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Autex Ii Presentation Revised(2)
 

Autex Ii Presentation Revised(2)

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Fashion, apparel, textile, merchandising, garments

Fashion, apparel, textile, merchandising, garments

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    Autex Ii Presentation Revised(2) Autex Ii Presentation Revised(2) Presentation Transcript

    • Rethinking the U.S. “Textile Industry”
      • Subhash K. Batra
      • NCRC, NCSU, Raleigh, NC, USA
      • HCTAR, Cambridge, MA, USA
      • and
      • David Brookstein
      • Philadelphia University, Philadelphia, USA
      • HCTAR, Cambridge, MA, USA
    • The Problem
      • Public Image: “Textile industry is in demise.”
      • View supported by many economic studies.
      • Kiekens (AUTEX I) discussed the impact on textile education; offered “European Strategy”
      • U.S. Response: Continually Evolving
          • TC*TC (1979 NSF study, 1981, DoC, labor unions, industry)
          • HCTAR (1990, Sloan Foundation)
          • NCRC (1991, NSF, NC, Industry)
          • NTC (1992, DoC…)
          • DoD initiatives, etc.
    • Some Basic Questions
      • What is “fiber?” “textile?”
      • Fiber ( fibra, ca. 1540) : a unit of matter…flexibility, fineness, high length/thickness (e.g. T I – broad agreement).
        • Min. length for spinnability requirements (e.g. ASTM) wood pulp fiber, monofilaments, wires?
      • Textile ( textilis, ca. 1626 ) : a woven or knit cloth; fiber, filament, or yarn used in making cloth (MW);…generally applied to: (1) staple fibers and filaments…for conversion to or use as yarns, or for…nonwoven fabrics, (2) yarns…from natural or manufactured fibers, (3) fabrics and other…products made from fibers…, and from yarns, and (4) garments and other articles…from one or more of the above…, and…when the products retain the flexibility and drape of the original fabrics.” And, as an adjective the definition is: “of or pertaining to textiles.” (ASTM)
    • Confusion
      • … even among the learned, no unanimity on definition nor clarity on what final products to include.
      • Why? The burden of history:
      • Weaving (basketry)…Neo. cultures of 5000 BC
      • Cotton, silk, wool, and flax fibers woven in Egypt, cotton in India and silk in China by 3000 BC [EB]
      • Strings, ropes, nets, laces, knits followed.
      • Cottage industry – few tools much labor.
      • I R (1760-1840, England) ushered in steam power, factory system, technological inventions… birth of the textile industry .
    • History
      • Before WWII: 1. Raw material from natural sources; 2. All fiber and end products consumed largely in clothing and furnishings.
      • Ergo: fibers included in the definition of textiles…nowhere else to go.
      • Was the farming sector part of the textile industry? No.
      • Post WWII: chemical industry – regenerated-modified-synthesized polymeric fiber industry.
      • Output focus: substitution market in textiles – inclusion in the textile industry.
      • Post WWII, consolidation and expansion of the industry …emergence of large multi-divisional conglomerates, etc.
      • Success of the manufactured fibers…broader range of products/markets…inclusion under the ever expanding “textile umbrella.” Ergo: complexity.
    • Yarn Production Industrial Fabric Production Weaving Knitting Non-Woven Dyeing and Finishing Home Furnishings (H. F.) Apparel Non Textile Uses Domestic Distribution Wholesalers, Retailers Agriculture Chemical Textile Mills Fiber Exports Fiber Imports Yarn Exports Yarn Imports Fabric Exports Fabric Imports Exports Imports Exports History… Self-Perception (NAE 1983) Fiber Production Natural Man Made
    • History…
      • Acquisition of political clout (Rose 2000)
      • Protection from international competition
        • A. Import tariffs (1961…) STA, LTA
        • B. Bilateral quota control MFA, etc.
      • And yet,
        • … deficit continues to grow.
        • (ATMI 2002) $60.76B in 2000, $62.46B in 2001; 5-6% textile, the rest is clothing.
        • Enormous socio-economic impact – sad.
      • So what’s next?
    • Bad News/Good News
      • Bad News:
      • The imperative: continuing improvement in global human well being – more even distribution of the economic pie – the international trade disputes will continue – the U.S. textile industry, as we know it, will continue to face competition…sheer market size of U.S. a strong magnet.
      • Good News:
      • Per capita fiber consumption continues to grow: U.S. 88 lbs. (2000); World average about 19 lbs. (2000); PRC about 14 lbs. (2000)
      • U.S. apparent fiber cons.: 24.3B lbs. (2000); mill fiber cons.: was about 16B lbs. (Feb. 2000). [52%, apparel and furnishings (not c & r); 48% in c & r plus “industrial,” was 44% in 1995]
      • Data conservative…no glass, aramids, metal, fiber-optic, ceramic and
      • other specialty fibers.
    • More Good News…
      • Dr. Aneja has made a compelling case for the manufactured fiber industry.
      • Fibers can be engineered to “meet” specs.
      • Using them, products can be engineered to meet specs.
      • Evolution of fibers as engineering materials.
      • Looked at this way, the market for engineered fiber-based
      • products in 2000 was [Rigby 2002]:
        • Americas ~ 5.08MM tons (3.4% p.a. to 2010)
        • Global ~ 16.69MM tons (3.8% p.a. to 2010)
    • To gain a healthier perspective for the future, we need a paradigm shift. The new paradigm: We are in the business of producing/engineering/sourcing fibers and converting them into products useful to society.
    • In the New Paradigm: (Product vs. Technology) Fiber Industry “ Textile Industry” Engineering with Fibers, or Fiber-Based Products Industry
    • Fiber Industry
      • Agriculture
        • Plants/Trees
          • Seed (cotton, kapok, coconut)
          • Stem/trunk (wood pulp, bast fibers, Manila hemp)
          • Leaves (sisal, henequen, …)
        • Animal hair (wool, cashmere, mohair, …)
      • Manufactured (MF)
        • Organic/Polymeric
          • Regenerated cellulose & derivatives (rayon, acetate, …)
          • Synthetic:
            • Aramids Nylons (N6, N66,…)
            • Acrylics/Modacrylics Polyesters
            • Polyolefins Carbon/Graphite
            • Elastomeric PLA, etc.
        • Inorganic
          • Glass (fiberglass, optical glass)
          • Metals (steel, copper, alloys…)
          • Ceramics
    •   * EwF: Reinforced “Rigid” Composites : As defined by FEB in 66 b. *EwF: Ropes, Cordage, Fishline, etc. As defined by FEB in 70 but include all ropes including marine ropes. *EwF: Floor & Wall Coverings : As defined by FEB in 51,52. *EwF: Pneumatic Tires : As defined by FEB in 63. *EwF: Flexible, Reinforced Rubber Composites : As defined by FEB in 64, 65. *EwF: Paper : Wetlaid wood pulp. * “ Textiles :” Fabrics made by weaving, knitting, braiding, etc. (not nonwovens) for consumer apparel & accessories and residential furnishings. *EwF : yarns/wovens/knits/braids for engineered structural use, commercial interiors & apparel designed to meet strict, objectively measurable (engineering or performance) specifications. * Flexible, Reinforced Rubber Composites : As defined by FEB 64, 65. * Reinforced “Rigid” Composites : Relatively hard matrix reinforced by fibers, and/or precursor EwF structures, and/or Nonwovens.   Fiber Industry EwF: Nonwovens (Fiberwebs, etc.)   EwF: Reinforced “rigid” matrix composites   EwF: Flexible Reinforced Rubber Composites   EwF: Ropes, Cordage, Fishline EwF: Floor & Wall Coverings EwF: Paper EwF: Communication Industry EwF: Engineered/Structured Fibrous Pre-Forms (Yarns/Wovens/ Knits/Braids for Comm. Apparel, Interiors & other Structural Use) “ Textiles:” Wovens, Knits, Braids, etc. for Consumer Apparel & Residential Interiors EwF: Pneumatic Tires/Tyres
    • Justification?
      • Existence of independent trade unions, expressing divergent interests.
      • INDA is trade association of the nonwovens industry.
      • TAPPI is association for professionals working in the pulp and paper industry; it also often serves as a trade association.
      • IFAI is a broad umbrella organization with the following divisions:
          • American Casual Furniture Fabric Association
          • Automotive Textiles, Plastics and Coatings Association
          • Banner & Flag Association
          • Geo-synthetic Materials Association
          • Marine Fabricators Association
          • Narrow Fabrics Institute
          • Professional Awning Manufacturers Association
          • Safety & Protective Products Division
          • Tent Rental Division
          • Truck Cover & Tarp Association
          • United States Industrial Fabrics Institute
    • Justification? (continued)
      • ATMI…represents “mill firms which operate machinery in the United States for the manufacture or processing of textile products (except those who produce man-made fibers and yarn by a chemical process).”
      • AFMA “is the trade association for U.S. companies that manufacture synthetic and cellulosic fibers.”
      • Carpet and Rug Institute “is the national trade association representing the carpet and rug industry.”
      • Dalton Floor Covering Market Association is an “association who’s goal is to market industry member services to the world.”
      • The National Cotton Council and Cotton Incorporated, semi-governmental organizations devoted to the promotion of cotton and protecting interests of the cotton farmers.
      • The schema recognizes fibers as engineering materials.
      • Broadens the scope of the “Fiber Industry.”
      • Restricted definition of “Textiles,” recognizes the economic importance of the other fiber-based products industries or “Engineering with Fibers Industry” and frees them from the instabilities and turmoil of the “textile-apparel” connection.
      • Could facilitate better understanding of the supply chain relationships and strategic planning.
      • Could provide educational institutions a better paradigm view for developing appropriate & focused programs to meet the human resource needs of the selected segments of the industry.
      • Could facilitate development of the relevant design science…to gain competitive advantage in the market place.
      • Need: a great deal more study and debate.
      • Lead vs. follow.
      • Join us.
      • ( [email_address] ; brooksteind@ philau .edu )
      • “ Nothing will ever be attempted if all possible objections must be first overcome.” (Samuel Johnson)
      • “ Truth is ever to be found in the simplicity, and not in the multiplicity and confusion of things.” (Sir Isaac Newton)
      • “ A man with a new idea is a crank – until he succeeds.” (Mark Twain)
      • “ Thus, the task is, not so much to see what no one has yet seen; but to think what nobody has yet thought, about that which everybody sees.” (Erwin Schrodinger)
      • “ There must be no barriers to freedom on inquiry. There is no place for dogma in science. The scientist is free, and must be free to ask any question, to doubt any assertion, to seek for any evidence, to correct any errors.” (J. Robert Oppenheimer)