B2 B Industrial Mkts

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  • 1.
    • Industrial Market Vs Consumer Market
          • Market Structure
    Industrial Market Geographically conc. Fewer buyers (relatively) Big buyers ( small number of large buyers) Consumer Markets Geographically dispersed Mass markets Free Market (large number of buyers) Understanding Industrial markets
  • 2.
    • Industrial Market Vs Consumer Market
          • Market Structure - Example
    Industrial Market ( Rutile for Paints) Major ten cities. Fewer buyers (example 500) Oligopolistic buyers with clout To access international market (Asian, Nerolac, ICI etc.) Consumer Markets (paints) Even in small villages Mass markets ( 1 billion ) Small customers normally competition is within the country. Understanding Industrial markets
  • 3.
    • Industrial Market Vs Consumer Market
          • Buyer Behavior
    Industrial Market *Evaluated for functionality rational/task motive to buying. *Purchasers are experts & focus is more on performance/service. *Higher interaction with the supplier. * Formal processes. Consumer Market *Social / psychological factors are important. *Family involvement & focus more on product per se. *Nor personal relationship with the supplier. * Less of formal processes. Understanding Industrial markets
  • 4.
    • Industrial Market Vs Consumer Market
          • Buyer Behavior - Example
    Industrial Buyer for AC *Evaluated for functionality ( evaluation by tech committee) *Purchase through tendering Process & brand less important. *Discuss technical details, price negotiation etc. *Formal processes of documentation etc.
    • Customer for AC
    • Should look good & match
    • the décor.
    • *Want to buy LG only
    • (because neighbor has)
    • *Go to a shop, select, negotiate
    • pay & forget.
    • * Less of formal processes.
    Understanding Industrial markets
  • 5.
    • Industrial Market Vs Consumer Market
          • Products
    Industrial Market * Technical complexity and customized. * Service, delivery and availability is very important. Customer Markets * Standardized. *. Service, delivery and availability is somewhat important. Understanding Industrial markets
  • 6.
    • Industrial Market Vs Consumer Market
          • Products - Example
    Samsonite Outsourcing soft luggage * Each component is as per Samsonite specification. * Service, delivery and availability is very important as it affects supply chain of the company. Customer for Samsonite soft Luggage * Standardized product range to select from. *. Service, delivery and availability is somewhat important, can wait for a Specific color / size. Understanding Industrial markets
  • 7.
    • Industrial Market Vs Consumer Market
          • Decision making
    Industrial Market * Distinct observable stages * Multiple influencers and decision makers. Consumer Market * Unobservable mental stages, not very clear pattern. Understanding Industrial markets
  • 8.
    • Industrial Market Vs Consumer Market
          • Decision making - Example
    Industrial Buyer – Soaps for Workers canteen * Need identification, selection, procurement etc. * O.K. from the workers union, agreement by contractor, purchase departments negotiation & placing order. Customer * Low involvement buying and impulse purchase (the exact choice criteria difficult to identify) & varies from situation to situation. Understanding Industrial markets
  • 9. Industrial Market Vs Consumer Market Distribution channel characteristics Industrial Markets * Shorter, more direct & fewer linkages between seller and buyers. Consumer Markets * Indirect and multiple linkages Understanding Industrial markets
  • 10. Industrial Market Vs Consumer Market Distribution channel characteristics -Example Hotel buying Cold Drinks * Supplied directly by the distributor, may even be serviced by company employee or a regular basis. Customer for Cold drinks * Normal distribution style of distributor to retailer to customer. Virtually no interaction with company. Understanding Industrial markets
  • 11. Industrial Market Vs Consumer Market Promotion Industrial Markets * Emphasis on personal selling or one to one dealing. Example : Selling fridges with decals . You go and deal with Coke or Pepsi H.O. Consumer Markets * Emphasis on mass market promotion. Example : You plan an adv. campaign to highlight decals and generate customer flow. Understanding Industrial markets
  • 12. Industrial Market Vs Consumer Market Pricing Industrial Markets * Competitive bidding & multistage negotiation. * Sharing of cost data & budgeting of acceptable profits in many cases. Consumer Markets * Normally MRP & MOP * Concept of list price & its implementation. Understanding Industrial markets
  • 13. Industrial Market Vs Consumer Market Pricing - Example Industrial (CSD purchase Of Rum ) * Competitive bidding & selection on basis of L1. * Sharing of production and overhead cost data with CSD and price based on cost + margin. Consumer Markets for Rum * Normally MRP & MOP * Concept of list price & its implementation in the trade. Understanding Industrial markets
  • 14. A big reseller can be treated as a Industrial Buyer Example: Shoppers Stop / Ebony / Kids Kemp for an apparel manufacturer. Purchase : Not for consumption but for business. Market characteristics : Very few of them and they are big in size and have centralized purchasing. Product characteristics : Specific private labels. Buyer characteristics : Technical evaluation / rational process / multiple buying influencers. Understanding Industrial markets
  • 15. A big reseller can be treated as a Industrial Buyer Example: Shoppers Stop / Ebony / Kids Kemp for an apparel manufacturer . Channel characteristics : Direct service by the manufacturer. Price characteristics : Very hard on negotiation, if they get better price, it straight goes to profits. Economics of demand : Based on actual consumer off-take of the products and hence derived. If one design clicks, it is stocked more in anticipation. Understanding Industrial markets
  • 16. Organizational Customer Type of purchasing organization
    • Commercial Enterprise
    • Industrial Dealers & Distributors – Essentially their objective
    • is to trade on the items. ( relatively narrow scope ).
    • OEM – These consumers use the products as component of
    • their own output. The stakes are high as their final output
    • depends on your product. ( Maruti as a user of headlights ).
    • In emergency, they can make the vehicle & fit headlights later.
    • Users ( consumers ) – They are the final consumers of the
    • product and their total operation depends on you. Example:
    • Eastern Coal Fields for Tisco. No coal => No Steel.
    Understanding Industrial markets
  • 17. Organizational Customer Type of purchasing organization
    • Government agency
    • Standard procurement processes – Registration,
    • Tender, L1 etc.
    • Public accountability – everything by rule books as far as
    • documentation.
    Understanding Industrial markets
  • 18. Organizational Customer Type of purchasing organization Institutions ( Private & Public Sector ) 1. Tisco giving its workers, watches as Diwali gifts. 2. XIM-B purchasing air-conditioners for faculty offices. 3. DSP cooperative buying suitcases for their members. Characteristics : Normally one time deals, large orders, less of technical evaluation, non – specialist buyers. Understanding Industrial markets
  • 19.
    • Materials and parts
    • Raw materials ( natural gas, HDPE etc.)
    • Manufactured materials ( copper wire, steel sheets )
    • Component parts ( switches, motors or customized gears )
    • Characteristics : Normally large custom made orders are sold
    • By the manufacturers & standard products by industrial. distributors.
    Organizational Customer Based on Type of products purchased Understanding Industrial markets
  • 20.
    • Capital Items
    • Installations ( buildings, computers, machinery etc.)
    • Accessories ( PC, Office furniture)
    • Characteristics : Normally major installations, because of
    • extensive interaction required and long negotiation time required,
    • the manufacturers deal directly with the customer & accessories are sold by industrial. distributors.
    Organizational Customer Based on Type of products purchased Understanding Industrial markets
  • 21.
    • Supplies and services
    • Supplies ( soaps, stationery etc.)
    • Services ( maintenance, canteen etc.)
    • Characteristics : Normally industrial distributors are used & services are provided by the individual contractors ).
    Organizational Customer Based on Type of products purchased Understanding Industrial markets
  • 22.
    • Example : Procurement of Injection Moulding Machine
    • R & D : Designs the moulds which are to be used.
    • Production : Output levels, installation needs.
    • HRD : Manpower implications, skills to be imparted.
    • Quality Assurance : Responsible for output consistency.
    • Maintenance : Ease of operation, availability of spares, AMC etc.
    • Finance : Long & short term financial implication.
    • Purchase department : Price, payment terms, delivery terms.
    Characteristics of Organizational Procurement Multiple Influences Understanding Industrial markets
  • 23.
    • Example : Procurement of Rutile for paints
    • Material Planning : Exact forecasting of demand, factoring of international prices Vs domestic prices, foreign exchange implication, inventory carrying cost etc.
    • Supplier rating : Based on the the quality reports, delivery
    • records , price factor, payment terms etc. the suppliers are rated and
    • Economic order quantity : The quantity to order, frequency of ordering etc. are planned so as to optimize the profitability of the organization.
    Characteristics of Organizational Procurement Technical sophistication Understanding Industrial markets
  • 24.
    • Example : Procurement of Rutile for paints
    • Value Analysis : The option of using a lesser quantity of
    • costly Rutile for getting the same output level by change of
    • formulation is explored.
    • In absence of the raw materials, whether any alternative can be used is worked out. How the option of airlifting impact
    • cost etc. is worked out before decision making.
    Characteristics of Organizational Procurement Technical sophistication Concept of optimization w.r.t constraints Understanding Industrial markets
  • 25.
    • Large number of buying center : Government departments are everywhere. A lot of them purchase locally.
    • 2. Political interference :
    • Specified govt. contracts :
    • a) Rate contracts
    • b) DRDO / ISRO Dev. Job cost + effort cost
    • c) 131 Orders
    Characteristics of Organizational Procurement Government purchases Skills required are specialized Understanding Industrial markets
  • 26. Industrial Marketing Environment Buyer Seller Interface Publics Macro Environment Govt. influences Understanding Industrial markets
  • 27. Industrial Marketing Environment Buyer seller interface Labour Capital R.M. Components Equipment Mafg. Dist. / Dlrs. Compt. Manufacturer’ rep Dist / Dlrs Transporters Warehousing firms Mktg. Research firms Bankers & insurers Suppliers Buyers Facilitators Market segments Govt. Commercial Enterprises Industrial Distributors Understanding Industrial markets
  • 28. Industrial Marketing Environment Publics
    • Financial publics – FI / Stockbrokers / Individual Stock Holder
    • ( Stock prices, confidence in company )
    • Independent press – Impact on reputation of company
    • ( Dhabol power corporation )
    • Public interest groups – Environmentalists
    • ( Euro II , CNG vehicles, Narmada bachao)
    • 4 . General publics – MacDonald's coating French fries with beef tallow
    Business serves the society Understanding Industrial markets
  • 29. Industrial Marketing Environment Macro Environment
    • Economics - Increased demand for oil led to increase in prices
    • of oil in the world markets. Changes the cost base of most
    • oil based companies. Also changed the demand pattern of
    • automobile ( petrol to diesel ).
    • Government policies like subsidizing diesel at the cost of petrol.
    • Ecological influences - The concern for the environment
    • so emission norms are stringent & industry has to adjust.
    • Bhopal gas tragedy, changes in the law to use MIC as an
    • intermediary.
    • “Right to Know”  Companies have to furnish details of the
    • hazardous products made & used by them.
    Understanding Industrial markets
  • 30. Industrial Marketing Environment Macro Environment
    • Physical environmental Influences – Steel plants need iron
    • ore, water & lime stone deposits for setting up. MP, Bihar and
    • Orissa have the concentration of steel plants.
    • .
    • 4. Politico / Cultural influences – Hire and fire policy of west Vs
    • militant trade unionism & job protection in India.
    • Technological influences – Typewriters manufacturers had
    • to shift market focus, change products etc after PC’s and word
    • processors became common.
    Understanding Industrial markets
  • 31. Industrial Marketing Environment Macro Environment
    • Government influences –
    • Anticipating governments action: WTO treaty signing
    • and IMF loans linkages for govt. The govt. needs the
    • loan so it is likely to sign the treaty.
    • Influencing Govt. actions: Lobby for reduction in excise
    • duty (to create level playing field).
    • Lifting of Liquor ban in A.P. ( a lot of lobbying ).
    • CNG buses for Delhi ….
    Understanding Industrial markets
  • 32. Environment Management Strategies Independent Strategies
    • Competitive aggression
    • a. Create Product differentiator (Bonding power of cement
    • Gujrat Ambuja Cement – compressive strength)
    • b. Aggressive pricing (coal based power plants Vs Gas based
    • power plants)
    • c. Comparative advertising - Dhabol Power Corporation
    • came up with the very good adv telling the good the
    • plant has brought about in the area, water supply,
    • school, employment, plus electricity generation cost
    • (compared with other plants etc.)
    Understanding Industrial markets
  • 33. Environment Management Strategies Independent Strategies 2. Competitive pacification a. Improved competitive relations - (Auto companies do not fight on discount to trade @4%, they do not spoil the trade, focus on end users ). b. Industry promotion – Doodh, Egg & LPG campaign. ( Increase the pie rather than fight for the same pie). c. Price Umbrella’s – The transporter’s union finalizing rates for each destination ex- Mohali. Understanding Industrial markets
  • 34. Environment Management Strategies Independent Strategies 3. Building Public Opinion a. Corporate Image advertising – ISO 9000 Accreditation. b. Voluntary environmental control – ISO 14000 Accreditation Making green products & advertising it. c. Commitment to interest groups – Archies cards giving part of institutional revenue to fund the NGO’s. This help them charge higher & get business. Understanding Industrial markets
  • 35. Environment Management Strategies Independent Strategies 4. Political / Legal a. Directly lobbying with the govt. & law enforcers. Steel Industries lobbying for more development work, reduction in excise etc. b. Issue advertising through the direct paid media or even influencing the media to highlight the issue ( may or may not be funded directly ). Understanding Industrial markets
  • 36. Environment Management Strategies Co-operative strategies a. Contracting : Allwyn is part of Electrolux, but supplies refrigerators to LG. b. Co-optation : Absorption of relevant Publics on board of directors. IIMC & XLRI directors in the board of directors of XIM. c. Coalition : Industry association ( Specially used to lobby with the government ) FMA decision to have max 7 years warrantee on fans. Understanding Industrial markets
  • 37. Environment Management Strategies Strategic Maneuvering a. Domain Selection : Focusing on areas of strong competitive advantage. Cray  Supercomputers ICI Worldwide  Light chemicals with high margins. b. Diversification : Reliance into telecom sector. May be the idea is to be part of a high growth industry which has good future potential. Understanding Industrial markets