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Periodic table ppt cscope

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  • 1. The PeriodicTable of The Elements
  • 2. The Periodic Tablel  Arrangement of the known elements based on atomic number and chemical and physical properties.l  Dividedinto three basic categories: l Metals l Nonmetals l Metalloids
  • 3. Basic OrganizationThe periodic table is organized by:l  Atomic structurel  Atomic numberl  Chemical and Physical Properties
  • 4. Uses of The Periodic TableThe periodic table is useful in predicting:l  chemical behavior of the elementsl  trendsl  properties of the elements
  • 5. Atomic Structure Reviewl  Atoms are made of protons, electrons, and neutrons.l  Elements are atoms of only one type.l  Elements are identified by the atomic number (# of protons in nucleus).
  • 6. Energy Levels Reviewl  Electronsare arranged in a region around the nucleus called an electron cloud. Energy levels are located within the cloud.l  At least 1 energy level and as many as 7 energy levels exist in atoms.
  • 7. Energy Levels Reviewl  Electrons in levels farther away from the nucleus have more energy.l  Inner levels will fill first before outer levels.
  • 8. Energy Levels & Valence Electrons l  Energy levels hold a specific amount of electrons: l  1stlevel = up to 2 l  2nd level = up to 8 l  3rd level = up to 8 (first 18 elements only)
  • 9. Energy Levels & Valence Electronsl  The electrons in the outermost level are called valence electrons. l  Determine reactivity - how elements will react with others to form compounds l  Outermost level does not usually fill completely with electrons
  • 10. Using the Table to Identify Valence Electronsl  Elements are grouped into vertical columns because they have similar properties.l  These are called groups or families.l  Groups are numbered 1-18.
  • 11. Using the Table to Identify Valence Electronsl  Group numbers can help you determine the number of valence electrons: l  Group 1 has 1 valence electron. l  Group 2 has 2 valence electrons. l  Groups 3–12 are transition metals and have 1 or 2 valence electrons.
  • 12. Using the Table to Identify Valence Electrons cont.l  Groups 13–18 have 10 fewer than the group number. For example: l  Group 13 has 3 valence electrons. l  Group 15 has 5 valence electrons. l  Group 18 has 8 valence electrons.
  • 13. Elements & Reactivityl  Reactivity is a chemical property that determines how elements will react with others to form compounds.
  • 14. Elements & Reactivityl  What makes an element reactive? ●  Number of valence electrons each atom has ●  When outer levels are full, atoms are stable. ●  When they are not full, they react: ●  gain, lose, or share 1 or 2 electrons.
  • 15. Elements & Reactivityl  The most reactive metals are the elements in Groups 1 and 2. l  Elements in Group 1 need seven more electrons to fill their outer level. l  Elements in Group 2 need six more electrons to fill their outer level.l  Thesegroups are known as the “givers” because they easily give up their valence electrons to make a compound.
  • 16. Elements & Reactivityl  The most reactive nonmetals are the elements in Groups 6 and 7. l  Elements in Group 6 only need two more electrons to fill their outer level. l  Elements in Group 7 only need one more electron to fill their outer level.l  These groups are known as the “takers” because they easily receive valence electrons to make a compound.
  • 17. Groupsl  Groups run vertically in the periodic table.l  They are numbered from 1–18.l  Elements in the same groups have the same number of valence electrons in the outer energy level.l  Grouped elements behave chemically in similar ways.
  • 18. Group 1: Alkali Metalsl  Contains: Metalsl  Valence Electrons: 1l  Reactivity: Very Reactivel  Properties: l  solids l  soft l  react violently with water l  shiny l  low density
  • 19. Group 2: Alkaline-Earth Metalsl  Contains: Metalsl  Valence Electrons: 2l  Reactivity: very reactive, but less reactive than alkali metals (Group 1)l  Properties: l  Solids l  Silvercolored l  More dense than alkali metals
  • 20. Groups 3-12 Transition Metalsl  Contain: Metalsl  Valence electrons: 1 or 2l  Reactivity: less reactive than alkali and alkaline-earth metalsl  Properties: l  Higherdensity l  Good conductors of heat and electricity
  • 21. Groups 3-12 Transition Metals Below Main Tablel  Contain: The Lanthanide and Actinide Series l  These two rows are pulled out of sequence and placed below the main table to keep the table from being too wide. l  Lanthanides are #’s 58–71. l  Actinides are #’s 90–103.
  • 22. Groups 3-12 Rare Earth Elements ~ Lanthanidesl  Lanthanides follow the transition metal # 57 Lanthanum in Period 6.l  Valence electrons: 3l  Reactivity: Very reactivel  Properties: ●  High luster, but tarnish easily ●  High conductivity for electricity ●  Very small differences between them
  • 23. Groups 3-12 Rare Earth Elements ~ Actinidesl  Actinides follow the transition metal # 89 Actinium in Period 7l  Valence electrons: 3 (but up to 6)l  Reactivity: unstable l  All are radioactive l  Most made in laboratories
  • 24. Metalloidsl  A zig-zag line that separates metals from metalloidsl  Elements from Groups 13–17 contain some metalloids.l  These elements have characteristics of metals and nonmetals.
  • 25. Group 13: Boron Groupl  Group 13: Boron Groupl  Contains: 1 metalloid and 4 metalsl  Valence Electrons: 3l  Reactivity: Reactivel  Other shared properties: l  Solid at room temperature
  • 26. Group 14: Carbon Groupl  Contains: 1 non-metal, 2 metalloids, and 3 metalsl  Valence Electrons: 4l  Reactivity: Variesl  Other shared properties: l  Solid at room temperature
  • 27. Group 15: Nitrogen Groupl  Contains: 2 non-metals, 2 metalloids, and 1 metall  Valence electrons: 5l  Reactivity: Variesl  Other shared properties: l  All but N are solid at room temperature
  • 28. Group 16: Oxygen Groupl  Contains: 3 non-metals, 1 metalloid, and 2 metalsl  Valence Electrons: 6l  Reactivity: Reactivel  Other shared properties: l  All but O are solid at room temperature.
  • 29. Groups 17 : Halogensl  Contain: Nonmetalsl  Valence Electrons: 7l  Reactivity: Very reactivel  Other shared properties ●  Poor conductors of electric current ●  React violently with alkali metals to form salts ●  Never found uncombined in nature
  • 30. Group 18 Noble Gasesl  Contains: Nonmetalsl  Valence Electrons: 8 (2 for He)l  Reactivity: Unreactive (least reactive group)l  Other shared properties: l  Colorless, odorless gases at room temperature l  Outermost energy level full l  All found in atmosphere
  • 31. Hydrogen Stands Apartl  H is set apart because its properties do not match any single group.l  Valence electrons: 1l  Reactivity: very, but loses the 1 electron easilyl  Properties: l  Similar to those of non-metals rather than metals
  • 32. Periodsl  Periods run horizontally across the Periodic Tablel  Periods are numbered 1–7l  All the elements in a period will have the same number of energy levels, which contain electrons. Examples: l  Period 1 atoms have 1 energy level. l  Period 2 atoms have 2 energy levels. l  Period 5 atoms have 5 energy levels.
  • 33. Periods Continuedl  Movingfrom left to right across a period, each element has one more electron in the outer shell of its atom than the element before it.l  This leads to a fairly regular pattern of change in the chemical behavior of the elements across a period.