Published on

Psikologi Umum II

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. PERSONALITY Kuliah Psikologi Umum
  2. 2. What is Personality?  Personality  an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
  3. 3. Approaches To Personality      Trait Approach. Psychobiological Approach. Social Learning Approach. Psychodynamic Approach. Humanistic Approach.
  4. 4. Trait Approach  The trait approach makes two important assumptions:    Personality consists of traits that are unique to each individual. Traits are stable and enduring dispositions. We know that humans have five senses. But how many traits do they have?
  5. 5. The Big Five  The English vocabulary contains nearly 20,000 trait terms. But there is a lot of redundancy among them (sociable, outgoing).  Decades of research on similarities between traits have yielded five clusters:       Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Agreeableness Conscientiousness These tendencies mix in different proportions to create different personalities.
  6. 6. Psychobiological Approach  Focuses on the role of biology in determining personality.  There are a number of ways to look at the role of biology in personality. One way is to look at the heritability of personality traits.  Another way is to look at the effect of brain damage on personality.  Let’s look at the famous case of Phineas Gage, a railroad worker, who suffered a terrible accident.
  7. 7. Social Learning Approach  States that our personality is shaped by what we learn from our experiences.  We develop expectations about the outcome of our behaviour in certain situations.  One particularly interesting effect of such expectations is reflected in what is known as self-handicapping.
  8. 8. The Psychoanalytic Perspective  Freud’s theory proposed that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality
  9. 9. The Psychoanalytic Perspective  Psychoanalysis   Freud’s theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
  10. 10. The Psychoanalytic Perspective  Free Association   in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
  11. 11. The Psychoanalytic Perspective  Unconscious   according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories contemporary viewpoint- information processing of which we are unaware
  12. 12. Personality Structure  Id    contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
  13. 13. Personality Structure  Superego   the part of personality that presents internalized ideals provides standards for judgement (the conscience) and for future aspirations
  14. 14. Personality Structure  Ego    the largely conscious, “executive” part of personality mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
  15. 15. Personality Development   Psychosexual Stages  the childhood stages of development during which the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones Oedipus Complex  a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
  16. 16. Personality Structure Ego Conscious mind Unconscious mind Superego Id  Freud’s idea of the mind’s structure
  17. 17. Defense Mechanisms  The conflicts created by the id’s strong impulses and the inhibitions imposed by the ego and superego can be very upsetting.  Defense mechanism:  Repression  Reaction Formation  Projection  Sublimation  Rationalization  Conversion
  18. 18. Humanistic Perspective  Abraham Maslow (19081970)  studied selfactualization processes of productive and healthy people (e.g., Lincoln)
  19. 19. Humanistic Perspective  Self-Actualization   the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved the motivation to fulfill one’s potential
  20. 20. Humanistic Perspective  Carl Rogers (1902-1987)  focused on growth and fulfillment of individuals  genuineness  acceptance  empathy
  21. 21. Humanistic Perspective  Unconditional Positive Regard   an attitude of total acceptance toward another person Self-Concept  all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an answer to the question, “Who am I?”