Gestation process


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Gestation process

  1. 1.  Fetus – The name given to the embryo after the first three months of gestation The embryo develops inside the cavity surrounded by a membrane called amnion. Placenta – an organ made up of cells from the embryo and the mother ◦ Allows the embryo to receive nutrients and oxygen and removes carbon dioxide and other waste ◦ Acts as a defense barrier ◦ Secretes the hormones responsible for fetal development and controls the changes in the mother’s body
  2. 2.  The trophoblast secretes enzymes that erode the uterine walls and make the implantation of the embryo easier
  3. 3.  The embryo buries itself into the vascular layer of the uterus and the placenta starts to develop The placenta receives substances from the mother and removes the embryo’s waste. ◦ It also acts as a filter for the substances that are not meant to reach the embryo.  However, some small molecules (drugs, tobacco, toxins, alcohol, certain medicines, and viruses) may still reach the fetus
  4. 4.  The embryo’s cells start to specialize On day 16, the neural tube (precursor to the central nervous system) appears One of the most important processes in this phase is cellular migration – cells change their position inside the embryo From day 19, the somites (precursors to the spine) develop Around day 20, the structure of the future heart appears; it starts beating around day 25
  5. 5.  The connection between the embryo and the placenta now takes place through a tube (later known as the umbilical cord) Between day 25 and 40, the brain begins to develop and the face, ears and neck are visible The precursors to the digestive organs, lungs, and kidneys start to appear
  6. 6.  From day 61, the embryo becomes a fetus ◦ Almost all parts of the future individual are present At week 28, the fetus measures around 35 cm and weighs more than a kilogram. Inside its brain, folds are forming, which make it possible to increase the area of the brain within the same volume (which is key to intellectual development)
  7. 7. 8 weeks 12 weeks
  8. 8. 32 weeks
  9. 9.  Childbirth consists of three phases: ◦ Phase 1: Also called dilation phase, because uterine contractions widen the neck of the uterus  The amnion breaks and releases the amniotic fluid ◦ Phase 2  Uterine contractions before stronger, longer and more frequent.  The mother also contracts her abdominal muscles.  Between these two forces, the baby is pushed out of the womb  Once the baby is born, its umbilical cord is clamped and its general state of health is checked ◦ Phase 3  The last contractions of the uterus push the placenta out of the mother’s body (about 15 minutes after the baby is born)
  10. 10.  A Caesarean, or C-section, is a surgical operation in which the baby is taken out of the mother’s body by means of an incision This is done when the baby is unable to be born in the normal way, whether this is due to the health of either the mother or the baby