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Ergonomics in the Textile and Apparel Industries
Introduction <ul><li>Challenges Facing the Industry Today: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition From Overseas Companies With ...
Introduction <ul><li>Challenges Facing the Industry Today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Curves of Several Months to Attai...
Ergonomics <ul><li>Improving Ergonomic Conditions Can Improve Productivity and Safety - Enhance Competitiveness </li></ul>...
Injuries and Illnesses Among Textile and Apparel Workers  <ul><li>70% of Sewing Machine Operators Using Foot Controls Repo...
Injuries and Illnesses Among Textile and Apparel Workers <ul><li>49% of Workers Experience Pain in the Neck </li></ul><ul>...
Tasks Associated With Injuries and Illnesses <ul><li>Hand Sewing  and  Trimming  are Stressful to All  Upper Limbs </li></...
Static Postures and CTDs <ul><li>Analysis Reveals That 40% of Operators at Sewing Machines Stoop Forward > 20 o  Throughou...
Postural Stress and Lighting <ul><li>Precise Stitching Tasks are Visually Demanding </li></ul><ul><li>Thread and Fabric Of...
Seating <ul><li>Straight Backed Wooden or Metal Chairs are Typical in the Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Chairs Often Lack Cus...
PsychoSocial Considerations <ul><li>Psychomotor Demands are High (Speed, Accuracy, Coordination) </li></ul><ul><li>Positiv...
Work Organization <ul><li>As Many as 100% of Piecework Operators in  High Manipulation  Jobs Have Symptoms of CTDs </li></...
Duration of Exposure <ul><li>Machine Operators Experience Cumulative Damage to the Neck and Shoulders Over Time </li></ul>...
Solutions - A Comprehensive Ergonomics Program <ul><li>Training for Supervisors and Managers </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness T...
WorkStation Redesign - Sewing Machines <ul><li>30” Fixed TableTop Height </li></ul><ul><li>Point of Operation Between 4-7”...
Work Enhancements <ul><li>Foam Padded Edges to Sharp Table Edges </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Cloth Upholstered Adjustable Ch...
Automated Materials Handling <ul><li>Eliminates Heavy Lifting by Operators or “Bundle Boys” </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Pre-Pro...
Automated Materials Handling <ul><li>Strong on Pre-Programmed Use But Weak on Flexibility (Short Term Changes, etc.) </li>...
Modular Manufacturing Concept <ul><li>Conventional Textile/Apparel Industries Use the  Progressive Bundle System  - Each O...
Modular Manufacturing Concept <ul><li>Teams of Operators are Responsible for Work Planning and Management, Product Quality...
Modular Manufacturing <ul><li>Significantly Reduced Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Necessitates Better Ergonomic Designs of...
Additional Resources <ul><li>American Textile Manufacturers Institute (ATMI) Washington DC </li></ul><ul><li>ATMI  Quest f...
Additional Resources <ul><li>National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)  </li></ul><ul><li>800-35-NIOSH...
Questions and Answers
This program developed by David Mahone, CNA Insurance Companies, Chicago IL Corporate Underwriting Center
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Ergonomics In The Textile Industry

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Transcript of "Ergonomics In The Textile Industry"

  1. 1. Ergonomics in the Textile and Apparel Industries
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Challenges Facing the Industry Today: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition From Overseas Companies With Access to Inexpensive Labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortage of Available US Textile Workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual Turnover Rates Ranging From 30% to Over 100% </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Challenges Facing the Industry Today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Curves of Several Months to Attain Needed Skill Levels for Many Jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in Applying Modern Automation Technologies to Fabrics Processing </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Ergonomics <ul><li>Improving Ergonomic Conditions Can Improve Productivity and Safety - Enhance Competitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Worker Compensation Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Provide More Reliable Workforce </li></ul><ul><li>May Include Allocating High Risk Jobs to Machines Where Possible (They Will Be Going Overseas Anyway) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Injuries and Illnesses Among Textile and Apparel Workers <ul><li>70% of Sewing Machine Operators Using Foot Controls Report Back Pain </li></ul><ul><li>35% Report Persistent Low Back Pain </li></ul><ul><li>25% Have Suffered a Compensable Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>81% of CTDs Were to the Wrist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14% of CTDs to the Elbow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5% of CTDs to the Shoulder </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Injuries and Illnesses Among Textile and Apparel Workers <ul><li>49% of Workers Experience Pain in the Neck </li></ul><ul><li>Absenteeism Increases as Working Conditions Worsen </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Workers Due to Injuries or Turnover is Associated With Working Conditions </li></ul>
  7. 7. Tasks Associated With Injuries and Illnesses <ul><li>Hand Sewing and Trimming are Stressful to All Upper Limbs </li></ul><ul><li>Stitching Tasks are Associated With Pain in the Shoulders, Wrists, and Hands </li></ul><ul><li>Ironing by Hand is Associated With Elbow Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Garment Assembly Tasks are Associated With CTDs of the Hands and Wrists </li></ul><ul><li>Foot Operated Sewing is Associated With Pain in the Back </li></ul>
  8. 8. Static Postures and CTDs <ul><li>Analysis Reveals That 40% of Operators at Sewing Machines Stoop Forward > 20 o Throughout the Machine Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>60% Tilt Their Heads Forward > 20 o Throughout the Machine Cycle - Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Demands of the Work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geometry of the Work Station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate Seating </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Postural Stress and Lighting <ul><li>Precise Stitching Tasks are Visually Demanding </li></ul><ul><li>Thread and Fabric Often Offer Little or No Visual Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>36% of Operators Feel Lighting is Inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys Found Light Levels at Less Than 60% of Recommended Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Operators Lean Forward to See Their Work </li></ul>
  10. 10. Seating <ul><li>Straight Backed Wooden or Metal Chairs are Typical in the Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Chairs Often Lack Cushioning </li></ul><ul><li>Chairs Often Lack Adjustable Back Rests </li></ul><ul><li>Chairs Often Lack Height Adjustability </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Seating is Readily Available </li></ul>
  11. 11. PsychoSocial Considerations <ul><li>Psychomotor Demands are High (Speed, Accuracy, Coordination) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Attitudes Toward Work are Inversely Related to Increased Monotony and Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Attitudes Toward Work are Directly Related to Job Satisfaction </li></ul>
  12. 12. Work Organization <ul><li>As Many as 100% of Piecework Operators in High Manipulation Jobs Have Symptoms of CTDs </li></ul><ul><li>Workers in Piecework are 4 Times as Likely to Develop Severe Disabilities as Hourly Workers </li></ul><ul><li>Workers in Piecework are 9 Times as Likely to Develop Arthritic and Osteoarticular Disorders as Hourly Workers </li></ul><ul><li>As Duration of Employment in Piecework Increases, So Does Severe Disabilities </li></ul>
  13. 13. Duration of Exposure <ul><li>Machine Operators Experience Cumulative Damage to the Neck and Shoulders Over Time </li></ul><ul><li>Risk for Persistent Neck and Shoulder Pain Increases With Years of Employment as a Machine Operator </li></ul><ul><li>Work for More Than Eight Years as Machine Operator Increases Risks For Neck and Shoulder Pain </li></ul>
  14. 14. Solutions - A Comprehensive Ergonomics Program <ul><li>Training for Supervisors and Managers </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness Training for Employees </li></ul><ul><li>Job Analyses and Implementation of Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Worker Involvement and Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Management </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) </li></ul>
  15. 15. WorkStation Redesign - Sewing Machines <ul><li>30” Fixed TableTop Height </li></ul><ul><li>Point of Operation Between 4-7” Above TableTop </li></ul><ul><li>Sewing Machine Tilted 11 o Toward Operator </li></ul><ul><li>For Jobs of Longer Duration Sewing - Bench Mounted Arm Rests </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustable Chair </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustable Foot Rest With Movable Machine Control </li></ul>
  16. 16. Work Enhancements <ul><li>Foam Padded Edges to Sharp Table Edges </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Cloth Upholstered Adjustable Chairs </li></ul><ul><li>Angle Packing Boxes to Workers With Tilt Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Anti-Fatigue Matting for Standing Workers </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Require Rest Periods </li></ul><ul><li>Job Rotations </li></ul>
  17. 17. Automated Materials Handling <ul><li>Eliminates Heavy Lifting by Operators or “Bundle Boys” </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Pre-Programmed Hanging Conveyor </li></ul><ul><li>Moves Only One or a Few Work Pieces Per Hanger </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Controlled - Movement Tracked by Bar-Coded Hangers and Series of Scanners </li></ul><ul><li>Delivers Work to Queue Near Operator </li></ul>
  18. 18. Automated Materials Handling <ul><li>Strong on Pre-Programmed Use But Weak on Flexibility (Short Term Changes, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology is Rapidly Improving </li></ul><ul><li>Future Models Will Direct More Work to the Queues of the Most Productive Workers and Less to Slower Workers or Beginners </li></ul>
  19. 19. Modular Manufacturing Concept <ul><li>Conventional Textile/Apparel Industries Use the Progressive Bundle System - Each Operator is Assigned to a Single Operation </li></ul><ul><li>In Modular Mfg. a Complete Garment is Produced in a Modular Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Cells May Have 10 Operators and 20 Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Operators Are Not Assigned to a Single Operation But Move Between Workstations </li></ul>
  20. 20. Modular Manufacturing Concept <ul><li>Teams of Operators are Responsible for Work Planning and Management, Product Quality, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees are Empowered - Boosts Morale </li></ul><ul><li>A Variety of Motions are Used by Each Operator - Reduces Risk for CTDs and Relieves Static Postures </li></ul><ul><li>Can Be Reconfigured Rapidly, Providing Great Flexibility </li></ul>
  21. 21. Modular Manufacturing <ul><li>Significantly Reduced Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Necessitates Better Ergonomic Designs of Workstations to Accommodate Different Operators </li></ul><ul><li>Many Operations Converted to Standing Workstations Instead of Seated Workstations </li></ul><ul><li>Employees Paid on a Group Incentive System </li></ul>
  22. 22. Additional Resources <ul><li>American Textile Manufacturers Institute (ATMI) Washington DC </li></ul><ul><li>ATMI Quest for Best in Safety and Health Program </li></ul><ul><li>Must Have Comprehensive Program to Join </li></ul><ul><li>Must be Willing to Interact With Other Members Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly Half of ATMI Member Companies Participate </li></ul>
  23. 23. Additional Resources <ul><li>National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) </li></ul><ul><li>800-35-NIOSH </li></ul><ul><li>NIOSH Publication: Elements of Ergonomics Programs , January 1997 </li></ul>
  24. 24. Questions and Answers
  25. 25. This program developed by David Mahone, CNA Insurance Companies, Chicago IL Corporate Underwriting Center
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