FabLab Arnhem organizes Free FabClasses about various subjects which are significant for our FabLab visitors. For example: sales, finance, branding, 3d printing, businessconcepts, etc. Look at www.fablabarnhem.nl for the next one.
3-D printen Vanuit een computermodel in lagen opbouwenvan unieke drie-dimensionale producten Frans de Jong
ProgrammaRandom onderwerpen• Rondje kennismaken; wie , wensen?• Generieke werkwijze Rapid prototyping / Manufacturing• Overzicht technieken met Specifieke toepassingen• Voorbeeldproducten• Links / video’s• Materialen• Creative Commons• Business (Materialise, 3-D worknet, Freedom of Creation, Shapeways, ??)• Je eigen 3-D printer bouwen
Rapid prototyping / Manufacturing Het proces van idee naar product is in principe steeds hetzelfde Voorbeeld stereolithografie 3D model Maakprogram 3D product Het product wordt laag voor laag “additief” opgebouwd.
Direct of indirect• Direct – Een eindproduct printen• Indirect – Een mal of matrijs printen, waarmee één of meerdere producten kunnen worden gemaakt door bv. gieten
Stereolithografie (SLA)Stereolithographic 3D printers position a perforated platform just below the surface ofa vat of liquid photocurable polymer. A UV laser beam then traces the first slice of anobject on the surface of this liquid, causing a very thin layer of photopolymer toharden. The perforated platform is then lowered very slightly and another slice istraced out and hardened by the laser. Another slice is then created, and thenanother, until a complete object has been printed and can be removed from the vat ofphotopolymer, drained of excess liquid, and cured. Stereolithographic printers remainone of the most accurate types of hardware for fabricating 3D output, with aminimum build layer thickness of only 0.06mm (0.0025 of an inch).videohttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BUfh5wxj3qA&feature=endscreen&NR=1
Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM)Here a semi-liquid material -- and most usually a hot thermoplastic -- is extruded froma temperature-controlled print head to produce fairly robust objects to a high degreeof accuracy. A key benefit of this technique is that objects can be made of out ofexactly the same thermoplastics used in traditional injection moulding.In addition to being used to output plastic objects, FDM printers have also beendeveloped that can output other semi-liquid materials. The applications are alreadyquite diverse, and range from food printers that can print in cake icing, cheese orchocolate, to concrete printers that may in future allow entire buildings (or large partsthereof) to be 3D printed.Within a decade developments in synthetic biology
Polyjet MatrixAs an alternative to FDM, a company called Objet has developed a process calledPolyjet Matrix. This jets two liquid photocurable polymers from a 96 nozzle printhead. Each object layer is cured by a UV light immediately it has been printed. One ofthe key benefits of this process is that is allows printing to take place in multiplematerials simply by varying the combination of the photocurable polymers jetted fromthe print head. You can learn more about this very impressive technology in this video.• Fotopolymeerhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=m5scCMxuciY#t=11s
multi-jet modelling (MJM)Builds up objects from successive layers of powder, with an inkjet print head used tospray on a binder solution that selectively glues only the required granules together.Some MJM printers -- such as the ZPrinter 450 from ZCorp -- can spray on fourdifferent colours of binder solution, so permitting them to create full-colour 3Dobjects at up to 600x540dpi.• Zcorp “Brain”tandwiel – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ICh0MrT9Liw
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) This builds objects by laying down a fine layer of powder and then using a laser toselectively fuse some of its granules together. At present, SLS 3D printers can outputobjects using a wide range of powdered materials. These includewax, polystyrene, nylon, glass, ceramics, stainless steel, titanium, aluminium andvarious alloys including cobalt chrome. During printing, non-bonded powder granulessupport the object as it is constructed. Once printing is complete, almost all excesspower is able to be recycled.You can use laser sintering to produce wax objects that are then sacrificed in atraditional lost-wax casting process. Here, once the wax object has been 3D printed aplaster mould is poured around it. When heated, the wax then melts and is pouredaway, after which a liquid metal can be poured in. Once this cools the plaster isremoved, leaving a metal object that -- in some senses -- began its life on a 3D printer.You can use laser sintering to produce ceramic moulds directly from a digital modeland use it for metal casting – again the metal object starts on a 3D printer.
Selective Heat Sintering (SHS)• SHS™ and Printer Features• SHS™ technology uses a thermal printhead as opposed to a laser in SLS machines• The thermal printhead applies heat on layers of thermoplastic powder in the build chamber• Free forming of any complex geometry (minimum wall thickness is 1 mm)http://www.blueprinter.dk/shs.html
direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)When SLS is used to directly produce metal objects the process is also called directmetal laser sintering (DMLS). Metal objects created by a DMLS 3D printer are about99.99 per cent dense, and hence can be used in place of traditional metal parts in thevast majority of applications.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i6Px6RSL9Ac&feature=related
3D metal printing3D metal printing is used to directly produce (stainless steel) metal objects. Metalobjects are created by jetspraying a binder solution on a layer of metal powder thatselectively glues only the required granules together. After this process phase theobject is porous and fragile. The holes are in phase 2 infused with a bronze powderunder heat (over 2.000 °C), which gives the objects its strength.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i6Px6RSL9Ac&feature=related
selective laser melting (SLM) en selective heat sintering (SHS)A closely related 3D printing technique to SLS is known as selective laser melting(SLM). This uses a laser to fully melt the powder granules that form a finalobject, rather then just heating them enough to fuse them together. As yet anothervariant, a technique called selective heat sintering (SHS) uses a thermal print head --rather than a laser -- to apply heat to successive layers of a thermoplastic powder
Voorbeelden van Maquettes• http://www.3dprinting.nl/downloads/3DPrintingPresentatieA4.pdf
Metalen printen• Direct http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z8MaVaqNr3U&feature=related• Indirect: zandvorm door 3-D printen, daarna metaalgieten http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z8MaVaqNr3U&feature=related – http://www.3trpd.co.uk/dmls/
Model van internet halen• Op www zijn vele modelen te up- en downloaden (al dan niet tegen betaling) – www.Thingiverse.com – http://www.kraftwurx.com/ – http://cubify.com/ – http://3dprintingmodel.com/marketplace/indexM arketPlace.php
Hoe kom ik aan een 3-D print• Uitbesteden bij snel groeiend aantal bedrijven – http://www.freedomofcreation.com/ – http://www.materialise.com/ – http://www.shapeways.com/ – http://www.3dworknet.com/• Zelf maken in een Fablab!
Achtergrondinformatie in links• Tandtechniek http://www.envisiontec.de/index.php?id=80• Overzicht http://www.explainingthefuture.com/3dprinting.html• Overzicht http://www.explainingthefuture.com/3d_printing_directory.html• h ttp://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D-printer• http://www.deondernemer.nl/deondernemer/548043/3D-Printen-voor-iedereen.html• http://www.envisiontec.de/index.php?id=80• http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/30605