First observation that monomolecular layers of soaps could be deposited on metallic surfaces, and that successive layers could be added, layer by layer. Molecular coatings on surfaces is an entire field today; important in physics and applied physics, chemistry, surface science, biology, and medicine.
Use of interference to extinguish reflections from glass. This utilized her previous experience building films of known thickness, such that reflected rays were greatly diminished by interference. This started the entire field of optical coatings, which are now used universally on eyeglasses, camera lenses, TVs, computer monitors, etc.
Classified communications system especially suitable for submarienes
System whereby the radio frequencies would change intermittently and simulatenously between the transmitter and receiver in order to defeat enemy monitoring
1971 - Erna Schneider Hoover ( B.A. with honors in medieval history and a Ph.D. in the philosophy and foundations of mathematics)
Created a computerized telephone switching system that helped eliminate overloading problems
Switching system used a computer to monitor incoming calls and then automatically adjusted the call's acceptance rate
Awarded one of the first software patents ever issued
1999 - Randice-Lisa Altschul
Was issued a series of patents for the world's first disposable cell phone
Trademarked the Phone-Card-Phone®, the device is the thickness of three credit cards and made from recycled paper products
Real cell phone (outgoing messages only) with entire phone body, touch pad and circuit board made of paper substrate
Uses an elongated flexible circuit which will be one piece with the body of the phone, part of the patented STTTM technology. The ultra thin circuitry is made by applying metallic conductive inks to paper
How do the geese know when to fly to the sun? Who tells them the seasons? How do we, humans, know when it is time to move on? As with the migrant birds, so surely with us, there is a voice within, if only we would listen to it, that tells us so certainly when to go forth into the unknown.
Psychiatrist and Author of On Death and Dying and the 5-Stage Theory: D ENIAL AND ISOLATION A NGER B ARGAINING D EPRESSION A CCEPTANCE
Rosalind Franklin In April of 1953, James Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins identified the substance of life -- the structure of DNA. They later shared a Nobel Prize. Their discovery depended heavily on the work of a woman, chemist Rosalind Franklin, whose research was used without her knowledge or permission. Her photo showed, for the first time, the essential structure of DNA -- the double-helix shape, which also indicated its method of replication. Franklin died of ovarian cancer in 1956 at the age of 37, before the Nobel Prize was awarded to the three men. http://www.npr.org/programs/atc/features/2002/oct/darklady/ Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA , by Brenda Maddox 1920 - 1958 DNA Structure
Barbara McClintock 1902 – 1992 Genetic Transposition
Work on broken chromosomes
Chromosome as the basic unit of heredity
With Harriet Creighton, demonstrated that genetic crossing over was accompanied by physical crossing over of the chromosomes
King's doctoral thesis in 1973 revolutionized evolutionary biology
In comparative study of proteins, proved human and chimpanzee genomes are 99% identical
Places the divergence of the two species from a common ancestor at about 5 million years ago (not 10 million years ago)
After 16 years studying DNA of families (is breast cancer hereditary?)
Found Chromosome 17 after assessing 183 possible markers
Linked to a gene responsible for a number of different inherited breast and ovarian cancers
The isolation of BRCA1 in 1994 has led in turn to direct diagnosis of the 5-10% of all breast cancer that is hereditary
In 1984, King traveled to Argentina to help Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo
Helped create a blood test (using genetic markers and mitochondrial DNA sequencing) that establishes with 99.9% grandparent/child relationship
Over 50 families have been formally reunited
Laboratory is DNA identification base for the United Nations War Crimes Tribunal
Joanna S Fowler Adjunct Professor (Brookhaven National Laboratory) B.A., 1963, University of South Florida; Ph.D., 1967 University of Colorado; Postdoctoral Fellow,1968, University of East Anglia, England. Senior Chemist, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Jacob Javits Investigator Award in the Neurosciences, 1986, 1993; Gustavus John Esselen Award for Chemistry in the Public Interest, 1988; Brookhaven Lab's R&D Award, 1994; Aebersold Award from the Society of Nuclear Medicine, 1997; Francis P. Garvan-John M. Olin Medal, 1998. DOE Ernest O. Lawrence Award, 1999. Brain Imaging “ Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a medical imaging method which uses radiotracers to track biochemical transformations as well as the movement of drugs in the living human and animal body. . . PET has been of particular value in the study of addiction because it allows us to image the distribution and movement of drugs as well as the effects of drugs on the brain.”
Radiation Therapy - First to determine the distribution of the radiation doses in tissue from various arrangements of radium needles (effective dosage levels)
Radium was widely used to treat cancer
Radium-containing needles were applied to tumors in a makeshift fashion, with no certainty that the tumors received the required exposures
Techniques she described in 1932 for choosing the most effective grouping of radium needles were widely adopted in the United States and served as the forerunner of Parker and Paterson's Manchester system
Radiation Physics - pioneered the concept of the relative biological effectiveness of radiation (RBE)
Quantified the different doses from beta and gamma radiation required to produce the same biological effect such as skin eryhtma (i.e., reddening of the skin)
Concept is still employed by radiobiologists and served as the basis for the quality factor used to convert an absorbed dose measured in rad (or gray) to a dose equivalent in rem (or sievert)
The women inventor patent share of annually granted U.S. origin patents rose from 2.6 percent in 1977 to 10.3 percent in 1998.
The majority of the U.S. origin woman-inventor patents are in the chemical technologies.
In 1996, 11.2 percent of the U.S. origin patent grants which were owned by the Federal Government at the time of grant included a woman inventor.
In the past 20 years, about 83 percent of the U.S. origin patent grants to women were for utility patents, 16.5 percent for design patents, and 0.5 for plant patents.
About 35 percent of the U.S. origin women inventors patents granted during the 1977 to 1996 period originated from California, New York, or New Jersey.
Today, hundreds of thousands of women apply for and receive a patent every year. So the real answer to the question "how many women inventors are there?" is more than you can count and growing. About 20% of all inventors are currently female and that number should quickly rise to 50% over the next generation.
Louise Francesconi Company: Raytheon Title: VP; President, Missile Systems Age: 49 An August reorganization at Raytheon gave her a new title but kept her the go-to woman in defense. As head of the company's $3 billion missile business (the largest in the world), Francesconi supplied the laser-guided bombs used against al Qaeda in Afghanistan.
The WITI Hall of Fame was established in 1996 by WITI to recognize, honor, and promote the outstanding contribution women make to the scientific and technological communities that improve and evolve our society.
Women in Technology Network
Nobel Prize Women in Science: Their Lives, Struggles, and Momentous Discoveries , Second Edition Sharon Bertsch McGrayne
Great Modern Inventions , by Gerald Messadie
Historical First Patents: The First US Patent for Many Everyday Things , by Travis Brown