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Confined spaces 8 hour oshacampus.com training manual will help your learn different problems faced by workers performing operations in a confined space.

Confined spaces 8 hour oshacampus.com training manual will help your learn different problems faced by workers performing operations in a confined space.

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Confined space 8 hr competent person training by osh acampus.com Document Transcript

  • 1. OSHAcampus.com Confined Space Entry Competent Person E L P M A S INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION • OSHA 29 CFR 1910.146 is the General Standard • OSHA 29 CFR 1910.146 is the General Standard for confined spaces for confined spaces • WAC 296-62 Part M - This part contains • WAC 296-62 Part M - This part contains minimum requirements for practices and minimum requirements for practices and procedures to protect employees in all procedures to protect employees in all industries from the hazards of entry and/or industries from the hazards of entry and/or work in permit-required confined spaces work in permit-required confined spaces 1
  • 2. OSHAcampus.com INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION • The OSHA standard states that 29 CFR • The OSHA standard states that 29 CFR 1910.146 does not apply to Construction and 1910.146 does not apply to Construction and Shipbuilding Shipbuilding • The WAC standard for confined spaces states • The WAC standard for confined spaces states that 296-62 Part M applies to all industries that 296-62 Part M applies to all industries pointing out the fact that some vertical pointing out the fact that some vertical standards may be more restrictive standards may be more restrictive E L P M • This illustrates a difference between state and • This illustrates a difference between state and federal rules federal rules A S INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION • Many workplaces contain spaces that are considered to • Many workplaces contain spaces that are considered to be “confined” because their configurations hinder the be “confined” because their configurations hinder the activities of any employees who must enter into, work in, activities of any employees who must enter into, work in, and exit from them. and exit from them. • In many instances, employees who work in confined • In many instances, employees who work in confined spaces also face increased risk of exposure to serious spaces also face increased risk of exposure to serious physical injury from hazards such as entrapment, physical injury from hazards such as entrapment, engulfment, and hazardous atmospheric conditions. engulfment, and hazardous atmospheric conditions. 2
  • 3. OSHAcampus.com INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION • Confinement itself may pose entrapment hazards, and • Confinement itself may pose entrapment hazards, and work in confined spaces may keep employees closer to work in confined spaces may keep employees closer to hazards, such as machinery components, than they hazards, such as machinery components, than they would be otherwise. would be otherwise. E L P M • For example, confinement, limited access, and restricted • For example, confinement, limited access, and restricted airflow can result in hazardous conditions that would airflow can result in hazardous conditions that would not normally arise in an open workplace. not normally arise in an open workplace. A S INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION • OSHA estimates that about 224,000 establishments in • OSHA estimates that about 224,000 establishments in general industry have permit spaces; 7.2 million general industry have permit spaces; 7.2 million production workers are employed at these production workers are employed at these establishments, and about 2.1 million workers enter establishments, and about 2.1 million workers enter permit spaces annually. permit spaces annually. • OSHA anticipates that compliance with the regulations • OSHA anticipates that compliance with the regulations will avoid 53 worker deaths, 4,900 lost-workday cases, will avoid 53 worker deaths, 4,900 lost-workday cases, and 5,700 non lost-time accidents annually. and 5,700 non lost-time accidents annually. 3
  • 4. OSHAcampus.com INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION • The term "confined" means to restrict, enclose, or • The term "confined" means to restrict, enclose, or restrain. restrain. • There are many places to which this description could • There are many places to which this description could be lent. be lent. • The room that you are sitting in now is a confined space • The room that you are sitting in now is a confined space according to this definition - Most places that we work according to this definition - Most places that we work in are enclosed and fit this limited definition. in are enclosed and fit this limited definition. • Most enclosed spaces do not pose any hazard because of • Most enclosed spaces do not pose any hazard because of their confinement however. their confinement however. E L P M A S INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION • There are other enclosed spaces that prove to be deadly • There are other enclosed spaces that prove to be deadly These are labeled "confined spaces" or "permit spaces", These are labeled "confined spaces" or "permit spaces", and are closely regulated and are closely regulated • What then is the distinction between a non-hazardous • What then is the distinction between a non-hazardous (and therefore non-regulated) enclosed space and a (and therefore non-regulated) enclosed space and a potentially deadly (and regulated) confined space? potentially deadly (and regulated) confined space? 4
  • 5. OSHAcampus.com How to Identify Confined Spaces How to Identify Confined Spaces • Limited Openings for Entry and Exit • Sufficient E L P M size/configuration to allow entry • Not Designed for Continuous Worker Occupancy A S Limited Openings for Entry/Exit Sufficient Limited Openings for Entry/Exit --Sufficient size/configuration to allow entry size/configuration to allow entry • Openings as small as 18 inches in diameter • Difficult to enter with SCBA or other life-saving equipment • Difficult to remove downed worker in folded up or bent over position • Exit from large openings may be difficult due to presence of ladders, hoists, etc 5
  • 6. OSHAcampus.com Not Designed for Continuous Not Designed for Continuous Worker Occupancy Worker Occupancy • Most confined spaces are not designed to enter and work in on a regular basis • Designed to store a product • Enclose materials or processes • Transport products or substances • Occasional worker entry for inspection, repair, cleanup, maintenance, etc. E L P M A S Dangerous Combinations Dangerous Combinations • Presence of all three confined space characteristics can complicate the situation • Rescue operations during emergencies • Worsened conditions due to work activities: – – – Welding and cutting, use of bonding agents Cleaning with solvents, use of other chemicals Use of gas-powered equipment 6
  • 7. OSHAcampus.com Typical Confined Spaces Typical Confined Spaces • Boiler, Degreaser, Furnace • Pipeline, Pit, Pumping • Station Reaction or Process Vessel, Mills Septic Tank, Sewage Digester Silo, Storage Tank, Barges Sewer, Utility Vault, Manhole Trenches, Shafts, Caissons (water-tight chambers) (water- E L P M • • • • A S Categorizing Work Space Categorizing Work Space * Space large enough to enter &; * Limited or Restricted entry or exit &; * Not designed for continuous worker occupancy. YES PermitRequired Confined Space NO Not a confined Space Confined Space Hazardous Atmosphere YES Or Engulfment Hazard Or Configuration Hazard Or Any other recognized serious hazard Non NO Permit Required Space 7
  • 8. OSHAcampus.com Categorizing Work Spaces Categorizing Work Spaces If the opening is large enough for the If the opening is large enough for the worker to fully enter a permit-required worker to fully enter a permit-required space, a permit is required even if the space, a permit is required even if the worker only performs a PARTIAL body entry worker only performs a PARTIAL body entry However, the permit would not be required However, the permit would not be required for a PARTIAL body entry where the opening for a PARTIAL body entry where the opening is not large enough for a full body entry is not large enough for a full body entry E L P M A S INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION The employer must evaluate the workplace to determine if confined spaces are present. A confined space must be assumed to be a permit-required space permit-required unless it can be documented to be a non permit-confined space permit-confined 8
  • 9. OSHAcampus.com Definitions Definitions 1. Abrasion - Damaging wear on rope or other gear caused by 1. Abrasion - Damaging wear on rope or other gear caused by rubbing against hard material or surfaces rubbing against hard material or surfaces 2. Anchors - Means of attaching the rope and all other 2. Anchors - Means of attaching the rope and all other portions of rescue equipment to something secure portions of rescue equipment to something secure 3. Ascender - A mechanical device or friction knot that is is 3. Ascender - A mechanical device or friction knot that is is used in ascending a fixed rope used in ascending a fixed rope 4. Attendant - means an individual stationed outside one or 4. Attendant - means an individual stationed outside one or more permit spaces who monitors the authorized entrants more permit spaces who monitors the authorized entrants and who performs all attendant's duties assigned in the and who performs all attendant's duties assigned in the employer's permit space program employer's permit space program E L P M A S Definitions Definitions 5. Authorized Entrant - means an employee who is authorized 5. Authorized Entrant - means an employee who is authorized by the employer to enter a permit space by the employer to enter a permit space 6. Belay - The securing of a person with a rope to keep that 6. Belay - The securing of a person with a rope to keep that person from falling a long enough distance to cause them person from falling a long enough distance to cause them harm harm 7. Blanking or Blinding - means the absolute closure of a 7. Blanking or Blinding the absolute closure of a pipe, line, or duct by the fastening of a solid plate that pipe, line, or duct by the fastening of a solid plate that completely covers the bore completely covers the bore 8. Bombproof - An anchor that will not fail 8. Bombproof - An anchor that will not fail 9
  • 10. OSHAcampus.com Definitions Definitions 9. Carabiners - Metal snap links used to connect elements of a 9. Carabiners - Metal snap links used to connect elements of a rescue system rescue system 10. Changeover - To transfer from an ascending mode to a 10. Changeover - To transfer from an ascending mode to a rappelling mode or the reverse rappelling mode or the reverse 11. Descender - A rappel device that creates friction by a rope 11. Descender - A rappel device that creates friction by a rope running through it and is attached to a rappeler to control running through it and is attached to a rappeler to control descent on a rope descent on a rope 12. Emergency - means any occurrence (including any failure 12. Emergency means any occurrence (including any failure of hazard control or monitoring equipment) or event internal of hazard control or monitoring equipment) or event internal or external to the permit space that could endanger entrants or external to the permit space that could endanger entrants E L P M A S Definitions Definitions 13. Engulfment - means the surrounding and effective capture of a 13. Engulfment - means the surrounding and effective capture of a person by a liquid or finely divided (flowable) solid substance that person by a liquid or finely divided (flowable) solid substance that can be inhaled to cause death by filling or plugging the can be inhaled to cause death by filling or plugging the respiratory system or that can exert enough force on the body to respiratory system or that can exert enough force on the body to cause death by strangulation, constriction, or crushing cause death by strangulation, constriction, or crushing 14. Entry - means the action by which a person passes through an 14. Entry - means the action by which a person passes through an opening into a permit-required confined space and includes work opening into a permit-required confined space and includes work activities in that space - Entry is considered to have occurred as activities in that space - Entry is considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrant's body breaks the plane of an soon as any part of the entrant's body breaks the plane of an opening into the space opening into the space 15. Entry Permit (Permit) - means the written or printed document 15. Entry Permit (Permit) - means the written or printed document that is provided by the employer to allow and control entry into a that is provided by the employer to allow and control entry into a permit space and that contains the information specified in the permit space and that contains the information specified in the regulations regulations 10
  • 11. OSHAcampus.com Definitions Definitions 16. Entry Supervisor - means the person (such as the employer, crew 16. Entry Supervisor - means the person (such as the employer, crew leader, or crew chief) responsible for determining if acceptable leader, or crew chief) responsible for determining if acceptable entry conditions are present at a permit space where entry is entry conditions are present at a permit space where entry is planned; authorizing entry and overseeing entry operations; and planned; authorizing entry and overseeing entry operations; and terminating entry as required terminating entry as required 17. Hazardous Atmosphere - means an atmosphere that may expose 17. Hazardous Atmosphere - means an atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue (that is, escape unaided from a permit space), ability to self-rescue (that is, escape unaided from a permit space), injury, or acute illness injury, or acute illness 18. Hot Work Permit - means the employer's written authorization 18. Hot Work Permit - means the employer's written authorization to perform operations (for example, riveting, welding, cutting, to perform operations (for example, riveting, welding, cutting, burning, and heating) capable of providing a source of ignition burning, and heating) capable of providing a source of ignition E L P M A S Definitions Definitions 19. Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) 19. Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) means any condition that poses an immediate or delayed means any condition that poses an immediate or delayed threat to life; or would cause irreversible adverse health threat to life; or would cause irreversible adverse health effects; or would interfere with an individual's ability to effects; or would interfere with an individual's ability to escape unaided from a permit space escape unaided from a permit space 20. Inerting - means the displacement of the atmosphere 20. Inerting - means the displacement of the atmosphere in a permit space by a noncombustible gas (such as in a permit space by a noncombustible gas (such as nitrogen) to such an extent that the resulting atmosphere nitrogen) to such an extent that the resulting atmosphere is noncombustible is noncombustible 21. Isolation - means the process by which a permit space 21. Isolation - means the process by which a permit space is removed from service and completely protected is removed from service and completely protected against the release of energy and material into the space against the release of energy and material into the space 11
  • 12. OSHAcampus.com Definitions Definitions 22. Kernmantle - a rope design consisting of two elements, 22. Kernmantle - a rope design consisting of two elements, an inner core supporting the major load portion and an an inner core supporting the major load portion and an outer sheath (mantle) that protects the core and bears a outer sheath (mantle) that protects the core and bears a minor portion of the load minor portion of the load 23. Line Breaking - means the intentional opening of a 23. Line Breaking - means the intentional opening of a pipe, line, or duct that is or has been carrying pipe, line, or duct that is or has been carrying flammable, corrosive, or toxic material, an inert gas, or flammable, corrosive, or toxic material, an inert gas, or any fluid at a volume, pressure, or temperature capable any fluid at a volume, pressure, or temperature capable of causing injury of causing injury 24. Mechanical Advantage - the relationship of how much 24. Mechanical Advantage the relationship of how much load can be moved to the amount of force it takes to load can be moved to the amount of force it takes to move it move it E L P M A S Definitions Definitions 25. Oxygen Deficient Atmosphere - means an atmosphere 25. Oxygen Deficient Atmosphere - means an atmosphere containing less than 19.5 percent oxygen by volume containing less than 19.5 percent oxygen by volume 26. Oxygen Enriched Atmosphere - means an atmosphere 26. Oxygen Enriched Atmosphere - means an atmosphere containing more than 23.5 percent oxygen by volume containing more than 23.5 percent oxygen by volume 27. Pulley - a device with a free-turning, grooved metal 27. Pulley - a device with a free-turning, grooved metal wheel (sheave) used to reduce rope friction wheel (sheave) used to reduce rope friction 28. Rappelling - controlled descent of a rope using the 28. Rappelling - controlled descent of a rope using the friction of the rope against one’s body or through a friction of the rope against one’s body or through a descender descender 12
  • 13. OSHAcampus.com Definitions Definitions 29. Rescue Service - means the personnel designated to 29. Rescue Service - means the personnel designated to rescue employees from permit spaces rescue employees from permit spaces 30. Retrieval System - means the equipment (including a 30. Retrieval System - means the equipment (including a retrieval line, chest or full-body harness, wristlets, if retrieval line, chest or full-body harness, wristlets, if appropriate, and a lifting device or anchor) used for non appropriate, and a lifting device or anchor) used for non entry rescue of persons from permit spaces entry rescue of persons from permit spaces 31. Rope Rescue - the performing of a rescue from a 31. Rope Rescue - the performing of a rescue from a confined space where the use of ropes and related confined space where the use of ropes and related equipment is necessary equipment is necessary 32. Safety Factor - the ratio between the maximum load 32. Safety Factor - the ratio between the maximum load expected on a rope and the rope’s breaking strength expected on a rope and the rope’s breaking strength the larger the ratio, the greater the safety factor the larger the ratio, the greater the safety factor E L P M A S Definitions Definitions 33. Tensile Strength - a measurement of the greatest 33. Tensile Strength - a measurement of the greatest lengthwise stress that a rope or a piece of equipment can lengthwise stress that a rope or a piece of equipment can resist without failure resist without failure 34. Testing - means the process by which the hazards that 34. Testing - means the process by which the hazards that may confront entrants of a permit space are identified may confront entrants of a permit space are identified and evaluated and evaluated 13
  • 14. OSHAcampus.com Entry Permit Systems Entry Permit Systems • To ensure the safety of the individual entering the confined space the permit system has been devised • In reality, the permit is a mandatory check-list of the precautionary measures check-list which need to be done prior to entry • It is mandatory that an employer have a functional permit program in place if they have identified any permit-required permit-required confined spaces on their premises E L P M A S Entry Permit Systems Entry Permit Systems • Before entry is authorized, the employer shall • Before entry is authorized, the employer shall document that: document that: 1. Measures have been implemented to 1. Measures have been implemented to prevent unauthorized entry, prevent unauthorized entry, 2. They have identified and evaluated 2. They have identified and evaluated the hazards before employee entry, and the hazards before employee entry, and 3. They have developed and implemented 3. They have developed and implemented the means, procedures, and practices the means, procedures, and practices necessary for safe permit space entry necessary for safe permit space entry operations operations 14
  • 15. OSHAcampus.com Entry Permit Systems Entry Permit Systems • Written permit signed by entry supervisor • Verifies pre-entry precautions have been taken and the space is safe to enter • Posted at entry to confined space • Specifies apparent hazards and corrective actions taken prior to entry • Requires termination of permit when task is completed or when new conditions exist E L P M A S Entry Permit Requirements Entry Permit Requirements • The permit space to be entered • Purpose of entry • The date and duration of entry permit • Authorized entrants and attendants listed by name supervisors • Entry Supervisor and their signed authorization to enter the space • The hazards of the permit space to be entered • Protective measures to be taken such as Ventilation, Isolation, Flushing, Lockout/Tagout &, Purging 15
  • 16. OSHAcampus.com Entry Permit Requirements Entry Permit Requirements • The acceptable entry conditions • The results of initial and periodic tests performed with the names or initials of the testers and when the tests were performed • The rescue and emergency services that can be summoned and how this will be accomplished • The communication procedures used by authorized entrants and attendants to maintain contact during entry • Equipment, such as PPE, monitoring equipment, communications equipment, alarm systems, and rescue equipment to be provided E L P M A S Entry Permit Requirements Entry Permit Requirements • Any other information necessary for the circumstances of a particular confined space to ensure employee safety • Any additional permits (hot work) that have been issued to authorize work in the permit space 16
  • 17. OSHAcampus.com Entry Permit Requirements Entry Permit Requirements • Permits are not required for rescue • The permit must be signed by the individual authorizing entry - this identifies the party responsible should any problem arise during entry • Permits have a definite duration of effect and are cancelled when the entry is over • A permit is also cancelled when an emergency develops and/or an evacuation of the space is necessary E L P M A S Entry Permit Requirements Entry Permit Requirements • The entry the permit is kept for one year • Employers must perform a review of the permit-required confined space program within one year after each entry or perform a single annual review covering all entries during a 12month period • If the employer decides that its employees will enter permit required confined spaces, the employer must develop and implement a written permit space program that complies with the regulations 17
  • 18. OSHAcampus.com Outside Contractors Must show documentation of training Understand Company procedures Have an information exchange with a Company representative E L P M A S Training and Education Training and Education • Provided to all workers who must enter confined spaces • Provided to all attendants and rescue team members • Completed prior to initial work assignment • Retraining is required if: Job duties change Change in permit-space program permitNew hazards are present Job performance indicates deficiencies 18
  • 19. OSHAcampus.com Hazards of Confined Spaces Hazards of Confined Spaces • Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres • Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres • Flammable Atmospheres • Toxic Atmospheres • Temperature Extremes • Engulfment Hazards • Noise, Slick/Wet Surfaces, Falling Objects E L P M A S Confined Space Entry - Hazards O2 Both animal and plant life require oxygen to live. One of the primary hazards of entering confined spaces is oxygen deficiency. When oxygen is present in concentrations less than 19.5% the atmosphere is said to be oxygen deficient. O2 19
  • 20. OSHAcampus.com Confined Space Entry - Hazards Oxygen deficiency can be caused by several processes: Consumption: oxygen is used up by the person who is in the confined space and turned into carbon dioxide. Displacement: denser materials push the oxygen out of the occupied space. Reaction: oxygen is reacted with other materials to make other compounds. E L P M A S Confined Space Entry - Hazards CO2 After oxygen is delivered to body organs and used by organ cells, it reacts with carbon to make carbon dioxide. Red blood cells carrying carbon dioxide turn blue. Carbon dioxide is carried back to the lungs by the red blood cells and exhaled into the surrounding atmosphere. O2 The human body requires oxygen to carry out cellular metabolism. Oxygen is brought in through the lungs and transported to cells of body organs by the red blood cells. When blood is rich in oxygen it turns red. 20
  • 21. OSHAcampus.com Confined Space Entry - Hazards Given a fixed amount of oxygen as you would have in a confined space, respiration of oxygen causes carbon dioxide to increase. When oxygen decreases to less than 19.5%. the atmosphere is said to be oxygen deficient, putting occupants of the confined space at risk of losing consciousness and death. O2 E L P M CO2 A S Confined Space Entry - Hazards NOx CO2 H20 O2 CO fuel Processes which operate by the principle of combustion use up oxygen much faster than the human respiration. Products of combustion vary with the fuel that is present and the temperature of the combustion reaction. Welding, burning natural gas, propane, gasoline, and diesel engines are examples of combustion processes. 21
  • 22. OSHAcampus.com Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres 19.5% Minimum acceptable oxygen level 15 - 19% Decreased ability to work strenuously, Impaired coordination, Early symptoms 12-14% 12- Respiration increases, Poor judgment 10-12% 10- Respiration increases, Lips blue 8-10% Mental failure, Fainting, Nausea Unconsciousness, Vomiting 6-8% 8 minutes - fatal, 6 minutes - 50% fatal 4-5 minutes - possible recovery 4-6% Coma in 40 seconds, Death E L P M A S Confined Space Entry - Hazards Oxygen can also be present in concentrations that are too high. Oxygen in concentrations greater than 23.5% is too oxygen rich and can cause combustible materials to ignite very quickly. 22
  • 23. OSHAcampus.com Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres • Never use pure oxygen to ventilate E L P M • Never store or place compressed tanks in a confined space A S Flammable Atmospheres Flammable Atmospheres • 3 Critical Factors: – – – Oxygen content in the air. Presence of a flammable gas, or vapor Presence of dust (visibility of 5’ or less) • Proper air/gas mixture can lead to explosion! • Typical Ignition Sources: – – – Sparking or electric tool Welding/cutting operations Smoking 23
  • 24. OSHAcampus.com Flammables Fire Triangle Heat Fuel E L P M Oxygen A S Flammables Flammability Limits UEL Flammable Range Temp LEL Concentration 24
  • 25. Flammable Atmospheres Flammable Atmospheres • In confined spaces the fuel is usually already in its vapor form, so the spread and intensity of a fire increases rapidly • Many of the flammable gases that can be found in permit spaces are vapors from stored flammable liquids or products of natural decay E L P M A S Flammable Atmospheres Flammable Atmospheres • Hydrogen sulfide is probably the most common of all • Hydrogen sulfide is probably the most common of all confined space gases - It is the product of the natural confined space gases - It is the product of the natural decay of organic matter that contains sulfur decay of organic matter that contains sulfur • Methane, which is the main component in natural gas, • Methane, which is the main component in natural gas, is also generated from the rotting of organic matter is also generated from the rotting of organic matter • It is very common to find both hydrogen sulfide and • It is very common to find both hydrogen sulfide and methane in sewer manholes and pits methane in sewer manholes and pits • Carbon monoxide is the product of incomplete burning, • Carbon monoxide is the product of incomplete burning, and can often be found in industrial permit spaces and can often be found in industrial permit spaces • Other gases commonly found in permit spaces include • Other gases commonly found in permit spaces include solvent vapors, gasoline vapors, acetylene, toluene, and solvent vapors, gasoline vapors, acetylene, toluene, and the vapors of carbon disulfide the vapors of carbon disulfide 25
  • 26. OSHAcampus.com Flammable Atmospheres Flammable Atmospheres • The elimination of ignition sources is also vital • The elimination of ignition sources is also vital when dealing with flammable atmospheres. when dealing with flammable atmospheres. • "Hot work" describes tasks within the permit • "Hot work" describes tasks within the permit space in which the work could provide a source space in which the work could provide a source of ignition - Common forms of hot work of ignition - Common forms of hot work include welding, cutting, grinding, riveting, include welding, cutting, grinding, riveting, drilling, or burning drilling, or burning • Coal, grain, and other combustible dusts also • Coal, grain, and other combustible dusts also pose a problem - The amount of dust that is a pose a problem - The amount of dust that is a hazard is approximated as a condition in which hazard is approximated as a condition in which the dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet the dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 feet E L P M A S Toxic Atmospheres Toxic Atmospheres • The regulations define Toxic Atmospheres as concentrations in the air of any substance above the PEL (Permissible Exposure Limit) or any condition that is IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health) 26
  • 27. OSHAcampus.com Toxic Atmospheres Toxic Atmospheres • One of the risks to weigh is the acute dose risk - After all, the entrant will probably not be in the permit space for very long • The term acute means something that occurs in a short length of time - Carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrogen cyanide are examples of acute exposure toxins E L P M A S Toxic Atmospheres Toxic Atmospheres • There are many different types of toxic materials which can be found in confined spaces • Generally, however, they can be classified into two main groups: asphyxiants and irritants • Asphyxiants, like carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide, render the body incapable of utilizing oxygen - The body literally suffocates • Irritants like chlorine gas pose mainly respiratory and skin hazards -They produce injury and death by causing the lungs to fill with fluid and the victim essentially drowns 27
  • 28. OSHAcampus.com Toxic Atmospheres Manholes often remain covered for long periods of time. Naturally occurring toxins, such as hydrogen sulfide can accumulate inside of manholes. H2S Manholes may also accumulate highly flammable gasses such as methane and ethane. Unlike the gas we receive at home, we cannot detect some of these gases with our sense of smell. E L P M CH4 A S Toxic Atmospheres Toxic and flammable materials are sometimes illegally put into sanitary and storm sewers. Leaking tanks or spills may migrate under ground causing seepage into manholes. ?? ?? Material can leach through soil from many miles away. ?? ?? ?? 28
  • 29. OSHAcampus.com Hydrogen Sulfide Hydrogen Sulfide • Decomposition of materials • Rotten egg odor at low concentrations • Possibly NO WARNING at high concentrations PPM Effect Time 10 ppm 50 - 100 200 - 300 500 -700 >1000 Permissible Exposure Level Mild Irritation - eyes, throat Significant Irritation Unconsciousness, Death Unconsciousness, Death 8 Hours 1 Hour 1 Hour 1/2 Hour Minutes E L P M A S Carbon Monoxide Carbon Monoxide • Odorless, Colorless Gas • Combustion By-Product • Quickly collapse at high concentrations PPM 50 200 600 1000-2000 10001000-2000 10001000-2000 10002000-2500 2000- Effect Time Permissible Exposure Level Slight headache, discomfort Headache, discomfort Confusion, nausea, headache Tendency to stagger Slight heart palpitation Unconsciousness 8 Hours 3 Hours 1 Hour 2 Hours 1 1/2 Hours 30 Min. 30 Min. 29
  • 30. Toxic Gas Exercise Toxic Gas Exercise Class Handout E L P M A S Toxic Atmospheres Toxic Atmospheres Acceptable Atmospheric Conditions For Entry Oxygen Concentration: 19.5% - 23.5% Oxygen Concentration: 19.5% - 23.5% Flammable Gas Concentration: 0- 10% LEL on Flammable Gas Concentration: 0- 10% LEL on CGI CGI Flammable Dust Concentration: Vision greater Flammable Dust Concentration: Vision greater than 5 feet than 5 feet Toxicity: Contaminant concentration less than Toxicity: Contaminant concentration less than PEL PEL 30
  • 31. Engulfment Engulfment • Engulfment means the surrounding and effective capture of a person by a liquid or finely divided (flowable) solid substance • This material is such that it can be aspirated (inhaled) and cause death by filling or plugging the respiratory system or can exert enough force to cause death by strangulation, constriction, or crushing of the body E L P M A S Engulfment Engulfment • Grain, saw dust, sand, coal, and many other finely divided substances have engulfed and killed workers • Drowning in a liquid such as water is also considered engulfment 31
  • 32. Other Hazards Other Hazards • Size limitation of entry and exit openings make • Size limitation of entry and exit openings make movement of personnel and equipment difficult movement of personnel and equipment difficult and time consuming and time consuming • Poor lighting in the space is often a problem • Poor lighting in the space is often a problem Any lighting device taken into a permit space Any lighting device taken into a permit space must be explosion-proof if flammables are must be explosion-proof if flammables are present present • Falling Objects - topside openings expose Falling Objects - topside openings expose workers inside confined space to falling objects workers inside confined space to falling objects E L P M A S Temperature Extremes Temperature Extremes • Extremely hot or cold temperatures • Steam cleaning of confined spaces • Humidity factors – 80-100% humidity • Extremely cold liquids – Liquid nitrogen • Work processes inside the confined space can increase temperature extremes – welding, cutting, etc. • Personal protective equipment – affects mobility, restricts vision and communication causes overheating of body 32
  • 33. Other Hazards Other Hazards • Excessive noise poses significant safety • Excessive noise poses significant safety problems in confined spaces - hearing loss, problems in confined spaces - hearing loss, communication problems and loss of communication problems and loss of concentration concentration • Slippery surfaces are dangerous especially • Slippery surfaces are dangerous especially when on ladders and walkways when on ladders and walkways • An additional problem in sewer systems is the • An additional problem in sewer systems is the potential for flash flood - It does not take a lot potential for flash flood - It does not take a lot of rain to make a raging torrent in a sewer of rain to make a raging torrent in a sewer E L P M A S Other Hazards Trenches, ravines and other excavations may also be considered confined spaces, if there is a potential for accumulation of toxic gases, engulfment and/or the depletion of oxygen. ? 33
  • 34. Testing The Atmosphere Testing The Atmosphere • Confined space monitoring has been going on for a long time • Miners would use canaries in cages lowered into mine shafts to determine the presence of toxic gases - If the bird came up alive, it was assumed to be safe • Frequently a match, cigarette, or flare was thrown into the space - If no fire or explosion resulted the space was deemed safe from a fire point of view E L P M A S Testing The Atmosphere Testing The Atmosphere • There are three main atmospheric hazards that cause concern - Namely, oxygen depletion, flammability, and toxicity • Monitoring practices and instruments should be geared toward these three central hazards 34
  • 35. Testing The Atmosphere Testing The Atmosphere • Unfortunately there is no universal monitor which tests for all possible gases - Monitors are very specific • In most spaces we should already have an idea of the hazardous gases that we would expect to find • If you are in an industrial setting the contents of a vessel should be known Monitors specific to the gases in that space should be used E L P M A S Atmosphere Testing Shall Be Performed: Prior to every entry when the space is vacant; After a 10 minute ventilation period (if ventilation is necessary); At least hourly for permit-required confined spaces; More frequently, if conditions or suspicions warrant. 35
  • 36. Always test the air at various levels to be sure that the entire space is safe. Good Air E L P M Good air near the opening does NOT mean there is good air at the bottom! Poor Air Deadly Air A S Testing The Atmosphere Testing The Atmosphere • Characteristics of a good monitoring device should include: 1. Ease of operation. 2. Readable in both light and dark conditions. 3. Easily calibrated. 4. Equipped with a peak-hold feature to recorded the highest concentration encountered. 5. Equipped with audible and visual alarms for a preset concentration. 36
  • 37. Testing The Atmosphere Testing The Atmosphere • Characteristics of a good monitoring device should include: 6. Explosion-proof for use in flammable atmospheres. 7. Equipped with fully charged batteries at all times. 8. Easily protected against contamination. 9. Equipped with a remote probe for non-entry testing. 10. Reliable, rugged, and dependable. E L P M A S Inherent Safety Inherent Safety Explosion-proof -ignition source enclosed and exit Explosion-proof -ignition source enclosed and exit gases are cooled gases are cooled Intrinsically safe - reduces the potential for arcing Intrinsically safe - reduces the potential for arcing among components or has a “cool” arc among components or has a “cool” arc Purged - an inert gas buffers the arc or flame Purged - an inert gas buffers the arc or flame device from the flammable atmosphere device from the flammable atmosphere 37
  • 38. Reliable and Useful Results Reliable and Useful Results Response time Sensitivity Selectivity Accuracy Precision E L P M A S Response Time Response Time Is the length of time the monitor takes from when it "senses" a contaminant until it generates data For direct-reading instruments, response direct-reading times may range from a few seconds to several minutes 38
  • 39. Sensitivity Sensitivity Defined as the ability of an instrument to accurately measure changes in concentration Sensitive instruments can detect small changes in concentration It is important to use an instrument with an operating range that will measure the ambient concentrations on-site on-site E L P M A S Selectivity Selectivity The ability of an instrument to detect and measure a specific chemical or group of similar chemicals Interferences from other chemicals can affect the accuracy of the instrument reading by producing a similar response 39
  • 40. Accuracy Accuracy The relationship between a true value (i.e., the actual concentration of a contaminant) and the instrument reading. E L P M A S Precision Precision A statistical measurement of an instrument's ability to reproduce a reading When an instrument does not receive routine maintenance the precision of the readings may change (become more random) this can affect the amount of error in the data collected 40
  • 41. Monitoring Equipment Calibration Process of adjusting the instrument read-out so that it corresponds to the actual concentration Involves checking the instrument with a known concentration of a gas or vapor to see that the instrument gives the proper response Adjust the instrument read-out so that it corresponds to the actual concentration Follow manufacturer’s directions for calibration to ensure accurate field data E L P M A S Oxygen Availability Monitor Oxygen Availability Monitor These monitors are used to evaluate the These monitors are used to evaluate the atmosphere for oxygen content atmosphere for oxygen content Normal air is 20.8% Oxygen Normal air is 20.8% Oxygen Oxygen deficient atmosphere is 19.5% Oxygen deficient atmosphere is 19.5% Oxygen deficient atmospheres occur when it Oxygen deficient atmospheres occur when it is replaced by another chemical, consumed is replaced by another chemical, consumed in combustion or the area is unventilated in combustion or the area is unventilated > 23.5% oxygen in air, increased risk of > 23.5% oxygen in air, increased risk of combustion (possible oxidizer present) combustion (possible oxidizer present) 41
  • 42. CARBON DIOXIDE MONITOR CARBON DIOXIDE MONITOR E L P M A S Combustible Gas Indicators – Measure concentration of flammable vapor or gas in air – Read out in % of LEL – Read out is relative to the calibration gas (usually methane or pentane) – May not show actual % of LEL – For use only in normal oxygen atmospheres – Not for use in oxygen-enriched atmosphere 42
  • 43. 4-GAS MONITOR 4-GAS MONITOR E L P M A S MULTI GAS MONITOR MULTI GAS MONITOR 43
  • 44. METER READING % LEL Relative Response CGI Meter methane 100% 80% pentane E L P M 60% 40% xylene 20% 0% 0% 50% 100% ACTUAL % LEL A S % LEL Policy The employer will issue work permits when the % LEL is from 0-10% LEL When the LEL exceeds 10%, special approval is required in order for a work permit to be issued For all confined space entry permits, a 0% LEL is required NOTE: Most employers including government entities have a 0% LEL policy for all operations including confined space entry 44
  • 45. % LEL Action Level % LEL Action Level Flam m able R ange LEL 0% 5% M ETH AN E 100% E L P M 5% LEL 0% 0% UEL 15% 10% A ction Level A S Monitoring Equipment Toxic Atmosphere Monitors Colorimetric Indicator Tubes – Glass tube with indicating chemical – Chemical specific, but may be interference – Contaminated air pumped in at predetermined rate – Poor accuracy and precision – Affected by temperature and humidity – Interpretations vary – Time consuming - 1 to 30 minutes per tube 45
  • 46. Monitoring Equipment Toxic Atmosphere Monitors Colorimetric Indicator Tubes E L P M A S DRAGER HAND PUMP KIT DRAGER HAND PUMP KIT 46
  • 47. MSA QUICK DRAW PUMP MSA QUICK DRAW PUMP E L P M A S DRAGER CHIP MEASUREMENT CHEMICAL DRAGER CHIP MEASUREMENT CHEMICAL ANALYZER ANALYZER 47
  • 48. Toxic Atmosphere Monitors Toxic Atmosphere Monitors Photoionization detector (P.I.D.) - UV ionization of outer electron- ranges electronfrom 8.3 to 11.8 ev - calibrated to one chemical - response to other chemicals may vary (Styrene = 8.47, Acetone = 9.69, Isopropyl alcohol = 10.15) E L P M A S Toxic Atmosphere Monitors Toxic Atmosphere Monitors Photoionization Detector (P.I.D.) Photoionization Detector (P.I.D.) Features Features Limitations Limitations •Nonspecific gas and vapor detection for •Nonspecific gas and vapor detection for organics and some organics and some inorganics inorganics •Sensitivity is related to the •Sensitivity is related to the ionization potential of ionization potential of compound compound •Portable with remote sensing •Portable with remote sensing capabilities capabilities • Response time of 90% in less • Response time of 90% in less than 3 seconds than 3 seconds •More sensitive to aromatic and •More sensitive to aromatic and unsaturated compounds than unsaturated compounds than the Flame Ionization detector the Flame Ionization detector •Does not monitor for •Does not monitor for specific gases or vapors specific gases or vapors •Cannot detect Hydrogen •Cannot detect Hydrogen Cyanide or methane Cyanide or methane •Cannot detect some •Cannot detect some chlorinated organics chlorinated organics •High humidity and •High humidity and precipitate will negatively precipitate will negatively affect meter response affect meter response •Photoionization Detectors •Photoionization Detectors are calibrated to a single are calibrated to a single chemical chemical 48
  • 49. PHOTO IONIZATION DETECTOR (PID) PHOTO IONIZATION DETECTOR (PID) E L P M A S Toxic Atmosphere Monitors Toxic Atmosphere Monitors Aerosol monitors - these instruments determine the total amount of particulates but not the type of particulate They measure dust, mist, fume, smoke, fog and spray 49
  • 50. Duties of the Entry Supervisor E L P M A S Duties of the Entry Supervisor Know the hazards of the space Routes of entry for chemicals Signs and symptoms of exposure The consequences of exposure 50
  • 51. Duties of the Entry Supervisor Verify all appropriate check-offs have been made on the confined space entry permit Verify all tests specified on the confined space procedure have been conducted Ensure that all confined space entry procedure conditions have been met prior to entry and authorization of the entry operation E L P M A S Duties of the Entry Supervisor Find the specific confined space entry procedure in the Entry Procedure Manual and get a copy of the Confined Space Entry Permit Evaluate the needs Follow the procedures to isolate the space 51
  • 52. Duties of the Entry Supervisor Have the necessary entry support equipment brought to and setup at the confined space (all necessary items will be marked on the entry permit) Brief all confined space entrants and attendants on the hazards associated with the confined space (each entrant and on-duty attendant will sign the entry permit) E L P M A S Duties of the Entry Supervisor Verification that the means of summoning rescue services are operable Removal of unauthorized personnel who enter or attempt to enter the confined space during entry operations Verify the space is ready to be placed back into service 52
  • 53. Duties of the Entry Supervisor Note any modifications or procedure changes for subsequent entries if warranted Document any problems encountered, during the debriefing, with the entry on the entry permit E L P M A S Duties of the Entry Supervisor Conduct a post entry de-briefing with the entrants and attendants to discuss any problems which may have occurred during the entry Prepare the confined space to be put back into service 53
  • 54. Duties of Attendants E L P M A S Duties of Attendants Knowledge of the hazards Chemical exposure pathways Signs and symptoms of exposure Consequences of exposure NEVER leaves the space unattended. 54
  • 55. Duties of Attendants Evacuate the space immediately if any of the following conditions become evident: Detection of a prohibited condition Detection of behavioral effects of hazard exposure in authorized entrants Detection of a situation outside the space that could endanger the authorized entrants E L P M A S Duties of Attendants Evacuate the space immediately if any of the following conditions become evident: If the attendant cannot effectively and safely perform all of his/her required duties If communication between the entrant and attendant is jeopardized in anyway 55
  • 56. Duties of Attendants Summoning rescue and other emergency services if needed Warn unauthorized persons that they must stay away from the permit space Advise unauthorized persons to exit the space immediately if they have entered E L P M A S Duties of Attendants Perform non-entry rescue as specified by Company Name program Performing no duties that may interfere with attendant's primary duty to monitor and protect the authorized entrants Wear an ORANGE safety vest or similar visible notification at all times while performing attendant duties 56
  • 57. Duties of Authorized Entrants E L P M A S Duties of Authorized Entrant Demonstrate competencies in the use of the following: monitoring equipment ventilating equipment communications equipment lighting equipment barriers and shields ladders rescue and emergency equipment 57
  • 58. Duties of Authorized Entrants Entrant needs to alert the attendant whenever: The entrant recognizes any warning sign or symptom of exposure A dangerous situation develops The entrant detects a prohibited condition E L P M A S Preparation For Entry Preparation For Entry Ventilation Energy Isolation Barricades Tools Personnel 58
  • 59. Unfavorable Natural Ventilation Unfavorable Natural Ventilation • Lack of air movement in and out of the space can create an atmosphere much different than the outside atmosphere • Deadly gases can be trapped inside • Organic materials can decompose • May not be enough oxygen due to presence of other gases or chemical reactions such as rusting E L P M A S Ventilation Ventilation • First option to correct problems • Must be aware of hazards you are trying to correct in the confined space • Air intake in a safe location to draw fresh air only • Continuous ventilation whenever possible • Retest the confined space before entry 59
  • 60. Ventilation Fresh Air If concentrations of materials are found to be at harmful levels, the confined space must be ventilated to remove them before entry. Fresh outside Fresh outside air is blown into air is blown into the space to dilute the space to dilute and remove and remove contaminants, and contaminants, and ?? supply oxygen. supply oxygen. ?? E L P M O2 ?? O2 O2 ?? O2 A S Ventilation Should the concentration Should the concentration of contaminants remain of contaminants remain at harmful levels, at harmful levels, respirators may have to respirators may have to be worn to assure a safe be worn to assure a safe air supply. air supply. Fresh Air ?? ?? O2 ?? O2 ?? O2 O2 60
  • 61. Ventilation Ventilation Ventilation is driven by one of two things - air Ventilation is driven by one of two things - air pressure or differences in vapor density pressure or differences in vapor density The greater the difference in vapor density the The greater the difference in vapor density the faster natural ventilation will take place faster natural ventilation will take place Naturally, the reverse flow would occur if the Naturally, the reverse flow would occur if the atmosphere in the container had a vapor atmosphere in the container had a vapor density greater than one density greater than one Many of the gases that need to be ventilated Many of the gases that need to be ventilated are either in a fairly low concentration or have are either in a fairly low concentration or have vapor densities fairly close to 1 - This means vapor densities fairly close to 1 - This means that natural ventilation is not very effective that natural ventilation is not very effective E L P M A S Ventilation Ventilation Therefore, forced ventilation needs to be employed Most commonly forced ventilation involves a fan, air compressor, or other machine There are two types of forced ventilation positive pressure ventilation and negative pressure ventilation 61
  • 62. Ventilation Ventilation When a space is ventilated by positive pressure, air is blown into the space, thus pressurizing it Negative pressure ventilation is literally the reverse of positive pressure ventilation in that the fan is turned around and the contaminated atmosphere is drawn out of the container E L P M A S Ventilation Ventilation Positive pressure is the method commonly used especially if the air contains flammables or toxic chemicals which are drawn into the fan with negative pressure ventilation Beware of gas pockets in the confined space structure and the possibility of a build-back of the gas once it is ventilated build-back 62
  • 63. Ventilation Precautions Ventilation Precautions 1. Flowing vapors, like flowing liquid can produce static 1. Flowing vapors, like flowing liquid can produce static electricity - Be sure that the vessel is grounded prior to electricity - Be sure that the vessel is grounded prior to ventilating ventilating 2. If a flammable gas concentration within a space is 2. If a flammable gas concentration within a space is above the UEL, ventilating will bring the concentration above the UEL, ventilating will bring the concentration down through the flammable/explosive range - Positive down through the flammable/explosive range - Positive pressure ventilation should be used in that situation pressure ventilation should be used in that situation 3. Intakes for positive pressure fans need to be 3. Intakes for positive pressure fans need to be removed from any source of vehicle exhaust or other removed from any source of vehicle exhaust or other harmful gas - Assure that only fresh air is being harmful gas - Assure that only fresh air is being ventilated into the space ventilated into the space 4. Try not to allow the ductwork for a fan to obstruct 4. Try not to allow the ductwork for a fan to obstruct safe entry and exit from the space safe entry and exit from the space E L P M A S Ventilation Precautions Ventilation Precautions 5. When using a ducted fan place the ductwork near 5. When using a ducted fan place the ductwork near the lowest level of the space (assuming that the the lowest level of the space (assuming that the exhaust is going out the top). Ventilation efficiency exhaust is going out the top). Ventilation efficiency will be greatly enhanced will be greatly enhanced 6. Noise from the fan can cause communication 6. Noise from the fan can cause communication problems - Ducting the fan will allow it to be placed problems - Ducting the fan will allow it to be placed a greater distance from the space entrance a greater distance from the space entrance 7. Never use oxygen to ventilate or purge a space 7. Never use oxygen to ventilate or purge a space 63
  • 64. Isolation of Energy Hazards Isolation of Energy Hazards • Locking and tagging out electrical sources • Blanking and bleeding pneumatic and hydraulic lines • Disconnecting mechanical drives and shafts • Securing mechanical parts • Blanking sewer and water flow • Locking and tagging out shutoff valves E L P M A S Barricades Barricades • Barricades around the confined space site need to be • • • • placed so that unsuspecting people do not wander into the site Advanced notice to employees and/or the public will save congestion and confusion once the barricades go up Cones, flashing lights, warning tape, or ropes need to be erected to isolate the site If the entry is within a building, locked and marked doors will prohibit access The area around the point of entry should be unobstructed and should be a minimum of three feet square 64
  • 65. Personnel Personnel • Finally, the personnel must be capable of doing the work • Physical health and stamina, as well as familiarity with PPE and emergency procedures, should be evaluated prior to entry • A brief pre-entry meeting reviewing the objectives of the entry, the confined space layout, possible entry problems, and emergency and rescue procedures, is highly recommended E L P M A S Entry & Work Entry & Work • Entry means the act by which a person passes through an opening into a permit-required confined space, and includes ensuing work activities in that space • The entrant is considered to have entered as soon as any part of the entrant's body breaks the plane of an opening into the space 65
  • 66. Entry & Work A means must be provided for both safe normal entry or exit , and emergency extrication. Tripods with hoist, lifeline, and full body harness are often used for emergency extrication. Ladders may be used for ordinary entry and exit. A S E L P M Entry & Work Barriers to prevent passers-by and the curious from falling into the opening must be put in place. Holes and openings must be closed or guarded when not attended. 66
  • 67. Entry & Work Place warning signs where pedestrians can see them. E L P M CAUTION Opening in Ground Keep Out ! A S Signs must state the hazard and the required action. Entry & Work Entrants must constantly monitor the confined space for toxic gases, oxygen, and combustible gases. H2S Entrants will be issued a personal monitor to wear O2 for this CO purpose. CH4 Entrants must leave the Entrants must leave the confined space when the confined space when the monitor alarm is activated. monitor alarm is activated. It is the attendant’s It is the attendant’s responsibility to see that responsibility to see that HCN the entrant leaves the the entrant leaves the space during an alarm. space during an alarm. CO2 67
  • 68. Entry & Work Should conditions develop Should conditions develop which require extrication, which require extrication, and the entrant cannot and the entrant cannot get out of the confined get out of the confined space on their own, space on their own, the attendant must the attendant must call for emergency call for emergency assistance at once! assistance at once! E L P M A S Entry & Work Entry & Work When hot work is required in a confined space a special When hot work is required in a confined space a special hot work permit is required hot work permit is required When hot work is required on a tank wall in which a When hot work is required on a tank wall in which a lining or coating is present the lining or coating needs lining or coating is present the lining or coating needs to be stripped away for a distance of at least four inches to be stripped away for a distance of at least four inches in all directions of the hot work in all directions of the hot work Cylinders, like acetylene and oxygen, which are Cylinders, like acetylene and oxygen, which are required for welding and other hot work are not required for welding and other hot work are not allowed into the confined space allowed into the confined space Remember, hot work is not allowed in atmospheres Remember, hot work is not allowed in atmospheres that contain flammable gases in concentrations above that contain flammable gases in concentrations above 10% of the LEL or oxygen concentrations greater than 10% of the LEL or oxygen concentrations greater than 23.5% 23.5% 68
  • 69. Exit From Confined Space Exit From Confined Space There are a number of considerations that need There are a number of considerations that need to be addressed when leaving a confined space to be addressed when leaving a confined space It is very important that the entrant inform the It is very important that the entrant inform the attendant when exiting from the space. The attendant when exiting from the space. The attendant then can check the individual off of attendant then can check the individual off of the list of entrants known to be within the the list of entrants known to be within the space - This procedure provides an space - This procedure provides an accountability for all personnel accountability for all personnel E L P M A S Exit From Confined Space Exit From Confined Space It's very important to remove anything that It's very important to remove anything that was brought into the space was brought into the space Tools left in the space can cause great damage Tools left in the space can cause great damage to machinery and can pose a projectile hazard. to machinery and can pose a projectile hazard. Lost tools are also expensive to replace Lost tools are also expensive to replace If a large number of tools are used within the If a large number of tools are used within the space, a check-list produced as the tools space, a check-list produced as the tools entered the space can be used to account for entered the space can be used to account for the tools as they leave the space the tools as they leave the space 69
  • 70. Exit From Confined Space Exit From Confined Space When temporarily leaving the space, gas lines When temporarily leaving the space, gas lines such as oxygen and acetylene must be removed such as oxygen and acetylene must be removed from the space from the space When leaving the space personal hygiene needs When leaving the space personal hygiene needs to be addressed, especially if the confined space to be addressed, especially if the confined space was a sewer, manhole, or other place where was a sewer, manhole, or other place where microbial or chemical contamination could have microbial or chemical contamination could have taken place taken place Hand washing and clothing change (if Hand washing and clothing change (if necessary) should take place prior to eating or necessary) should take place prior to eating or smoking smoking E L P M A S Exit From Confined Space Exit From Confined Space After the entry, each entrant needs to unlock After the entry, each entrant needs to unlock their lockout device their lockout device The person in charge then concludes confined The person in charge then concludes confined space operations by returning the space back to space operations by returning the space back to its original condition its original condition Hand washing and clothing change (if Hand washing and clothing change (if necessary) should take place prior to eating or necessary) should take place prior to eating or smoking smoking Once all of these items have been Once all of these items have been accomplished, the permit is ready to be filed for accomplished, the permit is ready to be filed for the prescribed length of time the prescribed length of time 70
  • 71. PPE PPE The purpose of chemical protective clothing The purpose of chemical protective clothing (CPC) and personal protective equipment (PPE) (CPC) and personal protective equipment (PPE) is to shield or isolate individuals from the is to shield or isolate individuals from the chemical, physical, and biologic hazards that chemical, physical, and biologic hazards that may be encountered may be encountered Careful selection and use of adequate PPE Careful selection and use of adequate PPE should protect the respiratory system, skin, should protect the respiratory system, skin, eyes, face, hands, feet, head, body, and hearing eyes, face, hands, feet, head, body, and hearing Respiratory protection is of primary importance Respiratory protection is of primary importance since inhalation is one of the major routes of since inhalation is one of the major routes of exposure to chemical toxicants exposure to chemical toxicants E L P M A S Respirators Respirators • Air-Purifying Respirators – – – Filter dangerous substances from the air Must know the type and amount of hazardous substance present in the confined space NEVER use with oxygen deficiency! • Air-Supplying Respirators – – Deliver a safe supply of breathing air from a tank or an uncontaminated area nearby Must be adequately monitored to ensure adequate & quality air supply 71
  • 72. PPE PPE Chemical-protective clothing (CPC) is available in a ChemicalChemical-protective clothing (CPC) is available in a variety of materials that offer a range of protection variety of materials that offer a range of protection against different chemicals. The most appropriate against different chemicals. The most appropriate clothing material will depend on the chemicals present clothing material will depend on the chemicals present and the task to be accomplished - Ideally the chosen and the task to be accomplished - Ideally the chosen material resists permeation, degradation, and material resists permeation, degradation, and penetration penetration In addition to permeation, degradation, and In addition to permeation, degradation, and penetration several other factors must be considered penetration several other factors must be considered during clothing selection - These affect not only during clothing selection - These affect not only chemical resistance but the worker's ability to perform chemical resistance but the worker's ability to perform the required task the required task E L P M A S PPE PPE Durability Does the material have sufficient strength to Does the material have sufficient strength to withstand the physical stress of the task(s) withstand the physical stress of the task(s) at hand? at hand? Will the material resist tears, punctures, and Will the material resist tears, punctures, and abrasions? abrasions? Will the material withstand repeated use Will the material withstand repeated use after contamination / decontamination? after contamination / decontamination? 72
  • 73. PPE PPE Flexibility Will the CPC interfere with the workers' ability Will the CPC interfere with the workers' ability to perform their assigned tasks? (This is to perform their assigned tasks? (This is particularly important when considering particularly important when considering gloves) gloves) E L P M Temperature effects Will the material maintain its protective Will the material maintain its protective integrity and flexibility under hot and cold integrity and flexibility under hot and cold extremes? extremes? A S PPE PPE Ease of decontamination Are decontamination procedures available Are decontamination procedures available on site? on site? Will the material pose any decontamination Will the material pose any decontamination problems? problems? Should disposable clothing be used? Should disposable clothing be used? 73
  • 74. PPE PPE Compatibility with other equipment Does the clothing preclude the use of Does the clothing preclude the use of another, necessary piece of protective another, necessary piece of protective equipment (e.g., suits that preclude hardequipment (e.g., suits that preclude hardhat use in hard-hat area)? hat use in hard-hat area)? E L P M A S PPE PPE Duration of use Can the required task be accomplished before contaminant breakthrough occurs, or degradation of the CPC becomes significant? 74
  • 75. PPE PPE Special Conditions Fire, explosion, heat, and radiation are considered special conditions that require special-protective equipment. E L P M A S Safety Equipment and Clothing Safety Equipment and Clothing No single combination of protective No single combination of protective equipment and clothing is capable of equipment and clothing is capable of protecting against all hazards protecting against all hazards PPE should be used in conjunction with PPE should be used in conjunction with other protective methods other protective methods Equipment and clothing should be Equipment and clothing should be selected that provide an adequate level selected that provide an adequate level of protection of protection Overprotection, as well as Overprotection, as well as underprotection, can be hazardous underprotection, can be hazardous 75
  • 76. OSHAcampus.com Confined Space Rescue Confined Space Rescue • Emergency rescue from a confined space is a matter of life or death • That pervading sense that "the clock is ticking" invades every aspect of rescue operations • What is worse is that sense of urgency is sometimes used as an excuse for making decisions or performing actions that place others at undue risk E L P M A S Confined Space Rescue Confined Space Rescue • The first priority is to keep all rescuers alive • Do not substitute emotion for intellect 50% of workers who die in confined spaces are would-be rescuers • Don't take short cuts • The person in charge may chose to isolate themselves • Pre-planning and training are essential 76
  • 77. OSHAcampus.com Confined Space Rescue Confined Space Rescue On-site rescue teams On-site Outside rescue services E L P M A S Confined Space Rescue Confined Space Rescue On-site rescue teams On-site rescue teams 1. Personnel assigned to an in-plant rescue team 1. Personnel assigned to an in-plant rescue team are provided with, and trained in the proper use of are provided with, and trained in the proper use of the personal protective equipment necessary for the personal protective equipment necessary for making rescues from the employer's permit spaces making rescues from the employer's permit spaces 2. If the employer decides to use an in-plant team, 2. If the employer decides to use an in-plant team, the employer shall assure that the in-plant rescue the employer shall assure that the in-plant rescue team is trained to perform the assigned rescue team is trained to perform the assigned rescue functions and has received the training required functions and has received the training required for authorized entrants for authorized entrants 3. Each member of the rescue service shall be 3. Each member of the rescue service shall be trained in basic first aid and cardiopulmonary trained in basic first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation resuscitation 77
  • 78. OSHAcampus.com Confined Space Rescue Confined Space Rescue Off-site rescue teams Off-site rescue teams 1. .. If the employer chooses to use outside rescue 1. If the employer chooses to use outside rescue services, the employer shall inform the designated services, the employer shall inform the designated rescuers of the hazards they may confront when rescuers of the hazards they may confront when called to perform rescues at the employer's facility called to perform rescues at the employer's facility 2. If an outside rescue service is used, their 2. If an outside rescue service is used, their response time, their continuous availability during response time, their continuous availability during the entry, and their rescue capabilities need to be the entry, and their rescue capabilities need to be established prior to entry established prior to entry 3. .. In most cases specific phone numbers, radio 3. In most cases specific phone numbers, radio frequencies, or other type of communication frequencies, or other type of communication medium is listed on the entry permit - The medium is listed on the entry permit - The attendant is responsible for that communication attendant is responsible for that communication and should perform a communications check prior and should perform a communications check prior to entry to entry E L P M A S Confined Space Rescue Confined Space Rescue There are three types of rescue There are three types of rescue which may be employed in the which may be employed in the confined space setting: confined space setting: 1. Self-Rescue 1. Self-Rescue 2. Non-Entry Rescue - External 2. Non-Entry Rescue - External 3. Entry Rescue - Internal 3. Entry Rescue - Internal 78
  • 79. OSHAcampus.com Confined Space Rescue Confined Space Rescue • Self rescue is when an entrant is capable of recognizing a hazard and is able to exit from the space with no assistance • With self-rescue, emergency rescue personnel do not have to enter the space - Risky extrication and/or removal techniques are not required if self-rescue can be employed • Also, by virtue of the fact that the individual is still conscious, the chances that the entrant will recover from the emergency are good E L P M A S Confined Space Rescue Confined Space Rescue • The use of retrieval systems can be very effective in assisting in the rescue of an unconscious employee from a confined space - These systems allow rescue from outside the space • Non-entry rescue, as the name implies, is rescue performed from outside of the space - Prior to entry retrieval systems and body harnesses should be in place in the event that conditions change • Non-entry rescue cannot be used for an individual who is entangled, trapped, or bound-up within the space 79
  • 80. OSHAcampus.com Retrieval Rescue Methods Body Harness Tripod/winch E L P M A S 80
  • 81. OSHAcampus.com Confined Space Rescue The attendant should The attendant should attempt to remove the attempt to remove the entrant from the confined entrant from the confined space using tripods, hoist, and space using tripods, hoist, and lifelines. Attendants are NOT TO lifelines. Attendants are NOT TO ENTER CONFINED SPACES. ENTER CONFINED SPACES. Lethal hazards may Lethal hazards may be present within the confined be present within the confined space. Only properly equipped space. Only properly equipped and trained emergency rescue and trained emergency rescue personnel may enter confined personnel may enter confined spaces to make rescues. spaces to make rescues. E L P M A S Confined Space Rescue Confined Space Rescue • Entry rescue is clearly the form of rescue that presents the greatest risk to the rescuer - It entails actually placing an individual into the hazardous space • Entry rescue requires a considerable amount of equipment - In addition to usual PPE, there is a need for patient packaging devices, lifting devices, multiple lifelines, and emergency medical gear as well • Availability of the equipment and personnel needed for rescue and support must be assured • Entry rescues should be avoided whenever possible 81
  • 82. OSHAcampus.com Medical Issues Medical Issues Everyone associated with confined space operations should have a basic understanding of the types of medical emergencies that they may encounter To effectively do this, it is necessary to recognize the potential problems, be able to activate emergency medical services in your plant or municipality, and provide first aid until the arrival of medically trained personnel E L P M A S Medical Issues Medical Issues All individuals associated with the confined space entry and/or rescue must be trained in CPR and basic first aid At least one individual with current certification shall be available during rescue operations All individuals associated with confined space operations also need to know the location and operation of emergency medical supplies and equipment 82
  • 83. OSHAcampus.com Medical Issues Medical Issues It is the attendant's job to summon emergency medical assistance in the event of a medical problem If an entrant has a serious medical problem the entire space should be evacuated immediately Any medical affliction that occurs within the space should be assumed to have been caused by a change in the confined space until proven otherwise A S E L P M Medical Issues Medical Issues • heart attack • asphyxia • chemical toxicity burns burns fractures fractures lacerations lacerations • heat stroke 83
  • 84. OSHAcampus.com Medical Issues Medical Issues If a victim has known injuries from a fall, entrapment, or something dropped on them, the person will need proper packaging As a rescuer you will need to assess the situation, stabilize by performing the necessary first aid, package, and then remove the victim E L P M A S Medical Issues Medical Issues When preparing an individual for packaging the ABCs of life saving are checked: Airway open, victim is Breathing, and Circulation (heart beating) Stop any profuse bleeding, apply a cccollar, and splint where necessary 84
  • 85. OSHAcampus.com Medical Issues Medical Issues Wristlets, full body harnesses and basket litters Wristlets, full body harnesses and basket litters are the most common types of packaging are the most common types of packaging When lashing a victim in a basket litter, wrap When lashing a victim in a basket litter, wrap the ankle and foot (if ankle and foot are not the ankle and foot (if ankle and foot are not injured) - Care must be used to not cross the injured) - Care must be used to not cross the neck and constrict breathing neck and constrict breathing Though basket litters usually are supplied with Though basket litters usually are supplied with 4 straps for securing the patient, these are not 4 straps for securing the patient, these are not adequate when making a vertical rescue adequate when making a vertical rescue E L P M A S 85