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entreprise 2.0 (stratégie, plan d'actions, gestion de projets)

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cours donné en février 2013

cours donné en février 2013

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  • 1. Ce soir, nous allons examiner les structuresdes entreprises 2.0 ou qui essayent de l’être
  • 2. Entreprise 2.0Mission, vision, valeurs, stratégie,plan d’actions et gestion de projets Jacques Folon Chargé de cours ICHEC Me. de conférences Université de Liège Professeur invité Université de Metz Partner Edge Consulting
  • 3. Cette présentation est surwww.slideshare.net/folonelle est à votre disposition
  • 4. Mes coordonnées, réseauxsociaux, outils de curation, cours, conférences etc. sont sur http://jacquesfolon.tel
  • 5. 1. Vision globale de l’entreprise Table des2. L’entreprise 2.03. Génération Y (mythe ou réalité ?) matières4. Mission vision valeurs de l’entreprise5. Stratégie6. Plan d’actions7. Gestion de projets
  • 6. Administr@tions Actionnaires Soc de Banque Service Push CONCURRENTS Sous- Site Financier Traitant Dématérialisation Partenaires Producteur de des procédures Web Machines Sites GestionTrésorerie VeilleConcurrentiell ’appeld ’offre d Co-ingienerie e et Intelligence Télémaintenance machines Economique C Veille Back-up Site Technologique commerciaux de crise Extranet Marketing L EDI Bureau d’Etude Gestion $ Marketing social media I Publicité Supply Achats Maintenance DG Vente B2B Distributeur E-biz E Chain MarchandFournisseurs Production Recherche DRH SAV tracking N nouveaux Logistique Fournisseurs Back-up Market-Place E-learning techniciens Tutoring T Sites de Tutoring SVP Club Télémaintenance Télétravail utilisateur Recrutement SFournisseurs CLIENTS
  • 7. administrations Actionnaires Soc de Service Banque Push CONCURRENTS Site Financier Sous-Traitant Dématérialisation Producteur de des procéduresWeb Machines Sites d ’appel Extranet Veille Gestion Trésorerie Concurrentielle et d ’offre Co-ingienerie Intelligence Télémaintenance Economique C S machines ASP Veille Back-up Site Technologique commerciaux de crise Extranet Marketing L one to one EDI e-mailing, bandeaux, I C Bureau Gestion $ Marketing site promotionnel... d’Etude Supply Chain Publicité e- Managt B to B Achats Maintenance DG Vente B to B commer DistributeurMar ce E chandFournisseurs Production N M DRH SAV tracking Recherche Logistique nouveaux KM Fournisseurs Back-up Market-Place E-learning Télé-Tutoringtechniciens Tutoring T Sites de SVP réclamations Club Télémaintenance Télétravail utilisateur Recrutement Sournisseurs CLIENTS
  • 8. 1. Vision globale de l’entreprise Table des matières2. L’entreprise 2.03. Génération Y (mythe ou réalité ?)4. Mission vision valeurs de l’entreprise5. Stratégie6. Plan d’actions7. Gestion de projets
  • 9. L’entreprise2.0• Source: http://media.ebaumsworld.com/mediaFiles/picture/793370/80680072.jpg
  • 10. Definition• “Enterprise 2.0 is the use of emergent social software platforms within companies or between companies and their partners and customers” – Andrew McAfee – Associate Professor, Harvard Business School• i.e. Web 2.0 behind the firewall 10
  • 11. Meet CharlotteSource: http://www.slideshare.net/TheShed/meet-charlotte
  • 12. Ms Web2.0 working (asmany do) in Enterprise 1.0
  • 13. She lives here
  • 14. and workshere.
  • 15. @ home
  • 16. …one of her hobbies is keeping fit.
  • 17. @ work
  • 18. …she’s a researchscientist in a largepharmaceutical company.
  • 19. @ home
  • 20. …she usesGoogletofilterthe Internet for the information she needs.
  • 21. @ work
  • 22. …she has torememberwhere everything is.
  • 23. @ home
  • 24. …she taps the collectiveknowledge of the internet through Wikipedia.
  • 25. @ work
  • 26. …she asks her boss aboutstuff she needs to know.
  • 27. @ home
  • 28. if she misses a radio show or a bit of TV she catches up using…
  • 29. @ work
  • 30. …if she misses a meeting she pulls thesummary minutes froma document repository. …if the minutes have been captured! …if she knows where they are! …if she has access privileges to them!
  • 31. 31
  • 32. @ home
  • 33. …she keeps in touch with most of her friends on… Her friends are scattered around the world.
  • 34. @ work
  • 35. …she networks at a conference once a year.
  • 36. @ home
  • 37. …through …she knows what her friends are doing 24/7 wherever they are.
  • 38. @ work
  • 39. she doesn’t reallyunderstandwhat the guy two desks down from her does!
  • 40. @ home
  • 41. When she’s not catching up withfriends she’s using her spare time to catch up on her hobbies.
  • 42. She has her own blog…where she advertises exercise regime andany hints and tips she comes across.
  • 43. So far she’s had over 1000 people read her blog from all over theworld.
  • 44. She reads other blogs, is anactiveforum memberand postsfrequent ezine articles.
  • 45. In this onlinecommunityshe’s …and …a adedicatedfollower.respectedleader
  • 46. When shegotinterestedin keeping fithernetworkwas…
  • 47. nowit’s…
  • 48. @ work
  • 49. …her network is still…
  • 50. …If you ask Charlotte what she wants to change atwork she’ll say…
  • 51. …she want’stoconnectwith anybody…
  • 52. …at anytime…
  • 53. …from anywhere!
  • 54. So Entreprise 2.0 or employees 2.0 in old-fashionnedcompanies? 54
  • 55. 55Source: Getting Real About Enterprise 2.00 200 Picture credit: www.cs4fn.orgOscar Berg & Henrik Gustafsson, Acando
  • 56. People• The Strength of Weak Ties• Weak ties are those people in our social networks that we have linked to or have met at a conference and exchanged business cards with - the people that are on our radar as potential colleagues or potential business partners. 56
  • 57. The New Enterprise Source: Paradigm Shift: The New Promise of Information Technology, 1992 Closed Hierarchy Open Networked EnterpriseStructure Hierarchical NetworkedScope Internal/closed External/openResource Focus Capital Human, informationState Static, stable Dynamic, changingPersonnel/focus Managers ProfessionalsKey drivers Reward and punishment CommitmentDirection Management commands Self-managementBasis of action Control Empowerment to actIndividual motivation Satisfy superiors Achieve team goalsLearning Specific skills Broader competenciesBasis for compensation Position in hierarchy Accomplishment, competence levelRelationships Competitive (my turf) Cooperative (our challenge)Employee attitude Detachment (it’s a job) Identification (its’ my company)Dominant requirements Sound Management Leadership
  • 58. 58Source: Getting Real About Enterprise 2.00 200 Picture credit: www.cs4fn.orgOscar Berg & Henrik Gustafsson, Acando
  • 59. 59Source: Getting Real About Enterprise 2.00 200 Picture credit: www.cs4fn.orgOscar Berg & Henrik Gustafsson, Acando
  • 60. 1. Vision globale de l’entreprise Table des matières2. L’entreprise 2.03. Génération Y (mythe ou réalité ?)4. Mission vision valeurs de l’entreprise5. Stratégie6. Plan d’actions7. Gestion de projets
  • 61. GénérationY : mytheouréalité ?
  • 62. Babyboomer’schildrens Comment les Echo-boomers E-Generation désigner ? Digital Natives Facebook Generation Gen Y Génération 2001 Générationaccélération Génération des transparents Générationentropique Génération Internet GénérationMoi Générationtexto/SMS Génération WWW Generation Y not? Génération Zapping Great Generation Homo Zappiens i-Generation Millenials Net Generation Nextershttp://www.zazzle.be/generation_y_pas_tshirt-235332731462770922 Nintendo Generation Nouveaux androïdes Sunshine Generation
  • 63. Quand faut-il être né pour en faire partie? La période pour définircettegénération Y esttrès variable, ellecomprend (selon les auteurs) les personnesnées: •Entre 1974 et 1994 •De 1978 à 1998 pour ceux qui les caractérisentd’Echo-boomer •De 1978 à 1988 •Ou de 1978 à 1995 •Ceux qui sontnés après 1980 •Entre 1980 et 2000 •Ou après 1982 •ou plus précisément de 1982 à 2003 •Entre 1990 et 2000 •...http://funnyscrapcodes.blogspot.com/2009/10/embed-code-funny-stuff-funny- scraps.html BARRER LA MENTION INUTILE !
  • 64. Un concept défini de façonaussi variable et contradictoireexist e-t-il?http://www.madmoizelle.com/generation-y-temoignage-43730
  • 65. Gen-Y @ the workplace• Workplace Flexibility: – Desire a sense of community at work – Teamwork and collaboration come naturally – Value control over their time – Demand environment allowing work-life balance – Flexibility means “when” and “where”• Technology-enabled: – Work to be done anywhere and anytime – Email and PDA have created such convenience – Value getting the job done well and efficiently• Relationship-based: – Like to make friends – Not bound to an office location – Place a high ranking on interpersonal relationships at work – Want co-workers “who make work fun”. Source Luc Limèrehttp://www.5dcompany.eu
  • 66. POUR CEUX QUI N’AIMENT PAS LES GRAFFITIS TRADUCTION: MYTHES DE LA GENERATION Y
  • 67. La technologie est une affaire de jeunes
  • 68. Les jeunes sont multitâcheshttp://lolwithgod.com/2011/07/14/
  • 69. Les jeunes sont connectés
  • 70. Writing in the British Journal of Education Technology in 2008,a group of academics led by Sue Bennett of the University of Wollongong set out to debunk the whole idea of digital natives,arguing that there may be “as much variation within the digital native generation as between the generations”.
  • 71. • Michael Wesch, who pioneered the use of new media in his cultural anthropology classes at Kansas State University, is also sceptical, saying that many of his incoming students have only a superficial familiarity with the digital tools that they use regularly, especially when it comes to the tools’ social and political potential.• Only a small fraction of students may count as true digital natives, in other words. The rest are no better or worse at using technology than the rest of the population.
  • 72. Ils ne sont pas si fort queça!
  • 73. 1. Vision globale de l’entreprise Table des matières2. L’entreprise 2.03. Génération Y (mythe ou réalité ?)4. Mission vision valeurs de l’entreprise5. Stratégie6. Plan d’actions7. Gestion de projets
  • 74. Des valeurs au plan d’action Valeurs Vision Mission Stratégie Plan d’actions 77
  • 75. Les valeurs 78
  • 76. Les valeurs http://www.valeurscorporate.f 79
  • 77. Quatrevaleursfédératrices Les valeursclésd’uneentreprise constituent le terreau de sa culture. Ellesguidentlentreprise et fournissent, à un groupemultidimensionnel, un socleculturelcommun. Leurobjectifestdorienter le comportement et les actions des collaborateurs de la banque. BNP Paribas s’estchoisiquatrevaleursclésdontilrappellerégulièrementl’importance, notammentlors de l’évaluationannuelleàlaquellesontsoumis les collaborateurs pour mesurerleur performance en termes de réactivité, de créativité, d’engagement et d’ambition.■ Réactivité Êtrerapidedansl’évaluation des situations et des évolutionscommedansl’identification des opportunités et des risques. Êtreefficacedans la prise de décision et dansl’action.■ Créativité Promouvoir les initiatives et les idéesnouvelles. Distinguer les auteurs pour leurcréativité.■ Engagement S’impliquer au service des clients et de la réussite collective. Êtreexemplairedanssescomportements.■ Ambition Goût du challenge et du leadership. Volonté de gagner en équipeunecompétitiondontl’arbitreest le client. 80
  • 78. Nos valeursCette mission s’adosse aux valeurs constitutives de l’identité de notre entreprise :La passion et l’ambition de mener à bien de grands défisTout autant qu’il y a trente ans, quand un tout jeune Bill Gates annonçait le pari fou d’unordinateur sur chaque bureau et dans chaque foyer, nous sommes convaincus despossibilités inouïes offertes par les technologies numériques et souhaitons mettre cesoutils au service du plus grand nombre et au service de chaque besoin particulier.L’intégrité et la responsabilitéNotre position de leader exige de nous une conduite exemplaire dans nos pratiques detravail quotidiennes et nos relations avec l’ensemble de nos interlocuteurs.Le respect et la remise en questionCela passe avant tout par l’écoute de nos clients, de nos partenaires, des autres acteursde l’industrie, de nos interlocuteurs politiques et institutionnels. C’est également lerespect de la diversité qui fait la richesse de notre entreprise et qui permet, constamment,d’élargir notre univers et d’apprendre des autres. 81
  • 79. Mission, Vision Unedéfinition possible de la mission dentrepriseest "la définition de sa raison dêtre, laspirationsuprêmequelletentecontinuellement datteindre". Lénoncé de cette mission est en généralune phrase ou un paragraphe qui formulecette raison dêtre sousuneforme un peu vague mais durable et qui estdonc un repère stable dans le changementquotidien. En contraste avec une mission, une "vision" sertàdécrire un étatfuturdésiré. L’énoncé de la mission doitdoncêtre précis et ayantunevaliditédéterminéedans le temps. La vision peut- êtreamenéeàêtrechangée pour sadapter aux circonstancesconjoncturelles et internesalorsque la mission, elle, resteidentique.. J.Tendon, http://www.systemic.ch/NewArticles/article008.htm 82
  • 80. Mission, vision, valeurs 83
  • 81. MISSIONBuilding on our scientific, technical and commercial expertise, and aware of our societal responsibilities, we provideinnovative products and services related to chemistry to create sustainable and ever- increasing value to our customers,shareholders and employees.VISIONSolvay is an independent, ethical and responsible global industrial Group with a balanced portfolio of sustainable,profitable and growing businesses, managed in accordance with societal and environmental issues. Amongst the worldleaders in selected markets and products either alone or with sound complementary business partners. Valued by itscustomers as a highly competent, reliable and competitive solution provider.With a clear, motivating organization, throughdialogue, developing and empowering people and teams through rewarding and challenging jobs. Acting as goodcorporate citizens, caring for the environment, health and safety of its employees and of the community at large. Open tothe expectations of the outside world, and contributing to economic, social and environmental progressVALUESWe firmly believe in:•Ethical behaviour - A long-standing tradition of ethical behaviour based on principles of Honesty, Integrity andTrustworthiness•Respect for people - Encouragement to exercise creativity and leadership, giving opportunities for every individual todevelop his/her full potential•Customer care - Constant enhancement of the quality and added value of our products and services through ongoingand cost effective innovation•Empowerment - Fostering a culture that encourages delegation, risk taking, speed of response, accountability andpartnership in order to adapt effectively to an uncertain and rapidly changing world•Teamwork - Developing a learning organisation by building teamwork with open communications across ourorganisation, sharing knowledge, technologies and best practices 84
  • 82. MissionPeter Drucker observaitdéjà en 1973 que "la plusimportante raison defrustration et déchecsdans les entreprisesprovient dune réflexioninsuffisante de la raisondêtre de lentreprise, desa mission". Cetteréflexion est toujoursdactualité. 85
  • 83. La mission de Microsoft est de mettre sonexpertise, sacapacitéd’innovation et la passion qui lanime au service des projets, desambitions et de la créativité de ses clients, afin de faire de latechnologieleurmeilleurealliéedansl’expression de leurpotentiel. 86
  • 84. Google a pour mission dorganiserles informations à léchelle mondialedans le but de les rendre accessibles et utiles à tous 87
  • 85. 1. Vision globale de l’entreprise Table des matières2. L’entreprise 2.03. Génération Y (mythe ou réalité ?)4. Mission vision valeurs de l’entreprise5. Stratégie6. Plan d’actions7. Gestion de projets
  • 86. La stratégie Source: http://davidcoethica.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/strategy.jpg LLa stratégie dentreprise est une question dadéquation entre les capacitésinternes dune entreprise et son environnement extérieur. Bien que les experts en stratégie divergent sur le fond, ils saccordent à penser que cette affirmation constitue une des problématiques majeures.
  • 87. Une définition ? La détermination des orientations à long terme de lentreprise et ladoption des actions consécutives, y compris lallocation des ressources nécessaires à la réalisation de ces objectifs. Chandler
  • 88. 91
  • 89. La stratégie• Simple• Compréhensible• Utilisée au quotidien• But à atteindre• Long terme (3 à 4 ans)
  • 90. Source: elhambinai.blogspot.com/ 2008/02/stay-focused.htm
  • 91. Il n’y a pas de chemin pour celui qui ne sait où il va ! Proverbe japonais
  • 92. Stratégie et focus BUT ?? ?? ? ?
  • 93. Important et urgent PAS URGENT URGENT IMPORTANT ET IMPORTANT ET PASIMPORTANT URGENT URGENT URGENT ET PAS PAS URGENT ET PASPAS IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT
  • 94. Le sage, le jeune moine et le vase
  • 95. Analysestratégique
  • 96. S WO T
  • 97. Positive Negative S W O T
  • 98. External Internal S O T W
  • 99. ANALYSE SWOTSource: Merkapt - http://www.slideshare.net/merkapt/stratgie-dentreprise-pratique
  • 100. Source: Merkapt - http://www.slideshare.net/merkapt/stratgie-dentreprise-pratique
  • 101. Source: Merkapt - http://www.slideshare.net/merkapt/stratgie-dentreprise-pratique
  • 102. http://www.slideshare.net/merkapt/stratgie-dentreprise-pratique
  • 103. Modèle général d’Andrews et valeurs Analyse de Responsabilité Valeurs de la l’environnement sociale direction Identifier les Stratégies Décisions objectifs stratégiques SWOT alternatives stratégiques Analyse des ressources Objectifs stratégiques et politique générale réviséshttp://www.slideshare.net/Omar.Filali/management-stratgique-et-culture-dentreprise
  • 104. Leadership plan d’actions et culture d’entreprise
  • 105. ANALYSE SWOT Stratégie Plan d’actions
  • 106. Seven S Model of Implementation STRATEGY SKILLS STRUCTURE SHARED VALUES STAFF SYSTEMS STYLE
  • 107. Seven S Model1. Strategy – Plan or course of action leading to the allocation of firm’s resources to reach identified goals.2. Structure – The ways people and tasks relate to each other. The basic grouping of reporting relationships and activities. The way separate entities of an organization are linked.3. Shared Values – The significant meanings or guiding concepts that give purpose and meaning to the organization.4. Systems – Formal processes and procedures, including management control systems, performance measurement and reward systems, and planning and budgeting systems, and the ways people relate to them.5. Skills – Organizational competencies, including the abilities of individuals as well as management practices, technological abilities, and other capabilities that reside in the organization.6. Style – The leadership style of management and the overall operating style of the organization. A reflection of the norms people act upon and how they work and interact with each other, vendors, and customers.7. Staff – Recruitment, selection, development, socialization, and advancement of people in the organization.
  • 108. 1. Vision globale de l’entreprise2. L’entreprise 2.0 Table des3. Génération Y (mythe ou réalité ?) matières4. Mission vision valeurs de l’entreprise5. Stratégie6. Plan d’actions7. Gestion de projets
  • 109. PLAN D’ACTIONS• Comment?• Quoi?• Qui?• Combien?• Où? tttt• Quand?• Pourquoi? 113
  • 110. Plan d’actions
  • 111. 115
  • 112. 116
  • 113. 117
  • 114. 1. Vision globale de l’entreprise Table des matières2. L’entreprise 2.03. Génération Y (mythe ou réalité ?)4. Mission vision valeurs de l’entreprise5. Stratégie6. Plan d’actions7. Gestion de projets
  • 115. And now …Project management
  • 116. Project management:1. Preliminaryfacts& questions2. The Golden rule (& triangle)3. The objectives4. The planning5. The context of the company6. The team7. The stakeholders8. Contractual relations9. Conflicts
  • 117. La gestion de projets… 123
  • 118. DEUX ELEMENTS CLES
  • 119. 126http://www.slideshare.net/trib
  • 120. WhyWhat The questions one MUST askbeforestartinganyprojectHowWhenWho Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net 127
  • 121. WhyWhat Why is this project happening?How Why now? Why us?WhenWho Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 122. WhyWhat What solution needs to be put in place to achieve the goals?How What work needs to happen to build the solution?WhenWho Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 123. WhyWhat How do we get this solution in place?How How do we know when we’re done?WhenWho Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 124. WhyWhat When do work activities happen? What do we need to do first?How What’s last?WhenWho Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 125. WhyWhat Who do we need to deliver thisHow project successfully? ?WhenWho Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 126. And what will it cost?
  • 127. 135Source: Getting Real About Enterprise 2.00 200 Picture credit: www.cs4fn.orgOscar Berg & Henrik Gustafsson, Acando
  • 128. Project management:1. Preliminaryfacts& questions2. The Golden rule (& triangle)3. The objectives4. The planning5. The context of the company6. The team7. The stakeholders8. Contractual relations9. Conflicts
  • 129. The golden rule !!! Time Scope Cost• The triple constraint• Also known as the IRON TRIANGLE• IT MUST BE DEFINED BEFOREHAND !
  • 130. The QuadrupleConstraint Time Quality Scope Cost• Warning: Quality has many definitions
  • 131. Figure 1.1 Triple Constraint of Project Management (Schwalbe, 2006, p8)
  • 132. Project management body of knowledge 9 Knowledge areas Time Cost Scope Management Management Management Quality Integration HR Management Management Management Risk Communication Procurement Management Management Management4 from the triangle + 4 support + integration
  • 133. Project management:1. Preliminaryfacts& questions2. The Golden rule (& triangle)3. The objectives4. The planning5. The context of the company6. The team7. The stakeholders8. Contractual relations9. Conflicts
  • 134. OBJECTIVES MUST BE SMART ! S Specific M Measurable A Achievable R Relevant T Time-bound
  • 135. EVEN SMARTER…Letter Major Term Minor Terms S Specific Significant[3], Stretching[3], Simple M Measurable Meaningful[3], Motivational[3], Manageable Agreed, Attainable[6], Assignable[2], Appropriate, A Achievable Actionable, Action-oriented[3] Realistic[2], Results/Results-focused/Results-oriented[6], R Relevant Resourced[7], Rewarding[3] Time framed[2], Timed, Time-based, Timeboxed, T Time-bound Timely[6][5], Timebound, Time-Specific, Timetabled, Trackable E[1] Exciting, Evaluated, Ethical R[1] Recorded, Rewarding, Reviewed[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMART_(project_management)
  • 136. Project management:1. Preliminaryfacts& questions2. The Golden rule (& triangle)3. The objectives4. The planning5. The context of the company6. The team7. The stakeholders8. Contractual relations9. Conflicts
  • 137. The planning … Are you sure it’s needed?http://flickr.com/photos/xabier-martinez/225627841/ Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 138. The PlanThe PlanThe Plan The Plan The Plan The Plan The Plan Changes once you starthttp://flickr.com/photos/xabier-martinez/225627841/
  • 139. Guides you activitiesThe PlanThe PlanThe Plan The Plan The Plan The Plan The Plan Changes once you starthttp://flickr.com/photos/xabier-martinez/225627841/
  • 140. Makes you think ahead Guides you activitiesThe PlanThe PlanThe Plan The Plan The Plan The Plan The Plan Changes once you starthttp://flickr.com/photos/xabier-martinez/225627841/
  • 141. Makes you think ahead Guides you activitiesThe PlanThe PlanThe Plan The Plan The Plan The Plan The Plan Helps you work out who you need to hire Changes once you starthttp://flickr.com/photos/xabier-martinez/225627841/
  • 142. Makes you think ahead Works out the timeline and budget Guides you activitiesThe PlanThe PlanThe Plan The Plan The Plan The Plan The Plan Helps you work out who you need to hire Changes once you starthttp://flickr.com/photos/xabier-martinez/225627841/
  • 143. Makes you think ahead Works out the timeline and budget Guides you activitiesThe PlanThe PlanThe Plan The Plan The Plan The Plan The Plan Helps you work out who you need to hire Helps manage expectations Changes once you starthttp://flickr.com/photos/xabier-martinez/225627841/
  • 144. Makes you think ahead Works out the timeline and budget Guides you activities Helps understand the effects ofThe PlanThe PlanThe Plan The Plan changes The Plan The Plan The Plan Helps you work out who you need to hire Helps manage expectations Changes once you starthttp://flickr.com/photos/xabier-martinez/225627841/
  • 145. Makes you think ahead Works out the timeline and budget Guides you activities Helps understand the effects ofThe PlanThe PlanThe Plan The Plan changes The Plan The Plan The Plan Helps you work out who you need to hire Helps manage expectations Don’t forget the retroplanning Changes once you starthttp://flickr.com/photos/xabier-martinez/225627841/
  • 146. Project management:1. Preliminaryfacts& questions2. The Golden rule (& triangle)3. The objectives4. The planning5. The context of the company6. The team7. The stakeholders8. Contractual relations9. Conflicts
  • 147. Time Cost ScopeManagement Management Management Quality Integration HR ManagementManagement Management Risk Communication ProcurementManagement Management Management
  • 148. What if it’s not Integrated? Time Scope Management Management Cost Management Quality IntegrationManagement Management HR Management Procurement Communication Management Management Risk Management
  • 149. Project management:1. Preliminaryfacts& questions2. The Golden rule (& triangle)3. The objectives4. The planning5. The context of the company6. The team7. The stakeholders8. Contractual relations9. Conflicts
  • 150. • Which ones are most important for projects? Technical skills People Skills Budgeting, Scheduling, Leading, Motivating, Documenting Listening, Empathising Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 151. Figure 1.3 Technical and Sociocultural Dimensions of Project Management (Gray & Larson, 2006, p13)
  • 152. • A team• is a group of individuals who cooperate and work together to achieve a given set of objectives or goals (Horodyski, 1995).
  • 153. • Team-building• is high interaction among group members to increase trust and openness
  • 154. Project Team SizePerformance is based on balance of members carrying out roles and meeting social andemotional needs
  • 155. • Project teams of 5 to 12 members work best Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 156. • There are problems you encounter as size increases Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 157. 1. It gets more difficult to interact with and influence the group2. Individuals get less satisfaction from their involvement in the team3. People end up with less commitment to the team goals4. It requires more centralized decision making5. There is lesser feeling as being part of team Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 158. • You can’taccelerate a nine-monthpregnancy by hiringninepregnantwomen for a month.• Likewise, saysUniversity of North Carolina computer scientist Fred Brooks, youcan’talways speed up an overdue software project by adding more programmers;• Beyond a certain point, doingsoincreasesdelays.
  • 159. Assigning more programmers to a project running behind schedule will make iteven later, due to the time required for the new programmers to learn about theproject, as well as the increased communication overhead. - Fred Brooks
  • 160. Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Examples Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 161. Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Examples 5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 162. Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Examples 5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication10 developers -> 10(10 − 1) / 2 = 45 channels of communication Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 163. Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Examples 5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication10 developers -> 10(10 − 1) / 2 = 45 channels of communication 50 developers -> 50(50 − 1) / 2 = Fred Brooks 1225 channels of communication The Mythical Man-Month Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 164. Project implies change ! And as suchResistance to change, even within the project team !
  • 165. http://flickr.com/photos/hlthenvt/401556761/sizes/l/
  • 166. Project management:1. Preliminaryfacts& questions2. The Golden rule (& triangle)3. The objectives4. The planning5. The context of the company6. The team7. The stakeholders8. Contractual relations9. Conflicts
  • 167. http://www.betterprojects.net/2007/05/introduction-to-stakeholder-management.html
  • 168. Figure 10.1 Network of stakeholders(Gray & Larson, 2006, p314)
  • 169. Project team manages and completes the project work. Most participants want to do a good job, but they are also concerned with other obligations and how their involvement will contribute to their personal goals and aspirations
  • 170. Project managers naturally compete with each other for resources and support from top management.At the same time, they have to share resources and exchange information.
  • 171. Functional managers depending upon how the project isorganised can play minor or major role toward the project success, for example providing technical input etc.
  • 172. Top management approves funding of the project and establishes the priorities within the organization. They define success, rewards for the successful completing of the project. Significant adjustments in scope, time and cost
  • 173. Project sponsors champion of the project and usetheir influence to gain approval of the project. Their reputation is tied to the success of the project
  • 174. Customers define the scope of the project, and ultimate project success rests in their satisfaction. Project managers need to be responsive to changing customer needs and requirements and to meeting their expectations
  • 175. Administrative groupssuch as human resources, information systems, purchasing agents, maintenance etc. provide valuable support service.
  • 176. Government agenciesplace constrains on project work. Permits need to be secured
  • 177. Contractors may do the actual work with team members
  • 178. Project management:1. Preliminaryfacts& questions2. The Golden rule (& triangle)3. The objectives4. The planning5. The context of the company6. The team7. The stakeholders8. Contractual relations9. Conflicts
  • 179. Assumptions1. the traditional adversarial relationship between the owner and contractor is ineffective and self-defeating2. that both parties share common goals and will mutually benefit
  • 180. Types of Contracts
  • 181. Fixed Price Cost Plus Types of Contracts
  • 182. Fixed Price Cost Plus AKA AKA Lump Sum Time and Materials Types of Contracts
  • 183. The contractor lowest bid agrees to perform all work specified in the contract at a fixed price. DisadvantagesFixed Price • More difficult and more costly to prepare (for client) • The risk of underestimating project costs (for contractor) Contract adjustments • Re-determination provisions • Performance incentives Types of Contracts
  • 184. Contractor is reimbursed for alldirect allowable costs (materials,labor, travel) plus prior-negotiatedfee (set as a percentage of thetotal costs) to cover overhead andprofit. Cost PlusRisk to client is in relying on thecontractor’s best efforts to containcostsControls on contractors • performance and schedule incentives • costs-sharing clauses Types of Contracts
  • 185. Project management:1. Preliminaryfacts& questions2. The Golden rule (& triangle)3. The objectives4. The planning5. The context of the company6. The team7. The stakeholders8. Contractual relations9. Conflicts
  • 186. It’s not as easy as it sounds Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 187. Sub ClientContractor Performing organisation organisation End Customer Consider this scenario Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 188. Goal alignment? Sub ClientContractor Performing organisation organisation End Customer Consider this scenario Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 189. Maximise customerrevenue, Reliable margin, on time and satisfaction Cheap andminimise budget,generate more work & minimise convenient costs risk Sub ClientContractor Performing organisation organisation End Customer Consider this scenario Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 190. Maximise customerrevenue, Reliable margin, on time and satisfaction Cheap andminimise budget,generate more work & minimise convenient costs risk Conflict! Sub ClientContractor Performing organisation organisation End Customer The sub contractor wants to use existing systems and processes, which may help the P.O.’s ability to manage costs, Considerrestrict it’s ability to but might this scenario generate goodwill through lack of flexibility. Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 191. Maximise customerrevenue, Reliable margin, on time and satisfaction Cheap andminimise budget,generate more work & minimise convenient costs risk Conflict! Sub ClientContractor Performing organisation organisation End Customer The P.O. wants to manage it’s delivery to be on time and on target. Consider this scenario This helps the client minimise risk, but decreases flexibility. New customer requirements will be harder to implement. Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 192. Maximise customerrevenue, Reliable margin, on time and satisfaction Cheap andminimise budget,generate more work & minimise convenient costs risk Conflict! Sub ClientContractor Performing organisation organisation End Customer The client organisation wants to maximise customer satisfaction, which may lead to trying Consider this scenario to include all possible client requirements. This will probably make the solution too complex for most customers who want a cheap and convenient solution.
  • 193. Maximise customerrevenue, Reliable margin, on time and satisfaction Cheap andminimise budget,generate more work & minimise convenient costs risk Conflict! Conflict! Conflict! Sub ClientContractor Performing organisation organisation End Customer Collaborating isn’t always easy. Source: Craig Brown www.betterproject.net
  • 194. Project management:Conclusions
  • 195. Gestion de projets La gestion de projet est une démarche visant à structurer, assurer et optimiser le bon déroulement dun projet qui doit être:1. planifié2. budgété (étude préalable des coûts et avantages ou revenus attendus en contrepartie, des sources de financement, étude des risques opérationnels et financiers et des impacts divers...)3. Géré et organisé afin de maîtriser et piloter les risques4. atteindre le niveau de qualité souhaité5. faire intervenir et coordonner plusieur intervenants6. Être géré par un comité de pilotage et/ou un chef de projet
  • 196. Gestion de projetsPhase « PLAN » : dire ce que l’on va faire dans un domaine particulier.Phase « DO » : faire ce que l’on a dit dans ce domaine.Phase « CHECK » : vérifier qu’il n’y a pas d’écart entre ce que l’on a dit et ce que l’on a fait.Phase « ACT » : entreprendre des actions correctives pour régler tout écart qui aurait été constatéprécédemment.
  • 197. Figure 1.1 Project Life Cycle (Gray & Larson, 2006, p6)
  • 198. NEVER FORGET THAT PROJECT MANAGEMENT IS A BALANCE BETWEEN SCOPE QUALITYTIME COST
  • 199. UN PROJET N’EST PAS UNE FIN EN SOI…
  • 200. QUESTIONS ?