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Liberal Vs. Conservative APUSH review

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  • 1. Exploded Tangent: Liberal Vs. Conservative 1940-1985
  • 2. (Mis)Understanding Liberal & Conservative
    • In general , liberals examine and challenge existing attitudes and behariours of their society & seek to change them.
    • Conservatives embrace conventional wisdom of their times, accept the status quo, and support only small, incremental changes.
  • 3. Historicizing the terms
    • Their meanings have flip-flopped throughout the decades.
      • The liberal idea of the early 19 th c. Jeffersonians that govt.’s involvment in society should be limited became a conservative belief during the twentieth century.
      • Hamilton’s conservative idea of expanding govt.’s role in society during the 1790s to promote public interest was later endorsed by liberals in the 1930s onwards.
  • 4. 1975-1985
    • Liberal
    • Maintain Great Society (LBJ)
    • Insisted on human rights in F-policy
    • Avoid future Vietnams
    • Détente w/ USSR
    • Promoted affirmative action
    • Supported ERA
    • Supported conservation of energy
    • Supported Roe v. Wade
    • Conservative
    • Wanted limited govt. in society
    • Increased defense spending
    • Acted aggressively overseas
    • USSR =s “evil empire”
    • Limited fed role in civ. Rights
    • Maintained “family values”
    • Stressed finding new sources of oil
    • Anti-abortion
  • 5. 1968-1975
    • Liberal
    • Withdraw from Vietnam
    • Promoted ERA
    • Richard Nixon/Watergate a threat to liberty
    • Nixon should be impeached
    • Great Society must be maintained
    • Blacks’ gains must expand w/ busing and affirmative action
    • Socio-economic equality must accompany legal equality
    • Conservative
    • Wanted limited govt. in society
    • Peace w/ honor in Vietnam
    • Maintain traditional gender roles
    • “ Silent majority” should be heard
    • Watergate—not that imp.
    • Repealed much of Great Society
    • No special treatment for minorities to achieve equality
    • Legal equality enough
    • Maintained that Nixon was no more corrupt than earlier presidents
  • 6. 1960-1968
    • Liberal
    • Expanded role of govt. in society
    • Wanted Vietnam to be a limited war
    • Racial justice, national priority
    • Protected environ
    • Women’s rights important
    • U.S. should end domestic poverty (welfare state)
    • Youth culture tolerated and even celebrated
    • Conservative
    • Govt should be limited in society
    • Total military victory in Vietnam
    • States handle racial problems (Civil War Democrat argument)
    • Wanted to restore “law and order” in cities
    • Upheld sexual/gender roles
    • Defended traditional, family values
    • Youth culture deplored (lawlessness)
  • 7. 1940-1960
    • Liberal
    • Govt. should reg. eco.
    • Govt resp for people’s welfare
    • Deficit spending OK!
    • U.S. accepts international role (and int. house of pancakes)
    • Communism a challenge at home and abroad
    • Support organized labor
    • Embraced fed support of racial justice & equality
    • Encourage flexible military response
    • Conservative
    • Govt. should be limited in society
    • Promoted individual resp. for welfare
    • Wanted balanced budget
    • Communism was a great domestic threat
    • Limited overseas involvement but contained communism via force
    • Reconsidered much of New Deal
    • States should handle their racial issues (Civil War Democrat argument)
    • Encouraged “massive retaliation” as viable component of military response
  • 8.
    • Liberals maintained desire to promote change and to challenge conventional thinking and behaviour—increasingly more radical between 1960-1975
    • Conservatives adhered to their beliefs in protecting current societal norms and resisting sweeping, dramatic changes—increasingly more reactionary between 1968-1985
  • 9. Questions…
    • How did the New Deal transform thinking about governmental domestic policy?
    • How were Liberals & Conservatives divided over the best ways to the nation to address foreign challenges posed by the Soviet Union
  • 10. Exploded Tangent: Liberal Vs. Conservative 1790-1940
  • 11. 1900-1940
    • Liberal
    • Govt intervention in society
    • Progressive social & labor reforms
    • Regulation/limitation of Trusts
    • Collective Security (league of nations)
    • Consumer protection
    • Presidents: T. Roosevelt, W. Wilson, FDR
    • Direct government relief/welfare in 1930s
    • Square Deal, New Deal
    • Low Tariffs
    • Conservative
    • Old Guard Republicans
    • Extremely favorable to business interests
    • Isolationism
    • Rugged Individualism
    • Presidents: “Taft,” Harding, Coolidge, “Hoover”
    • Normalcy in 1920s
    • Best govt is least govt.
    • No direct relief or welfare
    • High tariffs
  • 12. 1865-1900
    • Liberal
    • Supported Radical Reconstruction
    • Wanted honesty in govt.
    • Supported Social Darwinism
    • Anti-Imperialist
    • Expanded money supply (paper, silver)
    • Supported govt. regulation of business
    • Wanted Low Tariffs
    • Conservative
    • Resisted Radical Reconstruction
    • Tolerated spoils system
    • Supported Social Darwinism
    • Expansionist
    • Gold Standard (tight money)
    • Laissez-faire
    • High Tariffs
    • Gospel of Wealth
  • 13. 1840-1865
    • Liberal
    • Pro-Union
    • Antislavery
    • Favored national program of roads/canals
    • Opposed westward expansion
    • Opposed extending slavery into territories
    • Opposed secession
    • Conservative
    • States’ rights
    • Proslavery
    • Opposed national program of roads/canals
    • Favored westward expansion
    • Favored extending slavery into territories
    • Supported secession
  • 14. 1824-1840
    • Liberal
    • Personal liberty, weak governement
    • Free competition, egalitarian opportunity
    • Anti-National Bank, anti-tariffs
    • States should fund roads, canals
    • Supported Andrew Jackson
    • Conservative
    • Supported compact theory of govt.
    • Weak presidents
    • Pro-National Bank
    • National govt. should fund roads, canals
    • Whigs-opponents of Andrew Jackson
    • Supported Henry Clay
  • 15. 1790-1824
    • Liberal
    • Thomas Jefferson
    • Favored farmers
    • Best govt. is the least govt.
    • Advocated states’ rights
    • Opposed National Bank
    • Supported low taxes/tariffs
    • Supported reduced army and navy
    • Laissez-faire
    • Conservative
    • Alexander Hamilton
    • Favored commercial, mercantile groups
    • Govt. should be strong
    • Wanted centralized govt power
    • Favored National Bank
    • Believed that tariffs were necessary
    • Strong national defense
  • 16.  
  • 17. Questions…