Millets For Scientific Research & Food Security

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Presentation by Dr. Pranati Das, Assam Agricultural University

Presentation by Dr. Pranati Das, Assam Agricultural University

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  • 1. MILLETS FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH & FOOD SECURITY Dr. Pranati Das Principal Scientist Department of Food & Nutrition Assam Agricultural University Jorhat-785013
  • 2. Millets are small seeded cereal grains consumed as food by millions of people throughout the world. They are often referred to as ‘poor man’s cereal, because people with a choice prefer other cereals such as wheat or rice. But recently Prof. M. S. Swaminathan designated millets as ‘nutritious millets’ & it deserves to be reclassified so, because of its nutritive properties.
  • 3. Most of millet of the world is grown in Asia Africa, USSR
  • 4. MILLET PRODUCTION: Production contribution of the top 10 millet producing countries in 2005 (FAOSTAT, 2005)
  • 5. TOP TEN MILLET RODUCERS- 2007 Country Production (Tonnes) India 10,610,000 Nigeria 7,700,000 Niger 2,781,928 China 2,101,000 Burkina Faso 1,104,010 Mali 1,074,440 Sudan 792,000 Uganda 732,000 Chad 550,000 Ethiopia 500,000
  • 8. GLOBAL MILLET CONSUMPTION Country MT (5 yr. avg.) India 9,041,765 Nigeria 4,299,211 Niger 1,733,793 China 1,116,505 Burkina Faso 856,337 Mali 701,701 Sudan 560,548 Uganda 408,137
  • 9. GLOBAL MILLET CONSUMPTION Country MT (5 yr. avg.) Senegal 347,989 Chad 296,119 Russian Federation 280,941 Ethiopia 259,490 Nepal 251,027 Myanmar 137,759 Tanzania 136,409 Ghana 117,955
  • 10. However, just because a country is a top global consumer does not mean that millet is a significant source of calories for them. India and China are rank as the 1st and 4th consumer of millet, but due to their population size they rank 11th and 38th in per capita consumption
  • 11. MILLETS GROWN IN INDIA Minor millets: MAJOR MILLETS: MAJOR Finger millet Sorghum Proso millet Sorghum Little millet Pearl millet Foxtail millet Pearl millet Barnyard millet Kodo millet
  • 12. Millets grown in North East India: Species Common name Region Digitaria cruciata Raishan Khasi hills (Ness)A. Setaria Italica((L) Foxtail millet Assam, Arunachal (Konidhan) Eleusine coracana(L) Finger millet Arunachal
  • 13. Food security is achieved “ when all the people, at all times have physical and economical access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”
  • 14. FOOD SECURITY IN INDIA In India cereal security is very important, because it was characterized by history of drought and famines, vast and expanding population and social structure still not fully evolved up to the expectation of our civil society. The increases in productivity during the last four decades has been accompanied by increases in personal income.
  • 15. Food security in India Increased incomes will normally lead to decline in consumption of cereals mainly coarse grains including millets. PDS has significantly changed the food habits of people across the country, but led to complete neglect of millets which are otherwise extremely nutritious. In the same time food security programme based on rice-wheat supply through PDS system has not completely attained the desired objective of reducing hunger in the country.
  • 16. GLOBAL HUNGER INDEX (GHI) GHI is a multi dimensional statistical tool used to describe the state of countries hunger situation. It is updated once in a year. GHI was adopted and further developed by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and was first published in 2006 with the WELTHUNGERHILFE a German NGO. Since 2007 the IRISH NGO Concern Worldwide joined the group as co publisher.
  • 17. CONCEPT GHI is designed to capture several dimensions of hunger : •increased susceptibility to disease •shortfall in nutritional status •loss of energy •disability •death due to starvation or infectious diseases whose lethal course is the result of weakened general health
  • 18. GHI= PUN+CUW+CM÷3 PUN= Proportion of population that is undernourished (in %) CUW= Prevalence of underweight children under five (in %) CM= Proportion of children dying before the age of five (in %)
  • 19. GHI for INDIA Rank= 65 out of 84 countries GHI in 1990=31.7 GHI in 2009=23.9 (It’s a 100 point scale , 0 means no hunger, higher the score, worse the food situation of the country. 20-29.9= alarming; above 30= extremely alarming)
  • 20. Map of world poverty by country showing percentage of population living on less than $ 1.25 per day. Based on UN Human Development Report 2009
  • 21. Map of world poverty by country showing percentage of population living on less than $ 2.00 per day. Based on UN Human Development Report 2009
  • 22. Map of world poverty by country, showing percentage of population living below the national poverty line. Based on data from the CIA World Fact book (India below Rs.21.6- urban, Rs. 14.3- rural, per day)
  • 23. The country must, therefore, work towards achieving complete food security, even though elimination of hunger may have been the primary objective, the nutritional security also may be simultaneously planned and visualized.
  • 24. Millet inclusion in the food security on the contrary would have strengthened not only the food security objective but nutritional security since millets are rich sources of many macro and micro minerals. Such a shift at least now can be encouraged in those states where millets are known to be produced and consumed. This calls for alteration in agricultural policy and R & D.
  • 25. STATUS OF MILLETS IN INDIA Finger millet: Also known as Ragi or Mandwa is the most important small millet food crops of Southern Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttaranchal, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh & Orissa. It is grown successfully in areas where rainfall Is about 350 mm and temperatures more than 30 degree Celsius.
  • 26. STATUS OF MILLETS IN INDIA Pearl millet: Also known as Bajra in a Kharif crop and is chiefly grown in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Maharashtra. The crop can grow well in the areas with less than 350 mm annual rainfall & temperature betwee n 25 to 35 degree Celsius.
  • 27. STATUS OF MILLETS IN INDIA SORGHUM : Also known as Jowar is perceived to be important coarse grain food crop which is cultivated widely across Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and in parts of Rajasthan. The crop in areas is hardy and cultivated in the areas with rainfall beyond 350 mm.
  • 28. In each of the millet growing areas at least 4 to 5 species are cultivated, either as primary or allied crop in combination with the pulses, oilseeds, spices and condiments. However, in spite of a rich inter/intra species diversity and wider climatic adaptability, cultivation of diverse millet species / varieties is gradually narrowing in the recent past.
  • 29. In a way, a lack of institutional support for millet crops in contrast to the institutional promotion of rice and wheat continue to shrink the millet growing region. Over the last 50 years, the share of coarse grains which include pearl millet, sorghum, maize, finer millet,barley and five other millet species known as small millets , in terms of total area has registered 25.3% decline from 38.83 Mha in 1949-50 to 29.03 Mha in 2004-05
  • 30. Major factor discouraging minor millet cultivation and consumption with improvement in living standard or urbanization is the drudgery associated with its processing. No processing technology and machinery suiting to minor millets available in South Asia. Hence much of the millets consumed are processed at household level by following a tedious method involving considerable drudgery. With increasing availability of other Tedious manual milling grains, households who can afford of minor millets these grains are avoiding the drudgery of processing millets.
  • 31. In spite of of this several communities in the dry/rainfed regions having known the food qualities of millets over generations continue to include a range of millets in the traditional cropping patterns, who recognise millets as an essential part of the local diet.
  • 33. WHY MILLET SHOULD BE RECAPTURED ? Millets are crop of food sovereignty. Nutritive profile of many elements are much higher compared to other crops. Compared to irrigated commodity crops currently promoted, millets require just 25% rainfall. The crop does not fail. Women will be empowered .
  • 34. Health benefits of eating millets Lignans, an essential phytonutrient present in millet, are very beneficial to the human body, which act against different types of hormone-dependent cancers, like breast cancer and also help reduce the risk of heart disease. Regular consumption of millet is very beneficial for postmenopausal women suffering from signs of cardiovascular disease, like high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels.
  • 35. A high source of fiber, millet is very beneficial against breast cancer in post- menopausal women. According to research and recent studies, consumption of millet can help women combat the occurrence of gallstones, as they are a very high source of insoluble fiber.
  • 36. This form of cereal grain is very high in phosphorus content, which plays a vital role in maintaining the cell structure of the human body. The key role of this mineral is that it helps in the formation of the mineral matrix of the bone and is also an essential component of ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate), which is the energy currency of the body.
  • 37. A single cup of millet provides around 24.0% of the body’s daily phosphorus requirement. This mineral is a very important constituent of nucleic acids, which are the building blocks of genetic code.
  • 38. Recent research has indicated that the regular consumption of millet is associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is mainly due to the fact that whole grains like millet are a rich source of magnesium, which acts as a co-factor in a number of enzymatic reactions in the body, regulating the secretion of glucose and insulin. Magnesium is also beneficial in reducing the frequency of migraine attacks. It is even very useful for people who are suffering from atherosclerosis and diabetic heart disease.
  • 39. A comparison of nutritional components of millets and “big” cereals (per 100g) Protein (g) Fat Crude Energy Grain type Ash (g) Carbs (g) (kcal) (Nx6.25) (g) fibre (g) Small millets Common Millet 12.5 3.5 3.1 5.2 63.8 364 (Proso) Foxtail millet 11.2 4 3.3 6.7 63.2 351 Barnyard 11 3.9 4.5 13.6 55 300 millet Kodo millet 9.8 3.6 3.3 5.2 66.6 353 Little millet 9.7 5.2 5.4 7.6 60.9 329 Finger millet 7.7 1.5 2.6 3.6 72.6 336 Large millets Pearl millet 11.8 4.8 2.2 2.3 67 363 Sorghum 10.4 3.1 1.6 2 70.7 329 Comparable Wheat 11.6 2 1.6 2 71 348 grains Maize 9.2 4.6 1.2 2.8 73 358 Rice (brown) 7.9 2.7 1.3 1 76 362 Foxtail millet 10.5 7.8 3.0 7.3 61.0 358.3 (Y) Foxtail millet 11.1 7.9 3.3 8.0 60.7 358.7 (P)
  • 40. A comparison of nutritional components of millets and “big” cereals (per 100g) Grain type Ca (mg) Fe (mg) Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin (mg) (mg) (mg) Small millets Common Millet 8 2.9 0.41 0.28 4.5 PROSO Foxtail millet 31 2.8 0.59 0.11 3.2 Barnyard 22 18.6 0.33 0.1 4.2 millet Kodo millet 35 107 0.15 0.09 2 Little millet 17 9.3 0.3 0.09 3.2 Finger millet 350 3.9 0.42 0.19 1.1 Large millets Pearl millet 42 11 0.38 0.21 2.8 Sorghum 25 5.4 0.38 0.15 4.3 Comparable Wheat 30 3.5 0.41 0.1 5.1 grains Maize 26 2.7 0.38 0.2 3.6 Rice (brown) 33 1.8 0.41 0.04 4.3 Source: FAO 1995: Hulse. Laing and Pearson. 1980: U.S. National Research Council/NAS. 1982: USDA/HNIS. 1984
  • 41. Proximate composition of two varieties of foxtail millets from Assam ( in 100g) Variety Process Protein Fat (g) Mineral Cr. CHO Energy ing (g) (g) Fibre (g) (Kcal) (G) Yellow Raw 10.5 7.8 3.0 7.3 61.0 358.3 Popped 10.9 5.2 2.5 3.5 72.8 381.8 Malted 9.2 3.8 2.9 7.0 72.3 360.8 Purple Raw 11.1 7.9 3.3 8.0 60.7 358.9 Popped 12.0 5.5 2.2 2.7 71.8 384.5 Malted 9.9 3.3 2.7 7.3 72.2 358.9
  • 42. Effect of processing on digestibility of foxtail millets Digestibility Variety Raw Popped Malted Yellow 75.2 107.1 92.0 Starch (mg of maltose eq.) Purple 77.8 107.0 98.5 Protein (%) Yellow 79.6 88.1 81.5 Purple 76.6 86.3 84.2
  • 43. Proximate composition of weaning food (per 100 g) Item Fat Protein CHO Mineral Energy Fibre (g) (g) (g) (g) (Kcal) (g) Nestum 1.0 6.0 86.0 0.7 373 2.7 Cerelac 9.0 15.0 68.9 2.7 419 1.4 WF with FT 9.7 10.4 26.0 2.0 232 0.34 millet Mineral profile of weaning food (per 100 g) Item Ca (mg) P (mg) Fe (mg) K (mg) Nestum 120 100 18.5 90.0 Cerelac 510 380 7.5 470.0 WF with FT millet 258 - 2.0 -
  • 44. Proximate composition of roti from different flours (per 100 g) Item Moisture Protein Fat Mineral Crude fibre (g) (g) (g) (g) (g) Wheat flour 27.6 7.6 8.8 1.2 1.0 roti Bajra roti 43.42 6.83 6.73 1.4 0.7 Maize roti 44.1 6.50 7.83 0.9 1.5 Ragi flour roti 26.2 6.8 1.5 4.4 2.6 Jowar flour 25.3 5.7 1.5 1.5 0.9 roti Mixed flour 6.6 12.3 12.8 4.8 2.8 roti
  • 45. Proximate composition of roti from different flours (per 100 g) Item CHO Energy Ca Fe (g) (kcal) (mg) (mg) Wheat flour 54.2 326.0 30.0 3.4 chapati Bajra chapati 40.7 251.2 25.0 4.7 Maize chapati 39.6 255.0 6.0 1.4 Ragi flour roti 58.5 274.5 175.0 2.2 Jowar flour roti 65.6 300.2 95.2 2.2 Mixed flour roti 60.5 406.7 554.4 2.9
  • 46. Thank you