS Has a strong flavour akin to caraway. This spice is essential for curries and curry powder. Roasted and ensconced in sugar syrup, can be ideal after a heavy meal. LARGE AND SMALL CUMIN This spice is a preparation made out of dried latex (oleo-gum-resin) exuded from the living rhizome, rootstock or taproot of an umbelliferous plant Ferula foetida (Umbelliferae). Also known as Devil's dung, Indian asafoetida comes in three forms: 'tears', 'mass' and 'paste', according to quality. It is available as light brown resin or more traditionally as powder. Its aroma is unmistakable in most South Indian dishes. Asafoetida
This hot spice was probably one of the reasons why the medieval Europeans established a trade link to India. Even a simple dish like an omelette requires pepper. Rightly called as the King of Spices, pepper is available in different shades,depending upon the pungency. Black pepper (the strongest in flavour) is considered as a stimulant,carminative, aphrodisiac, diuretic and digestive in the traditional Indian medicine. Pepper, as "Milagu tanner" - Pepper water (or "Milagu rasam") is the final part of a South Indian meals, greatly assisting the digestion. They are also useful for asthma, fever, cough, dysentery, dyspepsia and flatulence. In powdered form (as a poultice) Pepper is useful for arthritis. PEPPER Fresh Ginger is extremely important in oriental food. It is used to flavour the cooking oil before you toss everything else for stir-frying. It is considered as a restorative, stimulant and a strong flavouring agent. Ginger is reputed to cure ulcers when chewed in small doses. It amply enhances your appetite when blended with other spices. In villages, people make candies out of dried ginger for its various medicinal properties. GINGER
This hardy bulbous annual has acclaimed medicinal value from the ancient times. It lowers bad cholesterol and enhances blood circulation amongst other things. In food, it adds its strong flavour. In combination with Onions, Garlic is indispensable in soups, meat dishes,stews and marinade GARLIC GREEN AND RED CHILLIS An indispensable culinary spice, it comes in various shapes and colours and called variously as red chillies, Green chillies, capsicum, bell pepper, sweet pepper, red pepper, cayenne pepper and paprika. It forms the major ingredient in Asian masala. Consumption of chillies is high in India as it is used universally in Indian kitchens. In fact, India produces 800,000 tonnes of dry chillies alone annually. Red chillies derive their deep rich red colour from the pigment capsanthin. The "hot" pungency is associated with Capsaicin. The bell pepper or Capsicum is hardly pungent and mainly adds texture and green colour to Uppumas and noodles. Eastern meat dishes will be nothing without a dash of ground chillies. Discard the seeds if you prefer it milder when you add green chilies in some of the recipes listed.
This rhizomatous herb with strongly aromatic seeds inside capsular fruits is the most exotic of the spices. Largely grown in the western ghats of Karalla and Tamilnadu, it is widely used in Asian and middle east food preparation, medicines and even in beverages. A concoction made of cardamom and coffee (called as Gahwa in the middle east) is popular amongst some in India. Cardamom is aromatic, stimulating, slightly astringent and refreshing. In ancient lore, powdered cardamom is used as an aphrodisiac. CARDAMMOM SAFFRON This is the most expensive spice as it requires about 100,000 blooms, laboriously handpicked to process one kilo of saffron. It is the slender, dried, reddish-brown, flattened stigma of a small crocus of the iris family. In Indian medicine, saffron (nicknamed as the Golden spice) is used to "invoke" fairer children, if fed early in pregnancy. Its characteristic aroma and a 'biting' taste is often used in Biryanis.
Myanmar Key Ingredient Curry Leaf (pjin do thein) Coriander (nan nan bin) Cinnamon (thi’ gja bo) Chilli Carawaycarum ( casul) Galangal ba de go) Garlic Ginger Pepper Ocimum (pin zein) Turmeric Tamarind
Myanmar lies in a zone of the world historically famous for the spices and seasoning which add so much zest and flavour to the food. Other countries may use these fragrant and aromatic leaves, roots and barks as condiments, but here, in their place of origin they are used tactically for their medicinal properties. In fact, science is now recognizing spices are bactericidal, they kill bacteria which may infect the food. They also keep bacteria from infecting the food. Myanmar people have been aware of this from historical times, and of other medicinal properties, so that a whole pharmacopoeia has been collected. There is a Myanmar saying: "food is medicine, medicine is food." Here are some spices commonly used in Myanmar dishes. Myanmar Spices and Seasonings
Ocimum (pin zein) Ocimum. (pin zein:) The leaves are expectorant and carminative alpinia conchgera (ba de: go:). Essential to the broth in mohinga of the Rakhine nationals. The rhizome is aromatic, tonic, carminative. Galangal ba de go) Turmeric Adds colour and flavour to dishes. The rhizome is a household remedy used both internally and externally. Internally it is used as an anthelonintic.
Tamarind The pulp of tamarind pods is dried and used to add a fruity sourness to many dishes. Tender leaves and flowers are used for soups and salads. Tamarind is cooling and antibilious An indispensable culinary spice, it comes in various shapes and colours and called variously as red chillies, Green chilies, capsicum, bell pepper, sweet pepper, red pepper, cayenne pepper and paprika. It forms the major ingredient in Asian masala. Consumption of chillies is high in India as it is used universally in Indian kitchens. In fact, India produces 800,000 tonnes of dry chillies alone annually. Red chillies derive their deep rich red colour from the pigment capsanthin. The "hot" pungency is associated with Capsaicin. The bell pepper or Capsicum is hardly pungent and mainly adds texture and green colour to Uppumas and noodles. Eastern meat dishes will be nothing without a dash of ground chillies. Discard the seeds if you prefer it milder when you add green chilies in some of the recipes listed. Chilli This hot spice was probably one of the reasons why the medieval Europeans established a trade link to India. Even a simple dish like an omelette requires pepper. Rightly called as the King of Spices, pepper is available in different shades,depending upon the pungency. Black pepper (the strongest in flavour) is considered as a stimulant,carminative, aphrodisiac, diuretic and digestive in the traditional Indian medicine. Pepper, as "Milagu tanner" - Pepper water (or "Milagu rasam") is the final part of a South Indian meals, greatly assisting the digestion. They are also useful for asthma, fever, cough, dysentery, dyspepsia and flatulence. In powdered form (as a poultice) Pepper is useful for arthritis. Pepper
The leaves. Since they lose their delicate fragrance when dried, you should try to obtain them fresh; don’t waste your time with the dried stuff
Fresh leaves are rich in an essential oil, but the exact amount depends besides freshness and genetic strain also on the extraction technique. Typical figures run from 0.5 to 2.7%.
The following aroma components have been identified in curry leaves of Sri Lanka (in parentheses, the content in mg/kg fresh leaves): β-caryophyllene (2.6 ppm), β-gurjunene (1.9), β-elemene (0.6), β-phellandrene (0.5), β-thujene (0.4), α-selinene (0.3), β-bisabolene (0.3), furthermore limonene, β- trans -ocimene and β-cadinene (0.2 ppm). (Phytochemistry, 21 , 1653, 1982)
Newer work has shown a large variability of the composition of the essential oil of curry leaves. In North Indian plants, monoterpenes prevail (β-phellandrene, α-pinene, β-pinene), whereas South Indian samples yielded sesquiterpenes: β-caryophyllene, aromadendrene, α-selinene. (Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 17, 144, 2002)
The curry tree is native to India; today, it is found wild or become wild again, almost everywhere in the Indian subcontinent excluding the higher levels of the Himalayas. In the East, its range extends into Burma. The English term curry is of Indian origin: In Tamil, the most important South Indian language, the word kari [ கறி ] means soup or sauce; this is also the basis of the Tamil name for curry-leaves, kariveppilai [ கறிவேப்பிலை ] which contains ilai [ இலை ] leaf. In English usage, curry has a wider meaning encompassing not only spicy foods of various kinds, but also Indian-style spice mixtures (curry powder).
Fresh Ginger is extremely important in oriental food. It is used to flavour the cooking oil before you toss everything else for stir-frying. It is considered as a restorative, stimulant and a strong flavouring agent. Ginger is reputed to cure ulcers when chewed in small doses. It amply enhances your appetite when blended with other spices. In villages, people make candies out of dried ginger for its various medicinal properties. Ginger
This hardy bulbous annual has acclaimed medicinal value from the ancient times. It lowers bad cholesterol and enhances blood circulation amongst other things. In food, it adds its strong flavour. In combination with Onions, Garlic is indispensable in soups, meat dishes,stews and marinade Garlic Coriander ( Coriandrum sativum ) is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae . It is also known as cilantro, particularly in the Americas . Coriander is native to southwestern Asia west to north Africa . It is a soft, hairless plant growing to 50 cm [20 in.] tall. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, and slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems. The flowers are borne in small umbels , white or very pale pink, asymmetrical, with the petals pointing away from the centre of the umbel longer (5-6 mm) than those pointing to the middle of the umbel (only 1-3 mm long). The fruit is a globular dry schizocarp 3-5 mm diameter. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the most commonly used in cooking. Coriander is commonly used in Middle Eastern , Mediterranean , Indian , South Asian , Mexican , Latin American , Chinese , African and Southeast Asian cuisine. Coriander (nan nan bin) ( thi?gja bo:) It is the bark of young shoots of cinnamon cassia and is used to flavour meat dishes and pea rice. It is tonic, carminative, astringent and antispasmodic. It is given in the form of a powder for flatulence Cinnamon (thi’ gja bo)
Caraway fruits may contain 3% to 7% essential oil. The aroma of the oil is mostly dominated by carvone (50 to 85%) and limonene (20 to 30%); the other components carveol, dihydrocarveol, α- and β-pinene, sabinene and perillyl alcohol are of much minor importance.
Central Europe to Asia; it is not clear, however, whether caraway is truly indigenous to Europe. Today, it is chiefly cultivated in Finland, the Netherlands, Eastern Europe and Germany, furthermore North Africa, particularly Egypt.
The German term for caraway, Kümmel , derives from Latin cuminum for cumin and was misapplied to the plant popular in Germany. Latin cuminum leads, via Greek kyminon [κύμινον], further back to Semitic forms, e.g., Old Hebrew kammon [ כמן ].
Some names for caraway in tongues of Europe, especially Northern Europe (where caraway is particularly popular), also relate to Latin cuminum , e.g., Danish kommen , Latvian ķimenes , Estonian köömen , Polish kminek and Bulgarian kim [ ким ]. Some of these names were transmitted via the German name.
Similarly to Latin cuminum , Greek karon [κάρον] means cumin, not caraway. Its origin is not clear; it derives maybe from the name of a region in Asia Minor (Caria), but may well be a variant of Greek kyminon cumin or belong to the kin of coriander . The word was transferred to Latin as carum with the changed meaning caraway and thus gave rise to number of modern names of caraway, e.g., French carvi , Italian caro , Greek karvi [ καρβί ] and Norwegian karve .
The English term caraway also belongs to that series: It was probably mediated by Arabic (modern form al-karawya [ الكراويا ]) from Latin carum . Cf. the Iberic names Portuguese alcaravia and Spanish alcaravea and see also capers on the derivation of the prefix al- , which relates to the Arabic article.
Scale and clean fish, season with salt, dry and fry in very hot oil till golden brown. Drain.
Slice ginger and garlic.
Remove seeds and cut chillies into quarters.
Pound turmeric and fry in four tbsp oil until colour is absorbed into oil. Fry sliced ginger and garlic till golden brown. Add vinegar, salt and sugar to taste. Add red and green chillies and simmer for five more minutes.
Reduce heat further and ease in the fried fish.
Cover kuali and turn off the fire.
Remove cover and let the dish cool before storing.
1 ziploc bag of shrimp heads and shells (I used Ziplock Easy Zipper Bag) 15 cups of water (reduced to about 12-13 cups of water after hours of boiling and simmering) 2-3 pieces of rock sugar (about the size of a small ping pong ball) or to taste 1.5 lbs of pork ribs (cut into pieces) Salt to taste
30 dried chilies (deseeded and soaked to soften) 10 shallots (peeled) 5 cloves garlic (peeled) 2 tablespoons of water 6 tablespoons of cooking oil
1 pound of yellow noodles (scalded) 1 pack of rice vermicelli (scalded) Some kangkong or water convolvulus (scalded) Some bean sprouts (scalded)
1/2 pound of lean pork meat (boiled and sliced thinly) 1/2 pound shrimp (shelled and deveined) 6 hard-boiled eggs (shelled and quartered) Some fried shallot crisps (store-bought)
Blend the chili paste ingredients with a mini food processor until finely ground and well blended. Heat up the wok and add cooking oil. Stir fry the chili paste for 5 minutes. Dish up and set aside. On the same wok (unwashed), add in a little oil and cook the shrimp topping. Add in a little chili paste, sugar, and salt. Pan-fried the shrimp until they are slightly burned. Dish up, let cool and sliced them into halves.
Add 15 cups of water into a pot and bring it to bowl. Add in all the shrimp heads and shell and simmer on low heat for about 2 hours or longer until the stock becomes cloudy and tastes really prawny.
Strain the stock through sieve and transfer the stock into another pot. Discard the prawn heads and shells. Scoop up and discard the orange “foam” forming at the top of the stock.
Bring the stock to boil again and add in half of the chili paste. You can add more chili paste if you like it spicier.
Add in the pork ribs and continue to boil in low heat for another 1-1.5 hour until the pork ribs are thoroughly cooked.
Add rock sugar and salt/fish sauce to taste.
To serve, place a portion of yellow noodles, rice vermicelli, water convolvulus and bean sprouts in a bowl. Ladle hot stock over. If desired, add a few pieces of pork ribs. Top with meat slices, sliced shrimp, egg quarters, and sprinkle with shallot crisps.
Serve immediately with more chili paste to taste.
Traditionally, the shrimp heads and shells are stir-fried with oil until aromatic before adding them into the boiling water. I tried this step before and found that my “cheated” method works equally well.
The hawkers in Penang also blended the shrimp heads and shells after they are briefly boiled to extract all the flavors from the shell. Again, I tried this step before and found that my method works as well if you have plenty of shrimp heads and shells.
1 tbsp butter 1 cup chopped apple 1 cup sliced celery 1 clove garlic, minced 1/2 cup chopped onion 2 tbsp cornstarch 2 to 3 tsp curry powder 3/4 cup cold chicken stock 2 cups milk 2 cups cooked chicken, diced 1 (3 ounce) can mushrooms, drained Salt To Taste Rice Ring 1/4 cup butter 1/2 cup chopped onion 1/4 cup slivered almonds 1/2 cup light raisins 6 cups hot cooked rice 6 1/2 cup ring mold
How to make curry chicken :
Melt butter in saucepan; add apple, celery, garlic and onion. Cook until onion is tender. Combine cornstarch, curry powder, 3/4 teaspoon salt and broth.
Stir into onion mixture; add milk. Cook until thickened, stirring constantly. Add chicken and mushrooms; stir and heat through. Serve over rice ring.
Rice Ring : Melt butter in skillet; add onion and almonds (until golden). Add raisins; heat until plump. Add all to rice and mix.
Press mixture into greased mold. Unmold at once on platter and fill with Indian chicken curry.
Place the yogurt, ground almonds, all the dry spices, ginger, garlic, tomatoes and salt in a mixing bowl and blend together thoroughly.
Put the chicken into a large mixing bowl and pour over the yogurt mixture.
Set aside. Melt together the butter and oil in a medium karahi, wok or frying pan. Add the onions and fry for about 3 minutes. Add the chicken mixture and stir-fry for about 7 to 10 minutes.
Stir in about half of the coriander and mix well. Pour over the cream and stir in well. Bring to the boil. Garnish the Indian butter chicken with the remaining chopped coriander to serve the chicken curry.
Dishes Healthy Hokkien mee One-Dished Meal Appealing Myanmar Spices Malay Spices Chinese Spices Indian Spices Selected Acar Kunyit Ikan Belanak Kerabu Chicken Nga Baung Doke Hainanese Chicken Rice Kyazangi Kaukswe Indian Chicken Curry Butter Chicken
Justification We chose to cook Chicken Rice . We chose it because we are all familiar with the process of cooking and the taste of it. We also think that we could make lots of modification towards it by making it healthier and include spices from each ethnic group. It is also easier and also healthier in the method of cooking.We also make it more appealing and healthier by adding fruits and vegetable.
Group Reflection When We finish the project, We Knew that we have done Quite a great job in the Booklet and in the temwork as compared to the modification of recipe and the one-dished meal we cooked in the practical session.We had Decided to cook chicken rice which were not so sucessful as the outcome was not so good.The process was quite easy at doing the booklet.All We need is just computer except for the practical session Done By: Ashley Anil Saran, Fabian Ho Kai Bin, Glenn Ang Boon Hwee and Ho Jun Yi Register Number: 25, 27, 28, 29 Class: 2E8’09
Reflection From this home economics project, I have learnt a lot about the different types of recipes that each ethnic group has. I also learnt about all the different types of spices that belong to each ethnic group. I think this project is unique as it taught how to make modifications to recipes so as to make the one dish meal a healthier and more appealing dish to eat. AS 1 of my tasks were to create a work plan for the entire group I learnt more on managing our time and creating a reasonable deadline for the tasks that we were required to complete. I especially found the execution of the project enjoyable as we could create our very own recipe. We could also cook and taste our food too. Our group made the local dish hainanese chicken rice, which we infused with spices from the 4 different ethnic groups including the Myanmarnese. In the end, the dish had very different flavour from the usual chicken rice. I think that our team was very well prepared and did not have problem with the time as Fabian typed out a plan to direct us on what we should do systematically. Glenn and Jun Yi were also very good at helping to chop up the ingredients and keep the place tidy. Overall, I think this project has taught me a lot about the spices of the different ethnic groups. This project is also more fun then merely studying from the textbook and I hope that these types will be carried out more in the future. Done By: Ashley Anil Saran Register Number: 25 Class: 2E8’09
Reflection When I finish the project, I learnt how to do a project in a better team spirit.The team overall has done a excellent job in doing the booklet.I could see that the team is trying their best effort in doing the booklet and hoping to get the best outcome they can get.Although the teamwork and booklet was quite well done, but any Piece of work would still have mistake.Our mistake is that we did not done quite a great job in modifying the recipe which in turn results the food that we cook in practical session did not meet our expectation.The chicken was rather tough and the rice was tough and sticky. The chicken Rice will be better if we were given a second try as we only get 12 marks for the food.Although that had happened,our group were not demoralised and decided to do a better job in the booklet. Done By: Fabian Ho Kai Bin Register Number: 27 Class: 2E8’09
Reflection When I finish the project, I learnt how to cook a one dish fusion meal. I also learnt about the key ingredients for each ethnic group. Most importantly, I learnt how to find recipes and choose one out of many, considering its factors such as healthy, appealing, one-dish meal. When the recipe was chosen, I learnt to make the recipe more healthy by modifying the recipe for example, cut down on the oil usage. I also learnt how to do production planning, who would be doing the cutting, chopping. In overall, I learnt about group cooperation, team spirit and team work, to do the project at its best. Done By: Glenn Ang Boon Hwee Register Number: 28 Class: 2E8’09
Evaluation The whole practical session was pretty successful. All of the team members did what they were suppose to do. We prepared Chicken Rice which was modified to include the key ingredients for each ethnic groups (The Chinese, Malays, Indians and the Myanmarnize). The whole session was well-planned and only a few errors were made. The cleanliness of the floor and work-table was commendable as it was clean throughout the whole session. We managed to complete the product within the time limit which was given. Although the final product was not as expected, we did our best and was proud to present it. The chicken was too tough and the rice was too soft. Overall, I have to commend on the overall performance , the team effort and the teamwork we displayed for the session. Written By: Ho Jun Yi(29) Class: 2E8’09
-Name of map/Book or the URL of the idea that have copied from Title of article/book www.yahoo.com.sg Pictures of the dishes www.wikipedia.com Spices Information http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Caru_car.html Caraway ( Carum carvi L.) Curry leaves ( Murraya koenigii Spreng.) http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Murr_koe.html http://www.myanmars.net/myanmar-food/spices_seasoning.htm Myanmar Spices and Seasonings http://www.lonelyplanet.com/myanmar-burma http://www.recipezaar.com/ Nutrition Facts