Midterm Review
December 2013
1. Where does the energy to fuel food webs
come from?

A. Producers
B. Sunlight
C. The Atmosphere
D. Consumers
For ecosystems,
the major source
of energy is sunlight.
Energy entering
ecosystems as sunlight
is transferred by producers...
2. Draw a food pyramid with 3 levels and
label the organisms in each one.
A.

Secondary
Consumers

B.

Primary
Consumers

...
3. How do decomposers benefit an ecosystem?
A. an organism that gets fuel from the breaking down
of organic material
B. an...
4. Define food web, food chain and energy pyramid.

Which is a network of many interconnected food
chains and feeding rela...
4. Define food web, food chain and energy pyramid.

Which is the sequence of who eats whom in a
biological community (an e...
A food chain is the sequence of who eats whom in a
biological community (an ecosystem) to obtain nutrition

The arrows in ...
An energy pyramid is a graphical
model of energy flow in a
community. The different levels
represent different groups of
o...
5. List 3 limitations of a model.

Some limitations of a model are the
1) models are not alive,
2) models do not act exact...
The bottom of the curve is called the _______

A. Volume
B. Cylinder
C. Watermark
D. Meniscus
6.

Explain how you read the fluid in
graduated cylinder.
When measuring liquid
volume it is important
to read the graduat...
7.

What are the main objects in our Solar System?
A. stars, 8 planets, 5+ dwarf planets,
asteroids, and comets
B. planets...
8.

What is the
differenceIs Pluto a a
between Planet?
Planet and a dwarf
planet?
A. It orbits around the Sun.
B. It has s...
9.

Describe the process of photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is the process of converting
light energy to chemical energy an...
Describe the process of photosynthesis?

Photosynthesis is the process in which
living organisms, most typically plants
(b...
10. Why are plants green?
A. Chloroplasts
B. Turgor Pressure
C. Chlorophyll
D. Photosynthesis
Green plants are green becau...
11. Why do plants always grow up?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Phototropism
Geotropism
Both of the above
Neither of the above
12. What is work?
Work is applying a force to an object and the object
moving in the direction the force is applied.
Ex. W...
12. How do you calculate work?
Work = Force x Distance
W=Fxd
•The SI Unit for force is Newton
•The SI Unit for distance is...
12. How do you calculate work?
A little girl applies a force of 2,550 newtons
to her dog that is sitting on her legs but i...
12. How do you calculate work?
If it takes a force of 68 newtons to
move a chair 10 meters across the
room. How much work ...
13. What should you do if someone in
your lab group breaks a piece of
equipment?
A.
B.
C.
D.

tell your lab partner
use it...
14. What is this piece of equipment?

A. spring scale

C. Balance Scale

B. Triple beam balance

D. Balance
14. A Triple Beam Balance measures
_________ in _________
A. grams in mass
A. force in Newtons
B. mass in grams
C. weight ...
15. What do the following instruments
measure and in what units?
Triple Beam Balance measures the mass of an object.
The u...
15. What do the following instruments measure
and in what units?
Pipette -

is used to transfer small amounts
(< 1 ml) of ...
15. You can use a spring scale to
measure which of these?
A.
B.
C.
D.

liquids
volume
force
stress
15. A spring scale uses which of the
following?
A.
B.
C.
D.

meters
Joules
Newtons
milliliter
19. This picture is of…

A.
B.
C.
D.

graduated cylinders
test tubes
beakers
spring scales
Vocabulary You Should Know!
These are not in any particular
order and there may be a few
extra to help you!
1. Ecosystems can be both large and small.
A. True

B. False
An ecosystem consists of a biological community
and its physical environment.
(All LIVING and NONLIVING)
•can be as small ...
2.

an organism that makes its own
food/fuel through the process of
photosynthesis.
A.Consumer
A.Producer
B.Herbivore
C.He...
3.

What are the different types of weathering

A. Mechanical and Physical
B. Physical and Erosion
C. Mechanical and Chemi...
mechanical – the physical break down of
rocks into smaller and smaller pieces.
Examples: abrasion, ice wedging,
plants and...
4. an organism that must eat other
organisms in a food chain for fuel.
A.consumer
B.Producer
C.Ecosystem
D.autotroph
5. An opening in the Earth’s crust where lava,
ash and gases come out. A mountain that
forms when molten rock is forced to...
6.

an animal in the food chain that only
eats other animals.

A. Consumer
B. Carnivore
C. Herbivore
D. Decomposer
7.

an animal in the food chain that only
eats grass and other plants.

Carnivore
Decomposer
All of the Above
None of the ...
8.

pressure exerted by water inside the
cell on the cell wall.

Photosynthesis
Chloroplast Pressure
Turgor Pressure
Water...
9. an animal in the food chain that
consumes both plants and other organisms.

Autotroph
Omnivore
All of the Above
None of...
10. an organism that gets fuel from the
breaking down of organic material.

Producer
Herbivore
Decomposer
None of the Abov...
11. the process by where rock, soil, and
sediment are moved from one location to
another by natural forces such as wind,
w...
12. a push or pull.
A. Newton
B. Force
C. Joule
D. None of the above
13. the breaking down of rocks into smaller
and smaller pieces but the pieces remain in
the same place.
A. Mechanical Weat...
14. a community of organisms and their
abiotic (nonliving) environment.

ecoregion
region
ecosystem
ecology
15. the laying down or accumulation of rock,
soil and sediment after it has been
moved from another location by natural
fo...
Definitions
• Consumer (Heterotroph) – an organism
that must eat other organism in a food
chain for fuel
• Producer (Autot...
• Ecosystem consists of a biological
community and its physical environment.
(All LIVING and NONLIVING)
• Earthquake - sha...
• Carnivore – an animal in the food chain
that eats other animals or meat for food
• Herbivore – an animal in the food cha...
• Weathering - the breakdown of rock into
smaller pieces by natural processes
• Erosion - process by which wind and
water ...
• Photosynthesis – a process used by
plants to change light energy captured by
the sun to chemical energy that can be
used...
• Rotation – the spinning motion of a body,
such as a planet about an internal axis
• Revolution - The amount of time that...
Phototropism- when a plants stem and
leaves grow towards the sunlight.
(positive phototropism)

Gravitropism or Geotropism...
Hydrotropism
is a change in the growth of a plant in
response to water.
planet – an object orbiting a star that is
large e...
Midterm review 2013 power point
Midterm review 2013 power point
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  • More information at http://www.gps.caltech.edu/~mbrown/planetlila/#size
    And at http://www.iau.org/iau0601.424.0.html
  • Midterm review 2013 power point

    1. 1. Midterm Review December 2013
    2. 2. 1. Where does the energy to fuel food webs come from? A. Producers B. Sunlight C. The Atmosphere D. Consumers
    3. 3. For ecosystems, the major source of energy is sunlight. Energy entering ecosystems as sunlight is transferred by producers into chemical energy through photosynthesis. That energy then passes from organism to organism in food webs.
    4. 4. 2. Draw a food pyramid with 3 levels and label the organisms in each one. A. Secondary Consumers B. Primary Consumers Producers Primary Consumers C. Primary Consumers Secondary Consumers Producers Secondary Consumers Producers D. Producers Primary Consumers Secondary Consumers
    5. 5. 3. How do decomposers benefit an ecosystem? A. an organism that gets fuel from the breaking down of organic material B. an animal in the food chain that eats other animals or meat for food C. an animal in the food chain that eats grass and other plants for food D. an organism like a green plant and certain bacteria that can produce their own fuel through photosynthesis
    6. 6. 4. Define food web, food chain and energy pyramid. Which is a network of many interconnected food chains and feeding relationships? A. Food web B. Food chain C. Energy pyramid D. All of the above
    7. 7. 4. Define food web, food chain and energy pyramid. Which is the sequence of who eats whom in a biological community (an ecosystem) to obtain nutrition? A. Energy pyramid B. Food web C. Food chain D. None of the above
    8. 8. A food chain is the sequence of who eats whom in a biological community (an ecosystem) to obtain nutrition The arrows in a food chain show the flow of energy A network of many food chains is called a food web.
    9. 9. An energy pyramid is a graphical model of energy flow in a community. The different levels represent different groups of organisms that might compose a food chain. From the bottom-up, they are as follows: Producers — use energy from the sun. Primary consumers — eat the producers, which makes them herbivores in most communities. Secondary consumers — eat the primary consumers, which makes them carnivores: some eat producers and consumers, these are omnivores. Tertiary consumers — eat the secondary consumers, these are usually carnivores.
    10. 10. 5. List 3 limitations of a model. Some limitations of a model are the 1) models are not alive, 2) models do not act exactly like the object they model, 3) depending on the model could be things like size, distance, temperature, color, etc.
    11. 11. The bottom of the curve is called the _______ A. Volume B. Cylinder C. Watermark D. Meniscus
    12. 12. 6. Explain how you read the fluid in graduated cylinder. When measuring liquid volume it is important to read the graduated cylinder correctly. Your eye should be level with the top of the liquid and you should read the bottom of the curve.
    13. 13. 7. What are the main objects in our Solar System? A. stars, 8 planets, 5+ dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets B. planets, dwarf planets, moons, asteroids, and comets C. 1 star, 8 planets, 5+ dwarf planets, many moons, asteroids, and comets D. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune
    14. 14. 8. What is the differenceIs Pluto a a between Planet? Planet and a dwarf planet? A. It orbits around the Sun. B. It has sufficient mass for its self-gravity so that it assumes a spherical shape. C. It has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit.
    15. 15. 9. Describe the process of photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the bonds of glucose. This process occurs in plants and some algae. Plants need only light energy, CO2, and H2O to make glucose. 6CO2 + 6H2O (+ light energy) yields C6H12O6 + 6O2
    16. 16. Describe the process of photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is the process in which living organisms, most typically plants (but also algae), use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into organic material (i.e., carbohydrates) that is used for sustenance. Photosynthesis occurs in organelles called chloroplasts. The byproduct of this process is oxygen. Ox yg en 9.
    17. 17. 10. Why are plants green? A. Chloroplasts B. Turgor Pressure C. Chlorophyll D. Photosynthesis Green plants are green because they contain a pigment called chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is found in the chloroplasts of plants.
    18. 18. 11. Why do plants always grow up? A. B. C. D. Phototropism Geotropism Both of the above Neither of the above
    19. 19. 12. What is work? Work is applying a force to an object and the object moving in the direction the force is applied. Ex. When you apply an upward force to a box and move the box upward you have done work. However, once you start walking with that box, the box is moving forward but you are applying the force upwards, so you are not doing work. The force and motion must be in the same direction.
    20. 20. 12. How do you calculate work? Work = Force x Distance W=Fxd •The SI Unit for force is Newton •The SI Unit for distance is meter •The SI Unit for work is Joule
    21. 21. 12. How do you calculate work? A little girl applies a force of 2,550 newtons to her dog that is sitting on her legs but is unable to move him. How much work does she do? A. B. C. D. 2,550 J 255 J 25 J 0J
    22. 22. 12. How do you calculate work? If it takes a force of 68 newtons to move a chair 10 meters across the room. How much work do you do? A. B. C. D. 6,880 J 680 J 68.0 J 0J
    23. 23. 13. What should you do if someone in your lab group breaks a piece of equipment? A. B. C. D. tell your lab partner use it carefully anyway use someone else’s equipment tell the teacher
    24. 24. 14. What is this piece of equipment? A. spring scale C. Balance Scale B. Triple beam balance D. Balance
    25. 25. 14. A Triple Beam Balance measures _________ in _________ A. grams in mass A. force in Newtons B. mass in grams C. weight in grams
    26. 26. 15. What do the following instruments measure and in what units? Triple Beam Balance measures the mass of an object. The unit of measurement is a gram Graduated Cylinder - used to accurately measure the volume of a liquid in ml. All are read by measuring the lowest portion of the meniscus.
    27. 27. 15. What do the following instruments measure and in what units? Pipette - is used to transfer small amounts (< 1 ml) of liquids 1 m = 100 cm = 1000 mm Meter Stick - The meter "Stick" measures distance, more specifically it measures distance in units of meters.
    28. 28. 15. You can use a spring scale to measure which of these? A. B. C. D. liquids volume force stress
    29. 29. 15. A spring scale uses which of the following? A. B. C. D. meters Joules Newtons milliliter
    30. 30. 19. This picture is of… A. B. C. D. graduated cylinders test tubes beakers spring scales
    31. 31. Vocabulary You Should Know! These are not in any particular order and there may be a few extra to help you!
    32. 32. 1. Ecosystems can be both large and small. A. True B. False
    33. 33. An ecosystem consists of a biological community and its physical environment. (All LIVING and NONLIVING) •can be as small as a drop of water or as large as a forest •some (like caves) have clear boundaries, others (like forests) do not •provides the organisms that live in it what they need to survive: food (energy), water and shelter •runs on energy from the sun •energy moves through the food web
    34. 34. 2. an organism that makes its own food/fuel through the process of photosynthesis. A.Consumer A.Producer B.Herbivore C.Heterotroph
    35. 35. 3. What are the different types of weathering A. Mechanical and Physical B. Physical and Erosion C. Mechanical and Chemical D. Chemical and Erosion
    36. 36. mechanical – the physical break down of rocks into smaller and smaller pieces. Examples: abrasion, ice wedging, plants and animals chemical – the chemical break down of rocks and minerals into new substances. Examples: water, acid in precipitation, acid in ground water, acid in living things.
    37. 37. 4. an organism that must eat other organisms in a food chain for fuel. A.consumer B.Producer C.Ecosystem D.autotroph
    38. 38. 5. An opening in the Earth’s crust where lava, ash and gases come out. A mountain that forms when molten rock is forced to the Earth’s surface. A. Canyon B. Magma Chamber C. Volcano D. Mountain
    39. 39. 6. an animal in the food chain that only eats other animals. A. Consumer B. Carnivore C. Herbivore D. Decomposer
    40. 40. 7. an animal in the food chain that only eats grass and other plants. Carnivore Decomposer All of the Above None of the Above
    41. 41. 8. pressure exerted by water inside the cell on the cell wall. Photosynthesis Chloroplast Pressure Turgor Pressure Water Pressure
    42. 42. 9. an animal in the food chain that consumes both plants and other organisms. Autotroph Omnivore All of the Above None of the Above
    43. 43. 10. an organism that gets fuel from the breaking down of organic material. Producer Herbivore Decomposer None of the Above
    44. 44. 11. the process by where rock, soil, and sediment are moved from one location to another by natural forces such as wind, water, and ice. A. Mechanical Weathering B. Physical Weathering C. Erosion D. Deposition
    45. 45. 12. a push or pull. A. Newton B. Force C. Joule D. None of the above
    46. 46. 13. the breaking down of rocks into smaller and smaller pieces but the pieces remain in the same place. A. Mechanical Weathering B. Physical Weathering C. Weathering D. None of the Above
    47. 47. 14. a community of organisms and their abiotic (nonliving) environment. ecoregion region ecosystem ecology
    48. 48. 15. the laying down or accumulation of rock, soil and sediment after it has been moved from another location by natural forces. A. Mechanical Weathering A. Physical Weathering B. Erosion C. Deposition
    49. 49. Definitions • Consumer (Heterotroph) – an organism that must eat other organism in a food chain for fuel • Producer (Autotroph) – an organism like a green plant and certain bacteria that can produce their own fuel through photosynthesis • Decomposer – an organism that gets fuel from the breaking down of organic material
    50. 50. • Ecosystem consists of a biological community and its physical environment. (All LIVING and NONLIVING) • Earthquake - shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from underground movement along a fault plane or from volcanic activity • Volcano – an opening in the earths crust in which molten lava, ash, and gases are ejected
    51. 51. • Carnivore – an animal in the food chain that eats other animals or meat for food • Herbivore – an animal in the food chain that eats grass and other plants for food • Omnivore– an animal in the food chain that consumes both plants and other organisms.
    52. 52. • Weathering - the breakdown of rock into smaller pieces by natural processes • Erosion - process by which wind and water move sediment from one place to another • Deposition – the process of laying down or the accumulation of rock, soil and sediment after it has been moved from one place to another
    53. 53. • Photosynthesis – a process used by plants to change light energy captured by the sun to chemical energy that can be used as fuel • Turgor Pressure – pressure exerted by water inside the cell on the cell wall • Force – is a push or pull. Unbalanced force causes motion.
    54. 54. • Rotation – the spinning motion of a body, such as a planet about an internal axis • Revolution - The amount of time that each planet takes to travel around the sun. It is the length of a year on that planet.
    55. 55. Phototropism- when a plants stem and leaves grow towards the sunlight. (positive phototropism) Gravitropism or Geotropism- when roots grow towards the center of Earth (positive gravitropism) Ex. Roots show positive geotropism Stems show negative geotropism
    56. 56. Hydrotropism is a change in the growth of a plant in response to water. planet – an object orbiting a star that is large enough to be rounded, or shaped, by its own gravitational force and has cleared it’s orbital neighborhood..
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