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Apctt Apctt Presentation Transcript

  • ICT for Women Entrepreneurship in Asia-Pacific Expert Group Meeting on ICT Policy from a Gender Perspective Bangkok, December 18-19th, 2001 Bianca R. Tonetti Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology (APCTT)
  • Facts and figures
    • Women entrepreneurs manage 35% of SMEs in the region, more than 1/3 of 95% of all enterprises in Asia Pacific
    • The online female population in ASIA in 2000 accounted for 22% of Internet users
    • By 2003 there will be 8 million women Internet users in CHINA and 2 million in INDIA
    • 23% women Internet users in INDIA in 2000
    • 38.7% in CHINA in 2001
    • Only a small portion of the female population of Asian developing countries is digitally empowered
    • However, out of 15,000 members of IWAPI-Indonesia only 12% have e-mail accounts
  • Facts and figures Women’s Internet use in Asia-Pacific and USA Source: Hafkin & Taggart, Gender, IT and Development Countries , AED for USAID, 2001.
  • Impact of IT on women’s work
    • Women concentrated at lower skilled employment levels
    • Automation in manufacturing/services
    • Relocation of production
    • New skill requirements
    • Creation of new jobs in:
    • Conducive policies in India and Malaysia have led to women occupying high-skilled and managerial positions
    • Studies in Information Technology Applications (SITA) is a computer-skill training program for 450 women from a disadvantage background and with limited communication skills. It is sponsored by InfoDev - World Bank
    • Global Challenge Award 2000, finalist Stockholm Challenge Award 2000, selected as Most Promising Social Enterprise 2002
    • Poor response of the job market to the project trainees
    • Self-employment through the women’s cooperative MitraMandal
  • Information processing WOMEN’S e-COOPERATIVE MITRAMANDAL MitraMandal Professional Wing Training of trainers R&D marketing and publicity Learning Wing Implements the learning strategy Public/Private Organizations Providers of work Earning Wing Trainers and trainees use IT skills to generate income Source: SITA .
  • Information processing PROJECT SITA AND WOMEN’S e-COOPERATIVE MITRAMANDAL - INDIA SITA trainees SITA head trainer SITA senior instructor Source: SITA
  • Information processing SECTOR PROFILE IN ASIA
    • CHINA, INDIA, SINGAPORE and VIETNAM are taking large shares of the outsourcing markets in data processing
    • The PHILIPPINES concentrates the largest number of women workers in remote data entry
    • Many new jobs are in call centres and satellite offices performing back office functions
  • Information processing OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN IN ASIA
    • Women working in data entry in BANGLADESH would earn 88% more than in local jobs
    • One million jobs in call centres are expected to be created in INDIA
    • by 2007
    • Women’s attempts to create self-employment are frustrated by their lack of business and marketing skills
    • In INDIA over 350,000 women are expected to be working in remote data processing by
    • 2008
  • Information processing CONDUCIVE POLICIES
    • Good telecom infrastructure
    • IT training in and out of school
    • Training in marketing and business development
  • Clothing and textile manufacturing RANLIYA GARMENT INDUSTRIES - SRI LANKA
    • Established in 1978 by Ms. Hapuarachchi. Turnover of US$23 million, workforce of 6,000. 95% are women
    • The company utilizes CAD/CAM machines for garment design, computerized sewing and embroidery machine and has a production capacity of 700,000 pieces per month
    • Technology transfer was successful thanks to an easily trainable workforce due to Sri Lanka’s high literacy rate
    • The new technology enhances the productivity while meeting the requirements of international markets in terms of timeliness, pricing and quality standards
  • Clothing and textile manufacturing RANLIYA GARMENT INDUSTRIES - SRI LANKA CAD/CAM machine for garment design Computerized sewing machine
  • Clothing and textile manufacturing SECTOR PROFILE IN ASIA
    • Asia’s share of total employment in the industry was 72% in 1998
    • China is the major employer accounting for 20% of the global workforce
    • In 1995 Asia concentrated 80% of global women workers in the textile sector
    • Women take up 71% of the jobs in clothing in the region, with China the major employer (20%) followed by Indonesia and Thailand
    Source: ILO.
  • Clothing and textile manufacturing OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN IN ASIA
    • Computer technology offers opportunities for small and medium women-owned clothing manufacturing units
    • Decentralization allowed by
    • fragmentation of production particularly in garment manufacturing
    • In Italy women subcontractors use IT applications for the instant fashion market
    • Promotion of small-scale sector instrumental for the development of the sector
  • Clothing and textile manufacturing
    • Promotion of small-scale sector
    • Entrepreneurship development training
    • Dissemination of technology information
    • Government to initiate, coordinate and share the cost of R&D and training schemes
  • Software programming VIJAY SOFTWARE DEVELOPERS (VSD) - INDIA
    • Shefali Kapoor established an education and career guidance centre in 1990, a computer academy in 1991 and VSD in 1992. Turnover of US$222,000 and workforce of 6 software developers
    • Technology transfer was successful thanks to her post graduation in computer sciences. She entered the business when computer started to be used for back-office support, pay-roll management, inventory control etc.
    • Advantages she found in her business are
    • - availability of personnel possessing technical know-how - know-how could be updated on the job, and
    • - tremendous scope of IT-enabled services
  • Software programming VIJAY SOFTWARE DEVELOPERS (VSD) - INDIA Shefali Kapoor Software developers at work
  • Software programming SECTOR PROFILE IN ASIA
    • Customized software services are potentially attractive to small and medium sized women enterprises
    • Software sector in INDIA has grown by 50% in the 1990s creating exports, domestic jobs and technical talents
    • The number of women programmers, designers, inventors and fixers of computers is limited in the developing world
    • However in MALAYSIA women are 30% of IT professionals and in INDIA comprise 20% of professional jobs in the software industry
  • Software programming OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN IN ASIA
    • Network administration and maintenance are services strongly needed by private sector and government institutions
    • The greatest potential for job opportunities is in the core IT sector
    • In INDIA and CHINA opportunities are available for women in the software industry
    • IT education and training is an area particularly suitable for women
  • Software programming CONDUCIVE POLICIES
    • Less expensive courses on IT
    • Introduction of IT at early stages of formal education
    • Increasing the number of girls and women studying IT-related subjects in formal schooling
    • IT training out of school
    • IT info dissemination for girls and women (career fairs)
    • State-private sector cooperation for HRD development
    • Entrepreneurship development training
    • Rural areas
    • Cost of hardware, software, service
    • Alternative sources of software
    • Cyberkiosks and telecenters
    • Impact assessment of legislation on working women
    • Taxes and subsidies for investment promotion in strategic sectors
    • HRD at al levels
    • Scholarships and reservations
    • Business development programmes for self-employment
    Infrastructure Regulatory environment Education and training
  • Web References
    • http://learnlink.aed.org/Publications/Gender_Book/pdf/Gender_Book_NoPhotos.pdf
    • http://www.totheweb.com/Digital_Divide_White_Paper.PDF
    • http://www.sitaa.org
    • http://www.undp.org.my/partnership/UNDP.pdf
    • http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmlfi00/tmlfi-r.pdf
    • http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu37we/uu37we00.htm#Contents