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Yumiko Yasuda @FTF2013
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Yumiko Yasuda @FTF2013

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  • 1. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 1Interaction of Architecture and Agency in theGovernance of International Waters- Institutional influence on NGO Coalitions along theMekong River-Yumiko YasudaPhD CandidateIHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and ScienceUniversity of Dundee10-12 April 2013Facing the Future 2013
  • 2. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 2Presentation OutlineInstitutionalinfluence onNGOcoalitions
  • 3. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 3Background & Justification• Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)– Key agency in environmental governance• Academic literature– Roles, strategies, approaches, actions in influencingpolicy/institutions/architecture– Limited literature aiming to link NGOs actions andarchitecture/institutional context Filling the gap in literature Opportunities and barriers NGOs face
  • 4. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 4Presentation OutlineInstitutionalinfluence onNGOcoalitions
  • 5. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 5Research Question & Definition• Research Question– How do institutions influence NGOcoalitions’ actions?• Institution (Definition for thisresearch)– Formal and informal rules, norms, andthe organizations created and adoptedby the society.
  • 6. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 6Presentation OutlineInstitutionalinfluence onNGOcoalitions
  • 7. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 7Research methodology1. Comparative Case study2. Analytical Framework
  • 8. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 8Case studies’ context: Mekong river• 1995 Mekong Agreement:Signed by Cambodia, Lao PDR,Thailand, Vietnam.• Established Mekong RiverCommission (MRC)• PNPCA: Procedure forNotification, PriorConsultation and Agreement Souce: ICEM 2012
  • 9. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 9Xayaburi hydropower dam and PNPCA• Xayaburi dam (Lao PDR)– First case applying PNPCAConsultation– Sept 2010: Notification by LaoPDR– Dec 2011: Council meetingconcludes needs for furtherstudies– As of Jan 2013: No Consensusreached (MRC Council meeting)• But….– Xayaburi construction continues
  • 10. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 10Comparative case studies: NGO Coalitions’ activities inCambodia and Vietnam during Xayaburi PNPCA• Comparative cases:– Cambodia and Vietnam– 2 countries with similar physicaland material conditions• Rivers Coalition in Cambodia(RCC)• Vietnam Rivers Network (VRN)• Study period: September 2010-August 2012Photo: RCC 2012
  • 11. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 11Analytical FrameworkAction ArenaPhysical/materialconditionsFormal rulesInformal rulesActionSituationsActorsPatterns ofinteractionsOrganizationsTheory: NewInstitutionalism
  • 12. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 12Presentation OutlineInstitutionalinfluence onNGOcoalitions
  • 13. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 13Cambodia: RCC activities during Xayaburi PNPCA• Regional : joining letters byregional coalition• National : Formal consultation,workshops• Community : Thumb printscollection, awareness raisingeventsActivities face informalpressure from local authoritiesPhoto: RCC 2012
  • 14. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 14Informal pressure at local level: Interaction of institutionsInformalpressure fromlocal authoritiesnot to speak upagainstdevelopment Neo-patrimonialismCambodianPeople’sPartyPressure tojournalistsConstitution:Freedom ofspeech,assemblyPress Law(restrictions)Local authorities(provincial, district, commune)
  • 15. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 15Vietnam: VRN’s activities during Xayaburi PNPCA• Science-policy linkage• Close collaboration with government• Use of media:– Workshops/field trips for media– Press release/feed information– Writing articles in mediaFaced difficulty through Media embargoon Xayaburi
  • 16. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 16Media embargo: interaction of institutionsConstitution:Freedom ofexpressionPress lawPenal code(restrictions)MediaEmbargo onXayaburithroughInformalguidelines tomediaVietnamCommunistPartyMinistry ofInformation andCommunicationInternationalrelations(Vietnam, Laos,China)Pressure toEditors-in-Chief
  • 17. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 17Conclusion• Institutions influence NGO coalitions activitiesin different ways• Different types and levels of institutioninfluence NGOs• Interaction between institutions:– Sometimes contradict each other– Formal rules vs informal rules
  • 18. IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science | under the auspices of UNESCO Slide | 18Thank youPlease send your feedback toyumikoyasuda@gmail.com