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Culture d'entreprise et storytelling

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Cours donné à l'ICHEC Brussels Management School et janvier 2012

Cours donné à l'ICHEC Brussels Management School et janvier 2012

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  • 1. De la culture d’entrepriseAu Storytelling Management Jacques Folon Partner EDGE Consulting Chargé de coursàl’ICHEC Professeurinvitéàl’Université de Metz CollaborateurscientifiqueUniversité de Liège
  • 2. C’est quoi la culture d’entreprise? L’histoire des six singes
  • 3. DEFINITION• Un ensemble de comportements, croyances, compréhension quisontpartagéesdurantunecertainepériode de temps par lesmembresd’uneorganisation• Elle définit les règles de base au niveauorganisationnel et communique auxnouveaux la “bonne” façon de penser et d’agir• Si tout le monde participeà la culture elleestgénéralementpeuperçue defaçonconsciente.• C’estlorsquel’organisationtented’imposer des stratégiesou descomportementscontrairesà la culture que le face à face et la culture seperçoivent.• Si chaqueorganisation a sapropre culture, iln’y a pas nécessairementuneculture unique, maisilpeutexisterdifférentessous-cultures, par département parexemple.
  • 4. Ca se voit ?On peut identifier la partie visible à première vue…
  • 5. Comment cela se passe-t-il dans votre organisation?• Un nouvel employé qui arrive?• Cinq personnes autour de la machine à café?• Un chef qui hurle sur un employé?• Une personne qui est licenciée?• Un jeune qui veut tout changer?
  • 6. Comment définiriez-vous la culture de votre organisation en une ou deux phrases?
  • 7. Culture ou cultures? Sexe entreprise nationalité Profession Religion
  • 8. C’est quoi la culture? Normes Valeurs croyances • Aspects principaux de la culture: – La culture estpartagée – La culture est intangible – La culture estconfirmée par les Culture autresSource http://www.slideshare.net/preciousssa/hofstede-cultural-differences-in-international-management 9
  • 9. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/Yuvarajah/corporate-culture-5344549
  • 10. Niveau et fonction de la Culture: •la Culture existeàdeuxniveaux: •Le côté visible et observable immédiatement (habillement, symboles, histoires, etc.) •Le côté invisible qui véhicule les valeurs, les croyances,etc. •Fonctions de la culture •Intégration •Guide de fonctionnement •Guide de communication
  • 11. Eléments de la culture Rites – cérémonies Histoires Symboles Tabous
  • 12. Rites et cérémonies • Recrutement • Christmas party • Discours • Pots d’acceuil de départ • Réunions • …
  • 13. HISTOIRESBaséessur des événementsréels quisontracontées et partagées par les employéset racontées aux nouveaux pour les informerau sujet de l’organisation- qui rendentvivantes les valeurs del’organisation- qui parlent des “héros”, des légendes -Le post it de 3M -Le CEO d’IBM sans badge -Le CEO de quick
  • 14. SYMBOLES
  • 15. Tabous
  • 16. En quoi ça vous concerne?• Horaires• Relations avec les autres• Dress code• Office space• Training• …
  • 17. Quelles consequences?• Cela permet de comprendre ce qui se passe• De prendre la « bonne décision »• Parfois un frein au changement• Perception de vivre avec d’autres qui partagent les mêmes valeurs• Point essentiel pour le recrutement et la formation
  • 18. EXEMPLEculture et entretien d’embauche
  • 19. De la recherche d’emploi à l’emploi CULTURE UNIVERSITAIRE ETUDIANTS ENSEIGNANTS-CHERCHEURS OUTILS DE EMPLOYEURS COMMUNICATION CULTURE D ’ENTREPRISESource:ens.univ-rennes1.fr/eea/.../COURS_INTRODUCTIF_eea.ppt 20
  • 20. Cursus de formation CULTURE UNIVERSITAIRE disciplines, VOTRE HISTOIRE DE VIE CV Motivation connaissances IDENTITE ET PROJET PERSONNEL stages, projets PROJET PROFESSIONNEL diplômes FILIERE D ’ETUDE MASTER 1 OFFRE MASTER 2 DE COMPETENCES Communiquer ==>langage commun OFFRE PROFIL DE D ’EMPLOI PRODUIT, SYSTEME POSTE METIER Compétences GRH ACTIVITE expérience, évoluti PROJET DE RECRUTEMENT Plaquettes sites web projets d’entreprise on IDENTITE ET PROJET DE L ’EMPLOYEUR fonctions CULTURE D ’ENTREPRISE contexteSource:ens.univ-rennes1.fr/eea/.../COURS_INTRODUCTIF_eea.ppt 21 besoins, attentes
  • 21. US vs. French corporate culture
  • 22. Stereotypes& ClichésClichés about ‘France’ Clichés about ‘USA’http://www.slideshare.net/oma/american-french-cultural-difference-v2/download 23
  • 23. StereotypesThe Americans see the French as ... The French see the Americans as ...• people who do not work • arrogant and sure they are always right and• people who dont speak English good, moralizing and very religious• people who are rude to tourists, anti- • de grandsenfants (ie, people who are naiveAmerican and ungrateful and have no, or a too short, history)• people who live in a bureaucratic Socialist • people who have free access to guns and whosystem and who are totally dependent on the use them to shoot each other when things goState wrong• people who do not use soap • people who are arch-capitalists and only•arrogant and conceited people distant and think about moneydifficult to meet • people who do not understand other nations• people who do not respect religious freedom and whose press never addresses international issues :etc... • people who do not take criticism•french have the reputation of being verychauvinist (the word itself comes from a character in a  For an American it is hard to conceive that aXIXth century play, a fellow named Chauvin who was a soldier of country operating as French can be the fourthNapoleon). the fifth world economic power ! http://www.slideshare.net/oma/american-french-cultural-difference-v2/download 24
  • 24. A psychoanalytical view....• are highly implicit • are highly explicit• pessimist and negative : value past ; • optimist and positive : value presentgood at analysis and criticism and future ; good at action• contextual : "it depends" • binary : "it is true or false"• like what is complex • like what is simple• lying is no big deal • do not lie (it is bad)• want to be independent • want to be loved• based on being a member of a group • social identity is based on the individual• try not to get caught ; signing a contract is • law and contracts must be respected ;just the beginning everything is in the contract once it is signed• the contract is strongly associated with the • a contract is not linked to the relationshiprelationship • process oriented : everything must be clear• if the other one wins, it means that Ill lose and documented ; reacts as planned• BEING : you are judged on what you are • try to get a win-win deal• value quality of life • DOING : you are judged on what you do • value quality of workFrench kids learn the principle of authority. Theirs Schools help American kids become independent andmother says : "be good ".. autonomous. Their mother says : "have fun” http://www.slideshare.net/oma/american-french-cultural-difference-v2/download 25
  • 25. Intercultural management French are French seen by American are American seen by American FrenchContext HIGHT • disorganized LOW CONTEXT • boring CONTEXT • unsincere • everything must • disrespectful • a place must be • not disciplined be clear • not creative left for adaptation • everything is in and interpretation the contract • everything is in the relationshipTime POLYCHRONIC • not focused MONOCHRONIC • too much into • schedule • dispersed • time is money details independent • exactitude is • bureaucratic • you can be late if essential you had something better to doInterpersonal SMALL BUBBLE • touch you too BIG BUBBLE • arrogant and • security is being much • avoid physical dominatingDistance part of a group contact http://www.slideshare.net/oma/american-french-cultural-difference-v2/download 26
  • 26. Viewsfrom managers American impression of the French French impression of the AmericanPeople like to know a little bit of everything Each person is a specialist in his/her own fields People work individually to do the job they arePeople work in the middle of everyone else paid for without questioning anythingPeople like to know what everyone else is People dont look left or right, they go straightdoing ahead with their specific jobDecisions are rarely without discussion and When a decision is taken, there is a steam rollerargument effect and no argument Theres little job security. People are hired andIts difficult to get rid of everyone ! fired with no reason or argument within 15 daysTheres a clear hierarchy - people even People are superficially relaxed but the boss isseem to be over-supervised the bossSeniority is by age and ascribed. Seniority is by merit and achievementIf you make a mistake, you will admit to it ! If you make a mistake, youre proud to admit it http://www.slideshare.net/oma/american-french-cultural-difference-v2/download 27
  • 27. Viewsfrom managers American impression of the French French impression of the AmericanDo you really want to know how long a Less administratives headaches to cope with theFrench declaration tax is ? tax declaration Reporting techniques are very technical andToo much paperwork … procedure-likeMeetings are less controlled .. But thesystem is quickly becoming moreAmericanized Meetings are kept to a minimumDirect workers are often well-qualified and Direct workers are under-or not qualified tend toparticipate more in the company accept any jobs or conditionsBusiness is a human affair including intuition Work is seen as rational and systematic - youand emotion work towards achieving an objectiveFrench tend to be less corporate Americans always have a ‘Corporate identity’ http://www.slideshare.net/oma/american-french-cultural-difference-v2/download 28
  • 28. Body languageMake him French willstartwith the thumb and end An American will start with the littlecount 1,2,3,4,... with the littlefinger finger and end with the thumb An American will move his arms and take-upMake him walk French will be much stiffer a lot of spacePut him in anelevator French willtry to avoidanyeye contact An American will talk about anythingMake him say An American will form a circle joining"everything is histhumb and index (in French, this gestureOK French will put his thumb upright means : "zero") French like the Spanish with his abrazo, will An American will look as if hewasafraid of actually TOUCH the body of the other badbreath, stay as far as possible and giveMake him hug person and act as if he was enjoying it a bigslap on the back of the otherpersonEnjoy a meal French will put hisbread on the table and An American will put hisbread on his platewith him put his hands on the table and will put his hands on histhighs http://www.slideshare.net/oma/american-french-cultural-difference-v2/download
  • 29. Les valeurs affichées et la culture• Il y a parfois des entreprises qui affichent leurs valeurs sur les murs et leurs documents comme: – Integrité – Communication – Respect – Excellence
  • 30. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/reed2001/culture-1798664
  • 31. Though growing rapidly, Google still maintains a small company feel. At the Googleplex headquarters almost everyone eats in the Google café (known as "Charlies Place"), sitting at whatever table has an opening and enjoying conversations with Googlers from all different departments. Topics range from the trivial to the technical, and whether the discussion is about computer games or encryption or ad serving software, its not surprising to hear someone say, "Thats a product I helped develop before I came to Google." Googles emphasis on innovation and commitment to cost containment means each employee is a hands-on contributor. Theres little in the way of corporate hierarchy and everyone wears several hats. The international webmaster who creates Googles holiday logos spent a week translating the entire site into Korean. The chief operations engineer is also a licensed neurosurgeon. Because everyone realizes they are an equally important part of Googles success, no one hesitates to skate over a corporate officer during roller hockey. Googles hiring policy is aggressively non-discriminatory and favors ability over experience. The result is a staff that reflects the global audience the search engine serves. Google has offices around the globe and Google engineering centers are recruiting local talent inlocations from Zurich to Bangalore. Dozens of languages are spoken by Google staffers, from Turkish to Telugu. When not at work, Googlers pursue interests from cross-country cycling to wine tasting, from flying to frisbee. As Google expands its development team, it continues to look for those who share an obsessive commitment to creating search perfection and having a great time doing it.
  • 32. Citations d’E. Schmidt• I believeeverydaythat Google isrun by its culture, not by me.• The strategy and the productsthatwebuild are a consequence of the culture we have around innovation and focusingonthe end user.
  • 33. • Microsoft has an innovative corporate culture and a strong product development focus that is designed to keep us on the leading edge of the industry. We believe that our employees are the companys most important asset. They are the source of our creative ingenuity and success so we empower each staff member to take initiative in solving problems, coming up with new ideas and improving the organisation.• Microsoft values diversity and respects each persons individuality• When you sell software to 180 million people, in 70 countries, speaking 150 languages, you cant afford to have a singular point of view. Microsoft employs people from many nationalities and backgrounds.
  • 34. Chaque entreprise a sa culture d’entreprise basée sur –Sa vision –Sa mission –Ses valeurs
  • 35. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/storybeats/how-storytelling-drives-corporate-culture/download
  • 36. Une des grandes difficultés du management est de faire agir les collaborateurs selon les valeurs de l’entreprise alors que la culture d’entreprise est basée sur la valeurs des collaborateurs… Alors comment font les entreprises pour faire passer le message?
  • 37. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/storybeats/how-storytelling-drives-corporate-culture/download
  • 38. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/storybeats/how-storytelling-drives-corporate-culture/download
  • 39. Mais ca ne concerne que le cerveau gauche !Source: http://academiedesintelligences.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/left-brain-right-brain-metaphor.jpg
  • 40. D’où la nécessité et l’utilisation des histoires et donc du storytellingSource: http://www.slideshare.net/storybeats/how-storytelling-drives-corporate-culture/download
  • 41. Le storytelling
  • 42. « … le récit est présent dans tous les temps, dans tous les lieux, dans toutes les sociétés; le récit commence avec l’histoire même de l’humanité; il n’y a jamais eu nulle part aucun peuple sans récit » Roland Barthes: introduction à l’analyse structurale du récit, Seuil, Paris, 1991Crédit : http://media.photobucket.com/image/roland%20barthes/nikkistardust/230px-RolandBarthes.jpg?o=1
  • 43. Storytelling : art de raconter des histoires•Depuis la nuit des temps les hommes se racontent des histoires• Même les solitaires se racontent des histoires… Sunil Kumar
  • 44. Shannon Thunderbird: http://www.slideshare.net/eeisenrich11/writing-in-the-21st-century-final-storytelling-ppt-presentation
  • 45. SOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/eeisenrich11/writing-in-the-21st-century-final-storytelling-ppt-presentation
  • 46. SOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/eeisenrich11/writing-in-the-21st-century-final-storytelling-ppt-presentation
  • 47. SOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/eeisenrich11/writing-in-the-21st-century-final-storytelling-ppt-presentation
  • 48. SOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/eeisenrich11/writing-in-the-21st-century-final-storytelling-ppt-presentation
  • 49.  We tell stories because we have somethingexciting to tell. We tell stories to have fun, to entertainsomeone or keep them in suspense.We tell stories to let other people know whatwere thinking. We tell stories to express our feelings. We tell stories to teach somebodysomething or to explain something. We tell stories to share ourselves to let otherpeople get to know us better.We tell stories to give people enjoyment.We tell stories to get feelings out.We tell stories to use our imaginations.We tell stories to save our experiencesforever. John Seely Brown and Paul Duguid in The Social Life of Information
  • 50. Cognitive psychologist Donald Norman (1993) "Stories arentbetterthanlogic; logicisntbetterthan stories. They are distinct; theybothemphasizedifferentcriteria. Ithinkitveryappropriatethatbothbeused in decision- making settings.In fact, I ratherlike the orderingthatoftenhappens, usuallyaccidentally: First the data and the logicalanalysis, then the stories. Yes, let the personal, emotionalside of decisionmaking have the last word."
  • 51. Et pour les entreprises ?
  • 52. SOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/robertstar/release-the-stories-in-your-organization
  • 53. SOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/robertstar/release-the-stories-in-your-organization
  • 54. SOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/robertstar/release-the-stories-in-your-organization
  • 55. SOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/robertstar/release-the-stories-in-your-organization
  • 56. SOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/robertstar/release-the-stories-in-your-organization
  • 57. SOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/robertstar/release-the-stories-in-your-organization
  • 58. SOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/robertstar/release-the-stories-in-your-organization
  • 59. SOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/robertstar/release-the-stories-in-your-organization
  • 60. SOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/robertstar/release-the-stories-in-your-organization
  • 61. UTILE •Dans des situations nouvelles, complexes • Combine des pensées et des sentiments • Propose un contexte • Facile à retenir • Authenticité • Fait passer un message induitCrédit : http://thinkmarketing.org/files/testimage1.jpg
  • 62. Les différents types de storytelling
  • 63. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/storybeats/how-storytelling-drives-corporate-culture/download
  • 64. Les marques et le storytelling Des campagnes marquées par le storytelling
  • 65. Les marques et le storytelling Les marques fondées sur le storytelling
  • 66. Identification
  • 67. Créer un univers
  • 68. Identité liée à l’histoire de l’entreprise
  • 69. Les histoires des clients
  • 70. Les histoires de produitCrédit: http://www.pausecafeblog.com/images/2007/july/12/iphoneblender.jpg
  • 71. Les histoires négatives
  • 72. Une mauvaise histoire !
  • 73. Les histoires internes à l’entreprise
  • 74. La politique et le storytelling o Photo le 6 mai 2004 o Ashley Faulkner : « Ma mère a été assassinée le 11 septembre par les terroristes » o Spot diffusé 30.000 fois dans les swing states o 6,5 millions $ o Victoire de G.W.Bush !
  • 75. Malaise ?Infarctus ?Mais non !Fatigue de l’hyper président après une longue journée de travailCrédit: http://www.info2tv.fr/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/20090726_nicolas_sarkozy.jpg
  • 76. SPF ECONOMIE
  • 77. Les types d’histoires•le héros• le survivant• succès par l’erreur• les rites•Rappelez-vous la culture d’entreprise…
  • 78. POURQUOI UTILISERLE STORYTELLING?Pour que les valeurs de la culture et celles voulues par le management se rejoignent
  • 79. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/storybeats/how-storytelling-drives-corporate-culture/download
  • 80. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/storybeats/how-storytelling-drives-corporate-culture/download
  • 81. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/storybeats/how-storytelling-drives-corporate-culture/download
  • 82. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/storybeats/how-storytelling-drives-corporate-culture/download
  • 83. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/storybeats/how-storytelling-drives-corporate-culture/download
  • 84. Quelques exemples
  • 85. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/storybeats/how-storytelling-drives-corporate-culture/download
  • 86. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/storybeats/how-storytelling-drives-corporate-culture/download
  • 87. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8CD0PCnFRFc
  • 88. UNE ORGANISATION A VECU DES HISTOIRES • Création • Fusion • Nouveau produit • Manager • Internationalisation, • Erreurs • …Source: http://www.delhaizegroup.com/images/Founders.jpg
  • 89. Whoever tells the best story wins. SOURCE; http://www.slideshare.net/rafstevens/bemore-in-1-minute-storytellingCopyright © 2009
  • 90. Whoever tells the best story wins. SOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/rafstevens/bemore-in-1-minute-storytellingCopyright © 2009
  • 91. Mais il faut croire à ce qu’on dit ….Crédi: http://www.kryogenix.org/code/Jackfield%20and%20Python/pix/wownow.jpg
  • 92. 1 core TROIS PRINCIPESmessage Selon WWW.BEMORE.BESOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/rafstevens/bemore-in-1-minute-storytelling
  • 93. 2 An inspiring storySOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/rafstevens/bemore-in-1-minute-storytelling
  • 94. 3 Uniform storytellingSOURCE: http://www.slideshare.net/rafstevens/bemore-in-1-minute-storytelling
  • 95. Storytelling and knowledge sharing• “Every afternoon our corporate knowledge walks out of the door and I hope to God they’ll be back tomorrow” – Jeffrey Miller, CEO Documentum
  • 96. Barriers to knowledge sharing • Knowledge is power • Not invented here syndrome • People do not realize value knowledge has for others • Knowledge sharing is not my job • Lack of trust • Lack of time • Lack of top management support towards knowledge sharing activities • Corporate culture • Lack of infrastructure • Lack of confidence/Damage to reputation • No/insufficient rewards and incentivesKnowledge sharing: the key to qualityRethaSnyman (msnyman@postino.up.ac.za)(rsnyman@lantic.net)Dept of Information ScienceUniversity of Pretoria
  • 97. Tools & Techniques… • Water-coolers & Coffee machines Webber: “In the new economy, conversations are the most important form of work. Conversations are the way knowledge workers discover what they know, share it with their colleagues, and in the process create new knowledge for the organization.” Source: • Davenport, T.H. & Prusak, L. 1998. Working knowledge: how organizations manage what they know. Boston: Harvard Business School Press:90-93Knowledge sharing: the key to qualityRethaSnyman (msnyman@postino.up.ac.za)(rsnyman@lantic.net)Dept of Information ScienceUniversity of Pretoria
  • 98. Tools & Techniques … • Storytelling – “Stories provide a medium of communication, both internally within an organization and externally to customers, potential customers, business partners, business rivals, investors, and others” (McLellan, 2002) – Sources: • Denning, S. 2000. The springboard: how storytelling ignites action in knowledge-era organisations. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann • McLellan, H. 2002. Introduction to Corporate Storytelling. [Online]. Available: www.tech-head.com/cstory1.htm • Sole, D. 2002. Sharing knowledge through storytelling. Harvard Graduate School of Education [Online]. Available: http://lila.pz.harvard.edu • Tobin, P. &Snyman, R (MMM). 2004. Storytelling and knowledge management: what’s the story so far? MusaionKnowledge sharing: the key to qualityRethaSnyman (msnyman@postino.up.ac.za)(rsnyman@lantic.net)Dept of Information ScienceUniversity of Pretoria
  • 99. Conclusion
  • 100. Que faire concrètement?• Définir une stratégie et un planning• Rechercher les faits et les histoires• Identifier les conteurs et aller les écouter• Enregistrer les histoires, les photos, les gens• Archiver, traiter• Identifier les meilleures histoires en ligne avec la stratégie• Communiquer par tous moyens
  • 101. TOUS LES MOYENS !Source : ttp://4.bp.blogspot.com/_tSCCV9JgfH0/Sfdx1vrgOvI/AAAAAAAAC6U/-z4dGW306eM/s400/communication+web+2.0.jpg