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Geography people and the planet revision B2
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Geography people and the planet revision B2

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Geography Revision

Geography Revision

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  • 1. GEOGRAPHY B2 NANCAY
  • 2. POPULATION DYNAMICS
  • 3. KEY TERMS BIRTH/DEATH RATE - Birth/Death per 1000 per year POP. BALANCE- Birth&Death rates EQUAL NATURAL INCREASE/DECREASE - difference between Birth/Death rate MIGRATION BALANCE- YES- more immigrants than Emigrants -NO- less
  • 4. KEY TERMS REPLACEMENT LEVEL -no. of babies that need to be born to manage pop. PRO NATALIST POLICY -policy for birth ANTI NATALIST POLICY-policy less birth OPEN DOOR MIGRATION - Pop.Policy encourage international migration
  • 5. WHATS HAPPENING TO THE GLOBAL POP [TRENDS] Population growing FAST - 2008 [+65 million people = 6.6 billion] Since 2000 rate has slowed EXPONENTIAL GROWTH occurring [ amount of time taken for pop to DOUBLE ]
  • 6. WHY IS THE POPULATION GROWING due to: NATURAL CHANGE - More Births, Less Deaths MIGRATION CHANGE - More Immigrants, Less Out migrants
  • 7. WHY IS THE POPULATION GROWING Development of MODERN MEDICINE VACCINATION&IMMUNISATION programmes e.g. SMALLPOX CLEANER water ; better SEWAGE disposal BETTER HEALTH +doctors,nurses,hospital HYGIENIC HOUSING & BETTER DIETS
  • 8. HOW/WHY POPULATION CHANGEVARIES Stage 1 HIGH FLUCTUATING No birth control&High infant mortality = High birth rate Disease and Famine -> High DEATH rate
  • 9. HOW/WHY POPULATION CHANGEVARIES Stage 2 - Early Expanding -HIGH birth rate FALLING death rates <-- improved healthcare
  • 10. HOW/WHY POPULATION CHANGEVARIES STAGE 3: Late Expanding FALLING birth rate - BIRTH CONTROL & FAMILY PLANNING FALLING DEATH RATE
  • 11. HOW/WHY POPULATION CHANGEVARIES STAGE 4: Low Fluctuating LOW birth AND death rates due to WORKING WOMEN delaying age to start families.
  • 12. HOW/WHY POPULATION CHANGEVARIES STAGE 5: DECLINE Death rate is HIGHER than Birth rate due to GREY population --> OLD PEOPLE
  • 13. FERTILITY AND MORTALITY RATES
  • 14. PRESSURES OFYOUNG POPULATION UNDER 15 HOUSING : people live in SLUMS/SHANTY TOWNS in large cities e.g. NEW - No running water ; roads or sewage SCHOOLING : ILLITERATE population - LIT.RATE - 60% FOOD: Famine, food distribution difficulties - Natural disasters aid this HEALTH: Growth in diseases & lack of healthcare
  • 15. AGEING POPULATION OVER 65 PRESSURES HEALTHCARE: Have to provide MORE e.g. Retirement homes ; Hospital beds ; undertakers ; more skilled doctors/nurses PENSIONS: 3 solutions - IncreasingTax ; Raising Retirement Age ;Abolishing Pensions
  • 16. JAPAN FACTS CAUSES EFFECTS - 20.8% OVER 65 - 26.8 million pensioners - Birth rate BELOW replacement level - People live longer [79 for men & 85 for women] due to Healthy Diet & high GDP -Birth rate DECLINE due to increasing age of first child -Less marriage -Increase cost of pensions <-- less workers - Retirement age raised from 60-65 -Increase In nursing homes -Increase in medical costs
  • 17. JAPAN FACTS CAUSES EFFECTS - 20.8% OVER 65 - 26.8 million pensioners - Birth rate BELOW replacement level - People live longer [79 for men & 85 for women] due to Healthy Diet & high GDP -Birth rate DECLINE due to increasing age of first child -Less marriage -Increase cost of pensions <-- less workers - Retirement age raised from 60-65 -Increase In nursing homes -Increase in medical costs
  • 18. WHY DO SOME COUNTRIES WANNA CONTROL THE POP? To Gain OPTIMUM POPULATION [ Resources = population = SUSTAINABLE ] GOVERNMENTS manage population to prevent it reaching the TIPPING POINT
  • 19. ANTI NATALIST CHINA:ONE CHILD POLICY WHAT? WHY? EFFECTS PROBLEMS - Introduced in 1970s -Couples are only allowed to have ONE CHILD -Benefits e.g. Cash bonus ; Better childcare ; Better housing -Pressured abortions - HIGH growth rate - Pressure on LAND and FOOD supplies due to LARGE population -Make ARMY bigger -Birth rate FELL from 34 per 1000 in 1970 to 13 per 1000 in 2008 -Growth rate 2.4% to 0.6% -996 million in 1980 to 1,320 today -Tradition to want sons, sex selective abortion -Shortage of women - Spoilt sons, generation lacks communication and cooperation skills - Heading towards an AGEING population
  • 20. PRO NATALIST SINGAPORE FACTS CAUSES EFFECTS PROBLEMS - INCREASED maternity leave to 12 weeks - first 4 babies - INCREASED child benefits - Pay $1000 for 6 years into account -1978 slogan ‘Have 3 or more’ -LOW fertility rate of 1.1 (REPLACE MENT RATE = 2.1) -36% of area is FOREIGN -13.6% increase in Birth rates in 1988 - People in Singapore like marrying LATE and having FEW children - HIGH COST of living
  • 21. HOW TO MANAGE MIGRATION UK CASE STUDY OPEN DOOR Post war immigrants came to UK from Caribbean colonies due to an ACT OF PARLIAMENT giving all ex-colonial citizens FREE ENTRY into the UK. [1950-1960s 1/4 million people came] +ve - Shortage of Unskilled and Semi-skilled labour & Helped with reconstruction of country post war
  • 22. HOW TO MANAGE MIGRATION UK CASE STUDY OPEN DOOR Post war immigrants came to UK from Caribbean colonies due to ACT OF PARLIAMENT-gives all ex-colonial citizens FREE ENTRY into the UK. +ve - Shortage of Unskilled and Semi-skilled labour & Helped with reconstruction of country post war -ve - Public money spent on meeting needs of immig.
  • 23. POINT BASED SYSTEM Want to come and work/settle down? You need Points - 2008 - 5 tiers of migrants Tier 1 - Scientists -Tier 5 - Temporary workers 2004- Eastern European countries Citizens free to move and work in other EU member coutnries
  • 24. SOURCE AND HOST ADVANTAGES SOURCE ADVANTAGES HOST ADVANTAGES •Immigrants SEND MONEY HOME to families •LESS PRESSURE on resources and jobs in places like POLAND •immigrants bring SKILLS to their COUNTRY •Meets SHORTAGE of UNSKILLED and SEMI- SKILLED labour •Helped to RECONSTRUCT UK after the war •Increases CULTURE in UK •Immigrants contribute to UK economy by the TAXES they pay
  • 25. SOURCE AND HOST DISADVANTAGES SOURCE DISADVANTAGES HOST DISADVANTAGES •LOSS of WORKING POPULATION from POLAND etc. •DECLINE in BIRTH RATE because most migrants are YOUNG MEN •Public money SPENT on IMMIGRANTS e.g. HOUSING&HEALTHCARE •During 1970s recession the immigrant added to the number of UNEMPLOYED •Increased HOSTILITY towards the IMMIGRANTS
  • 26. TENSIONS DUE TO MIGRATION UK immigration of ETHNIC GROUPS = CONFLICT. UK GOV stated everyone should have EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES BUT - Add to country’s SKILL BASE and CULTURE
  • 27. CONSUMING RESOURCES
  • 28. KEY TERMS Alternative Energy - Alternative energy to FOSSIL FUEL BoserupianTheory - population grow stimulates TECHNOLOGICAL changes that increase the output - living standards can be maintained for the growing population Carbon footprint - Measure of all greenhouse gases - burning fossil fuels for electricity, transport etc
  • 29. KEY TERMS HUMAN RESOURCE - SKILLS of population MALTHUSIAN THEORY -View that POP. GROWTH is the main reason a society would collapse. MATERIAL resource - Materials useful to man Non renewable - cannot be remade Renewable - can be maintained and reused
  • 30. KEY TERMS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - Development that meets the needs of the present without COMPROMISING the ABILITY OF THE FUTURE GENERATIONS to meet their own needs. SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE - Resources that can be renewed if we replace them as they are used
  • 31. RESOURCES THERE ARE 3 MAIN TYPES: 1. Natural Resources e.g.WOOD 2. Human Resources e.g. Skills of a population e.g. Doctors 3. Material/Capital Resources e.g. Goods and equipment already in society)
  • 32. RESOURCES NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES - can’t be remade , take millions of years to form again e.g. COAL/OIL SUSTAINABLE RESOURCES - Can be deliberately be renewed so it lasts for the future E.G. TREES RENEWABLE RESOURCES - Renew themselves so they don’t need to be managed - solar