It refers to all the changes that the
Earth has had through time. The
Earth has had significant changes
that have changed the appearance of
the Earth as we know it today.
There are many factors which are
involved in the transformation of the
Earth’s appearance one of them is
the movement of the plates.
• Plates: it is a scientific theory that
describes the large scale motions of the
• Layers: the internal structure of the
Earth, like an onion.
• Magma: the mixture of molten rock or
semi molten rock which is founded
beneath the surface of the Earth.
• Crustal Rock: it is the magma when it is
When the molten layer moves around with very slow
movements, plates move around too. When plates move around a
rock liquid called Magma rises and plugs the gapes, when it is
harden it is called crustal rock.
Magma harden Crustal Rock
Deep ocean Trench
Continents collide Mountain Ranges
Plates move around and push one beneath the other. They
move sideways too in an average of 2 to 3 inches and 4 to 7
cm in a year. Over million of years it means a significant
change in the Earth’s appearance.
Alfred Wegener (Nov. 1, 1880 – Nov. 1930)Abraham Ortels (14 April 1527 – 28 June 1598)
In the early 1900s, they suggested the idea of continental drift. It was only
confirmed until 1960 when some scientists continued with the study of the
It is an hypothetical theory of a supercontinent where all
the landmasses were together. Over 200 million of years
ago all the continents were together in just one and it
was surrounded by one Ocean.
Around 130 million of years the Earth started to break up.
Over 60 million of years ago Pacific Ocean appeared and
India was moved toward Asia. Finally the Earth took the
form as we know it today.
Fossils Continental Drift
The fossils that were found in different continents support the
idea of continental drift because it was not possible that they
have swum across the ocean.
Future Continental Drift
“Aim at heaven and you will get earth thrown in. Aim at
earth and you get neither.”
C. S. Lewis
Plates are still moving, after many years the Earth’s appearance
will be different.
• Squeeze: v. /skwiːz/
to grip or press firmly.
• Drift: v. /drɪft/ to move
aimlessly from place to
place or from one activity
• Crack: v. /kræk/ to
break or cause to break
separation of the parts.
• Plug: v. /plʌɡ/ To fill (a
hole) tightly with or as if
with a plug
• Ridge: n. /rɪdʒ/ a long
narrow raised land
formation with sloping
sides esp. one formed by
the meeting of two faces
of a mountain.