Resilience for the future…?                 Ioan Fazey      School of Environment/CECHR           University of Dundee    ...
Outline•   What is resilience?•   Trajectories of resilience…•   An ever changing world…•   Adaptive, interdisciplinary re...
What is resilience?          Social-Ecological Resilience“The amount of change a system can undergo (itscapacity to absorb...
Resilience                       Strength, Speed, FrequencyVulnerability                 of the Hazard1. Exposure2. Sensit...
Property?                    SustainabilitySocial-ecological   Resilience                           Normative?
Basic premises of social-ecological                           resilience     1) Humans are part of the social-ecological s...
element constraintA ‘system’              part    influence
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AaOFvG935eg
Resilience aims to increasecapacity to cope withchange…Resilience as a property of asystem…Resilience is related toadaptiv...
Outline•   What is resilience?•   Trajectories of resilience…•   An ever changing world…•   Adaptive, interdisciplinary re...
Trajectories of change (resilience) in Kahua
Number births                    R           +                                                                     Amount ...
Trajectories•   Increasing inequality•   Increasing conflict•   Increase resource use per capita•   Loss social cohesion• ...
Number births                    R           +                                                                     Amount ...
Trajectories in Kahua highlight:• Change creates responses which  create further change;• Acceleration of change is  enabl...
Outline•   What is resilience?•   Trajectories of resilience…•   An ever changing world…•   Adaptive, interdisciplinary re...
Great Acceleration  • Human response to    change fuels and is    fuelled by the great    acceleration  • People aren’t si...
Red Queen and changeAlice: "Well, in our country, youd generally get to somewhere else - if yourun very fast for a long ti...
The Global Challenge…              How should we respond?
Quick summary  Resilience is   related to            People adapt,adaptive capacity         and create                    ...
Outline•   What is resilience?•   Trajectories of resilience…•   An ever changing world…•   Adaptive, interdisciplinary re...
1. Become adaptive learners and thinkers• Adaptive expertise   – Practice   – Variation in practice• Flexibility in learni...
ComponentDisposition               Inclination (examples)               Sensitivity (examples)               Ability (exam...
Resilient thinkers?A bit like seeing things from differentperspectives, but knowing when to takethose perspectives…
Different higher order perspectives:                    Epistemologye.g. is there a real world out there to be measured/un...
Physical                                                   World                                                 Natural a...
We all have our own epistemological                     beliefs  • Studies highlight there are 4 key dimensions  Nature of...
Personal epistemological beliefs –                 common dimensions  • PEBs can change over    time  • Sophisticated view...
Nature of Knowledge                                                   Knowledge consists of discrete,                     ...
How we come to know something                                         Knowledge originating from outside the self         ...
Relevance to interdisciplinary thinkingGroups of individuals from    Individuals integrating   different disciplines     k...
So how should we Quick summary                         respond?    To be ‘adaptive’                              1. Become...
2. Stepping off the treadmill• Adaptive capacity itself                             Systems                               ...
Systems viewModel of Ego                  Aware of:                              • Subject-object relationships           ...
Can we enhance transformation?                                                                   Vipassana                ...
So how should we Quick summary                         respond?                              1. Become more        2. Try ...
Facing the future• Resilience can enhance capacities to respond to  change• But the future depends on how we approach and ...
4 challenges for facing the futureLearn to:1.   Articulate your own epistemological assumptions2.   Understand the epistem...
Ioan Fazey @FTF2013
Ioan Fazey @FTF2013
Ioan Fazey @FTF2013
Ioan Fazey @FTF2013
Ioan Fazey @FTF2013
Ioan Fazey @FTF2013
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Transcript of "Ioan Fazey @FTF2013 "

  1. 1. Resilience for the future…? Ioan Fazey School of Environment/CECHR University of Dundee i.fazey@dundee.ac.uk
  2. 2. Outline• What is resilience?• Trajectories of resilience…• An ever changing world…• Adaptive, interdisciplinary researchers to face the future
  3. 3. What is resilience? Social-Ecological Resilience“The amount of change a system can undergo (itscapacity to absorb disturbance) and remain within the same regime – essentially maintaining the same function, structure and feedbacks” Walker and Salt 2006 Resilience Thinking. Island Press
  4. 4. Resilience Strength, Speed, FrequencyVulnerability of the Hazard1. Exposure2. Sensitivity3. Adaptive capacity
  5. 5. Property? SustainabilitySocial-ecological Resilience Normative?
  6. 6. Basic premises of social-ecological resilience 1) Humans are part of the social-ecological system (SES) 2) Systems are governed by feedback 3) Systems can exist as multiple stable states 4) Systems are complex and adaptiveosphere, I. Fazey 2008
  7. 7. element constraintA ‘system’ part influence
  8. 8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AaOFvG935eg
  9. 9. Resilience aims to increasecapacity to cope withchange…Resilience as a property of asystem…Resilience is related toadaptive capacity…Resilience thinking – a lens toview the world
  10. 10. Outline• What is resilience?• Trajectories of resilience…• An ever changing world…• Adaptive, interdisciplinary researchers to face the future
  11. 11. Trajectories of change (resilience) in Kahua
  12. 12. Number births R + Amount of land used + Population for cash crops Income from growth cash crops + Number of + Desire for prosperity + people R7 Policies and R programmes Intrinsic desire + + for economic + encouraging Desire to make income generation Pressure on money + prosperity Pressure and Money in ecological systems + + stress communities + + Stress in communities - Ability to Cross R + + adaptively community manage change collaboration + R Tendency for in Kahua Ability to address individualistic + attitudes R problems Maintaining R Response to + + cohesion environmental change Social cohesion - and trust in communities -Fazey, I., et al. (2011) Global +Environmental Change 21, B Ability to respond1275-1289 to problems
  13. 13. Trajectories• Increasing inequality• Increasing conflict• Increase resource use per capita• Loss social cohesion• Possibly more education• Increasing change Number births R + Amount of land used + Population for cash crops Income from growth cash crops + Number of + Desire for prosperity + people R7 Policies and R programmes Intrinsic desire + + for economic + encouraging Desire to make income generation Pressure on money + prosperity Pressure and Money in ecological systems + + stress communities + + Stress in communities - Ability to Cross R + + adaptively community manage change collaboration + R Tendency for in Kahua Ability to address individualistic + attitudes R problems Maintaining R Response to + + cohesion environmental change Social cohesion - and trust in communities - + B Ability to respond to problems
  14. 14. Number births R + Amount of land used + Population for cash crops Income from growth cash crops + Number of + Desire for prosperity + people R7 Policies and R programmes Intrinsic desire + + for economic + encouraging Desire to make income generation Pressure on money + prosperity Pressure and Money in ecological systems + + stress communities +Future Change + Stress in communities(e.g. climate) - Ability to Cross R + + adaptively community manage change collaboration + R Tendency for in Kahua Ability to address individualistic + attitudes R problems Maintaining R Response to + + cohesion environmental change Social cohesion - and trust in communities -Fazey, I., et al. (2011) Global +Environmental Change 21, B Ability to respond1275-1289 to problems
  15. 15. Trajectories in Kahua highlight:• Change creates responses which create further change;• Acceleration of change is enabled by psycho-social desire;• Climate change reinforces further change and response Are attempts to enhance ‘resilience’ accelerating change?
  16. 16. Outline• What is resilience?• Trajectories of resilience…• An ever changing world…• Adaptive, interdisciplinary researchers to face the future
  17. 17. Great Acceleration • Human response to change fuels and is fuelled by the great acceleration • People aren’t simply standing by • The future is change (and more change…)Steffen, W., et al. (2004) Global changeand the Earth System: A planet underpressure. Springer
  18. 18. Red Queen and changeAlice: "Well, in our country, youd generally get to somewhere else - if yourun very fast for a long time, as weve been doing.“Queen: "A slow sort of country! Now, here, you see, it takes all the runningyou can do, to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else,you must run at least twice as fast as that!” Lewis Carroll , Through the looking glass.
  19. 19. The Global Challenge… How should we respond?
  20. 20. Quick summary Resilience is related to People adapt,adaptive capacity and create change Results in acceleration of change So how should we respond? 1. Become more 2. Try and ‘step adaptive? (i.e. off’ the treadmill resilient)
  21. 21. Outline• What is resilience?• Trajectories of resilience…• An ever changing world…• Adaptive, interdisciplinary researchers to face the future
  22. 22. 1. Become adaptive learners and thinkers• Adaptive expertise – Practice – Variation in practice• Flexibility in learning ‘thinking’• Thinking dispositions – (Perkins et al. Unpublished)
  23. 23. ComponentDisposition Inclination (examples) Sensitivity (examples) Ability (examples)1) To be broad and Tendency to be open-minded, Alertness to binariness, Identify assumptions, empathicadventurous impulse to probe assumptions, dogmatism, sweeping and flexible thinking, to look at desire to tinker with boundaries generalities, narrow thinking things from other points of view2) Toward sustained Zest for inquiry, urge to find and Alertness to unasked questions, To observe closely, focus andintellectual curiosity pose problems, tendency to anomalies, hidden facets, persist in a line of inquiry wonder detecting gaps in knowledge3) To clarify and seek Desire to grasp the essence of Alertness to unclarity, discomfort Ability to ask pointed questionsunderstanding things, impulse to anchor ideas to with vagueness, a leaning and build complex experience and seek connections towards hard questions conceptualisations, ability to to prior knowledge make analogies and comparisons4) To plan and be Urge to set goals, make and Alertness to lack of direction, lack Ability to formulate goals,strategic execute plans, a desire to think of orientation, sprawling thinking evaluate alternative modes of ahead approach, make plans and forecast possible outcomes5) To be intellectually Urge for precision, a desire for Alertness to possibility of error, Ability to process informationcareful mental orderliness, organisation, disorder and disorganisation, precisely, to recognize and apply and thoroughness inaccuracy and inconsistency intellectual standards6) To seek and A leaning towards healthy Alertness to evidential Ability to distinguish cause andevaluate reasons scepticism, the drive to pursue foundations, responsiveness to effect, to identify logical structure, and demand justification, the urge superficiality and over reason inductively to discover grounds and sources generalisation7) To be metacognitive Urge to be cognitively self-aware Alertness to loss of control of Ability to exercise control of and to monitor the flow of one’s one’s thinking, detection of mental processes, to conceive of thinking, desire to be self complex thinking situations the mind as active and challenging requiring self monitoring interpretive, to be self evaluative, to reflect on prior thinking
  24. 24. Resilient thinkers?A bit like seeing things from differentperspectives, but knowing when to takethose perspectives…
  25. 25. Different higher order perspectives: Epistemologye.g. is there a real world out there to be measured/understood? Positivism SubjectivismSciences, some social Some social science, science humanities
  26. 26. Physical World Natural and Physical Sciences Social World Interaction of socialSocial Sciences and Humanities and physical worldEpistemology – fundamental differences inunderstanding the world…
  27. 27. We all have our own epistemological beliefs • Studies highlight there are 4 key dimensions Nature of Certainty of knowledge Simplicity of knowledge knowledge Knowledge as fixed or fluid Accumulation of facts or highly interrelated concepts How we come to Source of knowledge Justification for knowing know something Where does knowledge How individuals justify what come from? they know and how they evaluate knowledgeHofer 2000. Contemporary EducationalPsychology 25:378-405.
  28. 28. Personal epistemological beliefs – common dimensions • PEBs can change over time • Sophisticated views of knowledge are rare • They have profound implications for how we understand complex real world problems Fazey 2010 Ecol. & SociHofer 2000. Contemporary EducationalPsychology 25:378-405.
  29. 29. Nature of Knowledge Knowledge consists of discrete, Simple concrete, knowable facts Simplicity Certain Uncertain Knowledge is Absolute truth and Certainty tentative and evolving certainty exists Knowledge is relative, contingent, Complex and context dependentHofer 2000. Contemporary Educational Psychology 25:378-405.
  30. 30. How we come to know something Knowledge originating from outside the self External (e.g. an expert or external authority) Source Authority,observation Evaluation JustificationJustification of a view through Justification of a view through activeobservation, authority, or on evaluation or assessment of thethe basis of what feels right evidence, expertise or authority involved Knowledge is constructed by individuals through Internal interaction with their environment and others
  31. 31. Relevance to interdisciplinary thinkingGroups of individuals from Individuals integrating different disciplines knowledge from different disciplines Can we be interdisciplinary individuals?
  32. 32. So how should we Quick summary respond? To be ‘adaptive’ 1. Become more 2. Try and ‘step people need to be adaptive? (i.e. off’ the treadmill adaptive learners resilient)Adaptive learning requires But – this doesn’t people to have flexible necessarily get us off the higher order thinking treadmill of change Also relates to developingThis includes beliefs about skills as interdisciplinary knowledge and knowing researchers
  33. 33. 2. Stepping off the treadmill• Adaptive capacity itself Systems view Linear view doesn’t reduce change; Conventional• Need to examine the psycho-social aspects that enable people to Postconventional not react to change; Construct aware• Lots of theories of stages Unity Consciousness, of development… Unitary Ground of Being, Transpersonal Realm view Model of Ego Development Pre-conventional Postpostconventional: ego transcendentCook-Greuter, S.R. (2000) Mature egodevelopment: A gateway to ego transcendence?Journal of Adult Development 7, 227-240
  34. 34. Systems viewModel of Ego Aware of: • Subject-object relationships Linear viewDevelopment • Participant observer • Max. subject-objectCook-Greuter 2000 • Cultural conditioning separation • Contexts and perspective • Linear causality • Circular causation • Analytic logic Conventional Resilience Thinking Ego StagesUnitary view PostconventionalAware of:• Illusion of separate self and object world Construct aware• Habits of mind (including language and judgment habit)• Habits of the heart Unity Consciousness,From thousands of subjects Ground of Being,taking Loevinger’s SCTs Transpersonal Pre-conventionaland examination of Realm‘spiritual’ development Postpostconventional: ego transcendent
  35. 35. Can we enhance transformation? Vipassana http://www.dhamma.org/ Unpleasant Pleasant Experience Experience Seek less Sensory Response Seek more = Aversion Craving IMPERMANENCE = Changes in = addictive, aggressiveBowen, S., et al. (2006) Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 20, behaviours343-347
  36. 36. So how should we Quick summary respond? 1. Become more 2. Try and ‘step adaptive? (i.e. off’ the treadmill But – this doesn’t resilient)necessarily get us off the Resilience ‘thinking’ is only treadmill of change one way of thinking Such approaches help There are approaches that people become more can help people satisfied, calmer, happier understand dynamic change Do they help us step off the treadmill?
  37. 37. Facing the future• Resilience can enhance capacities to respond to change• But the future depends on how we approach and understand change• A crucial component of this is awareness of how our thinking affects everything that we do• Exploring and developing higher order thinking has major relevance for interdisciplinary skills, resilience, and the future…
  38. 38. 4 challenges for facing the futureLearn to:1. Articulate your own epistemological assumptions2. Understand the epistemological assumptions of others3. See the world through different epistemological lenses4. Be epistemological brokers to help others

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