CSI 1301
HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE
Computers
 Computers are automatic, electronic machines that
– accept data & instructions from a user (INPUT)
– store the...
Software
 Program
– a sequence of instructions to accomplish a result
– a computer processes information under the direct...
Hardware
Digital Computers
 The computers that we use are digital, not
analogue computers
 Analogue technology
– The signal is di...
Digital Technology
 Digital technology
– The signal is discrete
– The information is broken down into pieces, and each pi...
Storage of Programs and Data
 Sampling is only one way to digitize information
 Since our computers work ONLY with numbe...
Binary Numbers
 But how do we store numbers in a computer?
– We could use the digits 0, 1, 2,….., 9 from the base 10
(dec...
Binary Numbers
 Devices that store and move information are cheaper and more reliable
if they have to represent only two ...
Binary Numbers
1 bit
0
1
2 bits
00
01
10
11
3 bits
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
4 bits
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
01...
Binary Numbers
 So how do we convert decimal numbers to binary
numbers?
– i.e. if we enter the number 9 into the computer...
Hardware
 Units of measure
– All done relative to a Byte (8 bits - 1 character)
– KB = Kilobyte - 1 thousand bytes (1024)...
Central
Processing
Unit
Main
Memory
Floppy Disk
Hard Disk
Monitor
Keyboard
A simplified view of a computer
system
Hardware Devices
 Input Devices (Get information)
– Keyboard
– Mouse
– Scanner
 Output Devices (Give information)
– Scre...
Hardware Devices
 Processing Device (Arithmetic/logic/repetition)
– Central Processing Unit (CPU)
• 286, 386, 486, Pentiu...
The Central Processing Unit
 The CPU continuously follows the fetch-decode-
execute cycle:
fetch
Retrieve an instruction ...
Hardware Devices
 Storage
– Two types
• Primary and secondary
 Primary Storage (main memory)
– On board memory (located ...
Hardware Devices
 RAM - Random Access Memory
– Read/write capability
– Contents lost when computer is turned off (volatil...
Hardware Devices
 ROM - Read Only Memory
– Read but not write capability
– Permanent (non volatile)
– Stores the prelimin...
Hardware Devices
Address
9278
9279
9280
9281
9282
9283
9284
9285
9286
Large values are
stored in consecutive
memory locati...
Hardware Devices
 Secondary Storage (secondary memory)
– External devices (not on the motherboard); either inside
or outs...
Hardware Devices
 Other devices
– Port
• For connecting peripheral devices
• USB, Parallel and serial ports
– Modem (inte...
Software
Software
 A computer program is a series of instructions
– each instruction is expressed in a format consistent with
a pr...
Software
 Programming Languages
– 1st generation
• machine language
• instructions coded using combinations of 0’s & 1’s
...
Software
 Programming Languages
– 3rd generation
• high-level symbolic languages
• one instruction generates multiple mac...
Software
HIGH LEVEL ASSEMBLY MACHINE
z = x + y MOV AL, X 0010 1001 0001
MOV AH, Y 0010 1100 0010
ADD AL, AH 0100 0001 0010...
Software
 Translation Software
– Interpreters
• translate each instruction as it is entered
– Advantage: easier to find/c...
Software
 A file is a unit for storing information
 All information on a computer is stored in files
– Data Files
• crea...
Software categories
 Operating System
– controls all machine activities
– provides the user interface to the computer
– m...
Software
 Operating Systems
– The most important software on a computer
• always running to perform the following tasks
–...
Software
 Directories
– to organize files
– tree structure
• root directory
• files within each directory
– current or ac...
Software

Windows c:windows
MSOffice c:MsOffice
Excel c:MsOfficeExcel
WinWord c:MsOfficeWinWord
PowerPoint c:MsOfficePower...
Software
 Standard Commands
– Disk Level
• Format (Prepare a disk)
• Vol (Displays the disk’s volume label)
– Directory L...
Disk Operating System (DOS)
 Example of command line interface (DOS prompt
in bold; user entries in italics)
c: a:
a: for...
Windows
 An operating system that has four advantages over
MS-DOS
– Graphical user interface (GUI)
• uses pictures & symb...
Windows
– Uniformity among applications
• menus look the same: File, Edit, Help
• use of similar dialog boxes, bars and bu...
Windows
 File Management
– 2 programs
• My Computer
– displays the parts of a computer in a window
• Explorer
– displays ...
Starting (Booting) the Computer
 Turn on the power
– CPU loads the instructions from ROM into RAM,
including the bootstra...
Additional Material
Number Systems
Number Systems
 The base value of a number system determines
– The number of symbols in the system
– The place value of e...
Number Systems
 Octal (base 8)
– Symbols (8): 0,1,2,....7
– Place: …..,83
,82
,81
,80
To convert decimal 132 to octal:
(2...
Number Systems
 Binary (base 2)
– Symbols (2): 0,1
– Place: …..,23
,22
,21
,20
To convert decimal 132 to binary:
(1x27
)+...
Number Systems
 To convert from any base to decimal
1. Write the number in its expanded form
2. Sum each term
– 10012
• (...
Number Systems
 To convert from decimal to any base
1. Write the place representation for the base using 1 as
the multipl...
Number Systems
 Decimal (5710) to octal
(1x82
) + (1x81
) + (1x80
)
64 8 1
0 7 1
5710 = 718
 Decimal (5710) to hexadecim...
Number Systems
Decimal Binary Octal Hex
101 1100101 145 65
5 101 5 5
65 1000001 101 41
257 100000001 401 101
Homework
1. Convert the following decimal numbers into
Binary (base 2), Octal (base 8) and Hexadecimal
(Base 16)
 17 – 85 – 172 – ...
1. Draw the following directory structure:
1. From the root directory, I want separate directories to store reports,
memos...
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  1. 1. CSI 1301 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE
  2. 2. Computers  Computers are automatic, electronic machines that – accept data & instructions from a user (INPUT) – store the data & instructions (STORAGE) – manipulate the data according to the instructions (PROCESSING) – store &/or output the results to the user (OUTPUT)  A computer system is composed of hardware and software  Hardware components are the physical, tangible pieces that we can see and touch
  3. 3. Software  Program – a sequence of instructions to accomplish a result – a computer processes information under the direction of a program  Data – information to be processed by a program  Example – Data: for each employee, the employee number, hours worked & hourly pay rate – Program: instructions on how to process the data to produce pay cheques, payroll register, etc.
  4. 4. Hardware
  5. 5. Digital Computers  The computers that we use are digital, not analogue computers  Analogue technology – The signal is directly analogous to the information it represents – The signal is continuous and in direct proportion to the source of the information • In a thermometer, mercury rises in direct proportion to the temperature • In an amplifier or telephone, the electronic voltage signal varies in direct proportion to the frequency and amplitude of the sound waves it represents
  6. 6. Digital Technology  Digital technology – The signal is discrete – The information is broken down into pieces, and each piece is represented separately – Analogue information is measured many times per second (the sampling rate) and each measurement is represented as a number – How music is stored on a compact disc - the disc stores numbers representing specific voltage levels sampled at specific times – Can be used to digitize sound, video, graphics, etc.  Our computers work with digital technology, hence the term digital computers
  7. 7. Storage of Programs and Data  Sampling is only one way to digitize information  Since our computers work ONLY with numbers, everything (not just analogue information such as sound and video) must be converted to numbers – Text (letters and special characters) gets converted to numbers (A = 65), using a standard coding convention called ASCII – Graphics (images), gets broken down into pieces (pixels) and each colour gets a number
  8. 8. Binary Numbers  But how do we store numbers in a computer? – We could use the digits 0, 1, 2,….., 9 from the base 10 (decimal) numbering system that we are used to? – We would need a unique physical representation in the computer for each of the 10 digits, 0, 1, 2,……..,9
  9. 9. Binary Numbers  Devices that store and move information are cheaper and more reliable if they have to represent only two states • A circuit conducts current (1) or does not (0) • A position on a diskette is magnetized in one direction (1) or the opposite direction (0) • A position on a CD is pitted (1) or is not (0)  Once information is digitized, it is represented and stored in memory using the binary number system  A single binary digit (0 or 1) is called a bit  A single bit can represent two possible states, like a light bulb that is either on (1) or off (0)  Permutations of bits are used to store values. All information is represented as combinations of the two digits 0 and 1.
  10. 10. Binary Numbers 1 bit 0 1 2 bits 00 01 10 11 3 bits 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 4 bits 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111  Each permutation can represent a particular item  1 bit = 2 choices, a 0 or a 1  8 bits = 1 byte = 256 different combinations of 0’s and 1’s  There are 2N permutations of N bits  Therefore, N bits are needed to represent 2 N unique items
  11. 11. Binary Numbers  So how do we convert decimal numbers to binary numbers? – i.e. if we enter the number 9 into the computer, how is it changed to 1001 for computer storage and processing?  Or when we want to display or output information from the computer, how do we convert binary numbers to decimal numbers?  See the slides titled Number Systems in the Additional Material at the end of this lecture
  12. 12. Hardware  Units of measure – All done relative to a Byte (8 bits - 1 character) – KB = Kilobyte - 1 thousand bytes (1024) – MB = Megabyte - 1 million bytes (1,048,576) – GB = Gigabyte - 1 billion bytes – TB = Terabyte - 1 trillion bytes  To understand how data is represented and stored on a diskette, see the slides titled Diskettes in the Additional Material at the end of this lecture
  13. 13. Central Processing Unit Main Memory Floppy Disk Hard Disk Monitor Keyboard A simplified view of a computer system
  14. 14. Hardware Devices  Input Devices (Get information) – Keyboard – Mouse – Scanner  Output Devices (Give information) – Screen/monitor – Printer
  15. 15. Hardware Devices  Processing Device (Arithmetic/logic/repetition) – Central Processing Unit (CPU) • 286, 386, 486, Pentium, K5, K6 – Has three basic parts • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) – executes all the arithmetic and logic instructions • Control Unit – decodes instructions and determines which is next to be executed • Buses/Registers – Buses are paths for information entering/exiting the CPU – Registers are memory for processing information
  16. 16. The Central Processing Unit  The CPU continuously follows the fetch-decode- execute cycle: fetch Retrieve an instruction from main memory decode Determine what the instruction is execute Carry out the instruction
  17. 17. Hardware Devices  Storage – Two types • Primary and secondary  Primary Storage (main memory) – On board memory (located on the motherboard) – Very fast, but expensive – Two types • RAM – Random Access Memory • ROM – Read Only Memory
  18. 18. Hardware Devices  RAM - Random Access Memory – Read/write capability – Contents lost when computer is turned off (volatile) – A program must be in RAM for it to execute – 128 to 256MB for a typical desktop computer
  19. 19. Hardware Devices  ROM - Read Only Memory – Read but not write capability – Permanent (non volatile) – Stores the preliminary instructions to be executed when the computer is turned on, for example • To check RAM • To check communications with peripheral devices • Bootstrap loader program
  20. 20. Hardware Devices Address 9278 9279 9280 9281 9282 9283 9284 9285 9286 Large values are stored in consecutive memory locations 1001101010011010 Each memory cell stores a set number of bits (usually 8 bits, or one byte) Content Main memory is divided into many memory locations (or cells) Each memory cell has a numeric address, which uniquely identifies
  21. 21. Hardware Devices  Secondary Storage (secondary memory) – External devices (not on the motherboard); either inside or outside the computer – Store programs and data permanently – Slower, but cheaper • RAM - nanoseconds, Drive - milliseconds – Different sizes/styles • Floppy Disk - 1.4MB (portable) • Zip Drive - 100-750MB (portable) • CD - 650MB (portable) • Jaz Drive – 1-2GB (portable) discontinued • Hard Disk Drive >=20GB (not portable) • Tape - 50GB (portable, very slow) • Flash drives (portable)
  22. 22. Hardware Devices  Other devices – Port • For connecting peripheral devices • USB, Parallel and serial ports – Modem (internal or external) • For communicating over telephone lines
  23. 23. Software
  24. 24. Software  A computer program is a series of instructions – each instruction is expressed in a format consistent with a predefined set of rules – a computer processes data under the direction of the instructions in a program – there are instructions to input, process, store and output data – the user of a program (as distinct from its creator) has no need to be aware of the details of its construction – the user is only interested in the services that the program is able to provide
  25. 25. Software  Programming Languages – 1st generation • machine language • instructions coded using combinations of 0’s & 1’s – 2nd generation • assembly languages (low-level symbolic languages) • instructions coded using letters & numbers • one assembly language instruction is translated into one machine language instruction
  26. 26. Software  Programming Languages – 3rd generation • high-level symbolic languages • one instruction generates multiple machine language instructions – 4th generation programming languages • non-procedural languages • code “what” not “how”
  27. 27. Software HIGH LEVEL ASSEMBLY MACHINE z = x + y MOV AL, X 0010 1001 0001 MOV AH, Y 0010 1100 0010 ADD AL, AH 0100 0001 0010 MOV Z, AL 0010 0010 1011
  28. 28. Software  Translation Software – Interpreters • translate each instruction as it is entered – Advantage: easier to find/correct mistakes – Disadvantage: redundant translation – Compilers • translate a group of instructions – Advantage: generally faster – Disadvantage: all errors are given at one time
  29. 29. Software  A file is a unit for storing information  All information on a computer is stored in files – Data Files • created by the user of the computer – My_Thesis.doc, Assign1.xls – Program Files • created by a programmer – Word, Excel, Windows98 – Naming Convention • [File Name].[Extension] – the extension, (usually 3 letters long), describes the type of program used for that file » doc(Word), xls(Excel), ppt(PowerPoint)
  30. 30. Software categories  Operating System – controls all machine activities – provides the user interface to the computer – manages resources such as the CPU and memory – Windows XP, Unix, Linux, Mac OS  Application program – generic term for any other kind of software – word processors, games, . . .  Most operating systems and application programs have a graphical user interface (GUI)
  31. 31. Software  Operating Systems – The most important software on a computer • always running to perform the following tasks – create and manage files – run programs – control information going to/from the peripherals • Eg: MS-DOS – create and manage files - several programs – run programs - COMMAND.COM – peripherals - IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS
  32. 32. Software  Directories – to organize files – tree structure • root directory • files within each directory – current or active directory – change, make or remove directories – path • the complete name for a file • starts from the root directory • separates directories with a
  33. 33. Software Windows c:windows MSOffice c:MsOffice Excel c:MsOfficeExcel WinWord c:MsOfficeWinWord PowerPoint c:MsOfficePowerPoint MoneyMap c:MoneyMap
  34. 34. Software  Standard Commands – Disk Level • Format (Prepare a disk) • Vol (Displays the disk’s volume label) – Directory Level • MD (Make Directory) • RD (Remove Directory) • CD (Change Directory) • DelTree (Erase everything below this level) – File Level • Dir (List all the files) • Copy (Copy a file) • Move (Move a File, Copy and erase) • Rename (Change the name of the file) • Del (Erase a file)
  35. 35. Disk Operating System (DOS)  Example of command line interface (DOS prompt in bold; user entries in italics) c: a: a: format a: Format another (Y/N)? n a: c: c: cd csi1301lectures c:csi1301lectures copy lecture2 a: c:csi1301lectures a: a: dir /p
  36. 36. Windows  An operating system that has four advantages over MS-DOS – Graphical user interface (GUI) • uses pictures & symbols ( not just text & numbers) • replaces the DOS command line interface – Multitasking • allows running or opening 2 or more programs simultaneously • click on the taskbar to switch between open programs
  37. 37. Windows – Uniformity among applications • menus look the same: File, Edit, Help • use of similar dialog boxes, bars and buttons – Object linking and embedding • ability to transfer information from one program to another • allows changes in the source document to be automatically reflected in the destination documents
  38. 38. Windows  File Management – 2 programs • My Computer – displays the parts of a computer in a window • Explorer – displays the parts of a computer in a tree form – files can be copied or cut and pasted as with other selected data
  39. 39. Starting (Booting) the Computer  Turn on the power – CPU loads the instructions from ROM into RAM, including the bootstrap loader program – CPU executes the bootstrap loader program which • Starts drive a: (diskette drive) • Reads the boot record (bootstrap program) from the diskette in drive a: and loads it into RAM; if no diskette is in drive a:, reads the boot record from the c: drive (hard drive) and loads it into RAM – CPU executes the bootstrap program which • Loads a portion of the operating system into RAM
  40. 40. Additional Material Number Systems
  41. 41. Number Systems  The base value of a number system determines – The number of symbols in the system – The place value of each digit  Decimal (base 10) – Symbols (10): 0,1,2,....9 – Place: …..,104 ,103 ,102 ,101 ,100 – 132: (1x102 )+(3x101 )+(2x100 )
  42. 42. Number Systems  Octal (base 8) – Symbols (8): 0,1,2,....7 – Place: …..,83 ,82 ,81 ,80 To convert decimal 132 to octal: (2x82 )+(0x81 )+(4x80 ) or 2048  Hexadecimal (base 16) – Symbols (16): 0,1,2,…9,A,B,C,D,E,F – Place: …..,163 ,162 ,161 ,160 To convert decimal 132 to hexadecimal: (8x161 )+(4x160 ) or 8416
  43. 43. Number Systems  Binary (base 2) – Symbols (2): 0,1 – Place: …..,23 ,22 ,21 ,20 To convert decimal 132 to binary: (1x27 )+(0x26 )+(0x25 )+(0x24 )+(0x23 )+(1x22 )+(0x21 )+(0x20 ) or 100001002
  44. 44. Number Systems  To convert from any base to decimal 1. Write the number in its expanded form 2. Sum each term – 10012 • (1x23 ) + (0x22 ) + (0x21 ) + (1x20 ) • 8 + 0 + 0 + 1 = 9 – 8416 • (8x161 ) + (4x160 ) • 128 + 4 = 132 – 358 • (3x81 ) + (5x80 ) • 24 + 5 = 29
  45. 45. Number Systems  To convert from decimal to any base 1. Write the place representation for the base using 1 as the multiplier for each term 2. Calculate the value of each term 3. Determine the number required for each term  Decimal (5710) to binary (1x26 ) + (1x25 ) + (1x24 ) + (1x23 ) + (1x22 ) + (1x21 ) + (1x20 ) 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 5710 = 1110012
  46. 46. Number Systems  Decimal (5710) to octal (1x82 ) + (1x81 ) + (1x80 ) 64 8 1 0 7 1 5710 = 718  Decimal (5710) to hexadecimal (1x162 ) +(1x161 ) + (1x160 ) 256 16 1 0 3 9 5710 = 3916
  47. 47. Number Systems Decimal Binary Octal Hex 101 1100101 145 65 5 101 5 5 65 1000001 101 41 257 100000001 401 101
  48. 48. Homework
  49. 49. 1. Convert the following decimal numbers into Binary (base 2), Octal (base 8) and Hexadecimal (Base 16)  17 – 85 – 172 – 220 1. Convert the following numbers into their decimal equivalent  1102 – 1103 – 1105 – 1108 – 11016 Exercice 1
  50. 50. 1. Draw the following directory structure: 1. From the root directory, I want separate directories to store reports, memos, schedules and miscellaneous material. 2. I also want to be able to distinguish reports, memos and schedules between those I wrote and those written by others. 2. Add the following files to the directory structure; 1. Present1.ppt as miscellaneous 2. Present2.ppt as a report that I prepared 3. Present3.ppt as a report prepared by someone else 4. Forecast1.xls as a schedule that I prepared 5. Forecast2.xls as a schedule prepared by someone else 6. Document1.doc as a memo that I prepared 7. Document1.doc as a memo prepared by someone else 3. What would be the full file name (path) for each of the files in (2) if they are stored on my c: drive? Exercice2
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