Flow of Energy Through Living Systems
Food Chains
Food Webs
Energy Pyramids
• Begins with the SUNBegins with the SUN
• PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight & chlorophyll C6H12O6 + 6O2
Photosynthesis
• Is a chemical reaction where green plantsIs a chemical reaction where green plants
useuse waterwater anda...
Organisms that can make glucose
during photosynthesis are called
PRODUCERS.
5
ProducersProducers
use most of theuse most of the
energy they makeenergy they make
for themselves.for themselves.
copyri...
Producers
use cellular respiration
to supply the energy they need to live.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
is the chemical reaction
that releases the energy in glucose.
6O2 + C6H12O6 --> 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy
The energy that is not used by
producers can be passed on to
organisms that cannot make
their own energy.
Organisms that cannot make their
own energy are called
CONSUMERS.
Consumers that eat Producers
to get energy:
• Are first order or primary consumers
• Are herbivores (plant-eaters)
Most
of the energy
the primary consumer gets from the
producer is used by the consumer.
Some
of the energy
moves
into the atmosphere
as heat.
Some
of the energy
is not lost to the atmosphere
or used by the consumer.
This energy is available for
another consumer.
(...
A consumer that eats another
consumer for energy:
• Is called a secondary or
second order consumer
• May be a carnivore
or...
Most
of the energy the
secondary consumer gets
from the primary consumer is
used by the secondary
consumer.
Secondary
cons...
Some
of the energy
is lost as heat,
but some energy
is stored and can be passed on
to another consumer
(about 10%).
A consumer that eats a consumer
that already ate a consumer:
• Is called a third order or tertiary consumer
• May be a car...
Consumers that eat xx
producers & other consumers
• Are called omnivores
• Omnivores eat plants
and animals
Consumers
that hunt & kill other consumers
are called predators.
The animals that are
hunted & killed are called prey.
Consumers
that eat other consumers
that have already died are called
scavengers.
Consumers
that chemically breakdown
organic matter like animal
remains are called
decomposers.
The transfer of energy
from sun
to producer
to primary consumer
to secondary consumer
to tertiary consumer
can be shown in...
FOOD CHAINS
A food chain shows the path of
energy from one organism to the
next
– energy flows from producers to
consumers...
Another food chain
Another way of showing the
transfer of energy in an
ecosystem is the
ENERGY PYRAMID.
10% Rule
ONLY 10% of the energy from an
organism on one level can be passed
on to an organism on the next level.
Energy Pyramids
show • That the amount of available
energy decreases up the
food chain
• It takes a large number of
produc...
Producers
1st
Order Consumers
(Herbivores)
2nd
Order Consumers
(Carnivore or Omnivore)
3rd
Order Consumers
(Carnivore or O...
Food WebsFood Webs
• FeedingFeeding relationshipsrelationships are much moreare much more
complicated than a single, one-w...
Food Webs:
• Are interconnected
food chains
• They show the
feeding relationships
in an ecosystem
FOOD WEBS
• Typically, food webs go like this:
PRODUCER
CONSUMER
(HERBIVORE)
CONSUMER
(CARNIVORE)
CONSUMER
(OMNIVORE)
DECO...
FOOD CHAINS AND WEBS
• Practice! Draw a food
chain that includes the
following organisms:
– grasshopper
– mouse
– grass
– ...
FOOD CHAINS, WEBS & ENERGY PYRAMIDS
• Food chains/webs can
be written as a pyramid:
– Producers form the
base of the pyram...
ReviewReview
Identify the following as producers orIdentify the following as producers or
consumers.consumers.
• FungiFung...
ReviewReview
Young rabbits that eat grass are sometimes eaten
by raccoons, which also eat seeds and berries.
Bacteria help...
ReviewReview
Base your answer on the chart and yourBase your answer on the chart and your
knowledge of biology. Which is a...
ReviewReview
Which statement best describes anWhich statement best describes an
energy pyramid?energy pyramid?
1.1.There i...
ReviewReview
The diagrams represent four members of a foodThe diagrams represent four members of a food
chain. Which seque...
ReviewReview
If birds eat insects that feed on corn, whichIf birds eat insects that feed on corn, which
pyramid level in t...
ReviewReview
Compared to the energy contained in theCompared to the energy contained in the
plants eaten by cows, the amou...
ReviewReview
In an ecosystem, the more livingIn an ecosystem, the more living
requirements that two different speciesrequi...
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Flow of energy 2013-2014

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Flow of energy 2013-2014

  1. 1. Flow of Energy Through Living Systems Food Chains Food Webs Energy Pyramids
  2. 2. • Begins with the SUNBegins with the SUN • PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight & chlorophyll C6H12O6 + 6O2
  3. 3. Photosynthesis • Is a chemical reaction where green plantsIs a chemical reaction where green plants useuse waterwater andand carbon dioxidecarbon dioxide to store theto store the sun’sun’s energys energy in the form ofin the form of glucose.glucose. • ENERGY is stored in glucoseENERGY is stored in glucose • Glucose isGlucose is stored asstored as starchstarch inin plantsplants
  4. 4. Organisms that can make glucose during photosynthesis are called PRODUCERS.
  5. 5. 5 ProducersProducers use most of theuse most of the energy they makeenergy they make for themselves.for themselves. copyright cmassengale
  6. 6. Producers use cellular respiration to supply the energy they need to live.
  7. 7. CELLULAR RESPIRATION is the chemical reaction that releases the energy in glucose. 6O2 + C6H12O6 --> 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy
  8. 8. The energy that is not used by producers can be passed on to organisms that cannot make their own energy.
  9. 9. Organisms that cannot make their own energy are called CONSUMERS.
  10. 10. Consumers that eat Producers to get energy: • Are first order or primary consumers • Are herbivores (plant-eaters)
  11. 11. Most of the energy the primary consumer gets from the producer is used by the consumer.
  12. 12. Some of the energy moves into the atmosphere as heat.
  13. 13. Some of the energy is not lost to the atmosphere or used by the consumer. This energy is available for another consumer. (about 10%)
  14. 14. A consumer that eats another consumer for energy: • Is called a secondary or second order consumer • May be a carnivore or an omnivore • May be a predator • May be a scavenger
  15. 15. Most of the energy the secondary consumer gets from the primary consumer is used by the secondary consumer. Secondary consumer
  16. 16. Some of the energy is lost as heat, but some energy is stored and can be passed on to another consumer (about 10%).
  17. 17. A consumer that eats a consumer that already ate a consumer: • Is called a third order or tertiary consumer • May be a carnivore or an omnivore • May be a predator • May be a scavenger
  18. 18. Consumers that eat xx producers & other consumers • Are called omnivores • Omnivores eat plants and animals
  19. 19. Consumers that hunt & kill other consumers are called predators. The animals that are hunted & killed are called prey.
  20. 20. Consumers that eat other consumers that have already died are called scavengers.
  21. 21. Consumers that chemically breakdown organic matter like animal remains are called decomposers.
  22. 22. The transfer of energy from sun to producer to primary consumer to secondary consumer to tertiary consumer can be shown in a FOOD CHAIN.
  23. 23. FOOD CHAINS A food chain shows the path of energy from one organism to the next – energy flows from producers to consumers – arrows point to who is eating (plant is eaten by herbivore) – Can vary in lengthCan vary in length – Usually decomposers are left out
  24. 24. Another food chain
  25. 25. Another way of showing the transfer of energy in an ecosystem is the ENERGY PYRAMID.
  26. 26. 10% Rule ONLY 10% of the energy from an organism on one level can be passed on to an organism on the next level.
  27. 27. Energy Pyramids show • That the amount of available energy decreases up the food chain • It takes a large number of producers to support a small number of primary consumers • It takes a large number of primary consumers to support a small number of secondary consumers E N E R G Y L O S S
  28. 28. Producers 1st Order Consumers (Herbivores) 2nd Order Consumers (Carnivore or Omnivore) 3rd Order Consumers (Carnivore or Omnivore) E N E R G Y L O S S
  29. 29. Food WebsFood Webs • FeedingFeeding relationshipsrelationships are much moreare much more complicated than a single, one-waycomplicated than a single, one-way chainchain • Many animals eat more than one kindMany animals eat more than one kind of foodof food • Food webs show these relationshipsFood webs show these relationships
  30. 30. Food Webs: • Are interconnected food chains • They show the feeding relationships in an ecosystem
  31. 31. FOOD WEBS • Typically, food webs go like this: PRODUCER CONSUMER (HERBIVORE) CONSUMER (CARNIVORE) CONSUMER (OMNIVORE) DECOMPOSER remember: decomposers receive energy from all other organisms in an ecosystem
  32. 32. FOOD CHAINS AND WEBS • Practice! Draw a food chain that includes the following organisms: – grasshopper – mouse – grass – owl • Now label the organisms as producers, consumers (which type?), or decomposers PRODUCER CONSUMER (HERBIVORE) CONSUMER (CARNIVORE) CONSUMER (CARNIVORE)
  33. 33. FOOD CHAINS, WEBS & ENERGY PYRAMIDS • Food chains/webs can be written as a pyramid: – Producers form the base of the pyramid – Consumers form the upper layers
  34. 34. ReviewReview Identify the following as producers orIdentify the following as producers or consumers.consumers. • FungiFungi • CowsCows • HumansHumans • MushroomsMushrooms • GrassGrass • TreesTrees • MouseMouse
  35. 35. ReviewReview Young rabbits that eat grass are sometimes eaten by raccoons, which also eat seeds and berries. Bacteria help to decompose the excretions of the raccoon. Which statement about these nutritional relationships is accurate? 1.1. Bacteria are scavengers.Bacteria are scavengers. 2.2. Rabbits are secondary consumers.Rabbits are secondary consumers. 3.3. Raccoons eat only producers.Raccoons eat only producers. 4.4. Raccoons are both primary and secondary consumers.Raccoons are both primary and secondary consumers.
  36. 36. ReviewReview Base your answer on the chart and yourBase your answer on the chart and your knowledge of biology. Which is an example ofknowledge of biology. Which is an example of the nutritional pattern of a primary consumer?the nutritional pattern of a primary consumer? 1.1.prickly pear cactuses – desert ratsprickly pear cactuses – desert rats 2.2.grasshoppers – lizardsgrasshoppers – lizards 3.3.scorpions – bacteriascorpions – bacteria 4.4.lizards – roadrunnerlizards – roadrunner
  37. 37. ReviewReview Which statement best describes anWhich statement best describes an energy pyramid?energy pyramid? 1.1.There is more energy at the consumer level thanThere is more energy at the consumer level than at the producer level.at the producer level. 2.2.There is more energy at the producer level that atThere is more energy at the producer level that at the consumer level.the consumer level. 3.3.There is more energy at the secondary-consumerThere is more energy at the secondary-consumer level than at the primary-consumer level.level than at the primary-consumer level. 4.4.There is more energy at the decomposer levelThere is more energy at the decomposer level than at the consumer level.than at the consumer level.
  38. 38. ReviewReview The diagrams represent four members of a foodThe diagrams represent four members of a food chain. Which sequence best represents thechain. Which sequence best represents the transfer of energy between these organisms?transfer of energy between these organisms? 1.1.toads – predaceous insects – herbivoroustoads – predaceous insects – herbivorous insects – plantsinsects – plants 2.2.predaceous insects – herbivorous insects –predaceous insects – herbivorous insects – plants – toadsplants – toads 3.3.plants – herbivorous insects – predaceousplants – herbivorous insects – predaceous insects – toadsinsects – toads 4.4.plants – herbivorous insects – toads –plants – herbivorous insects – toads – predaceous insectspredaceous insects
  39. 39. ReviewReview If birds eat insects that feed on corn, whichIf birds eat insects that feed on corn, which pyramid level in the diagram would birdspyramid level in the diagram would birds occupy?occupy? 1.1. AA 2.2. BB 3.3. CC 4.4. DD
  40. 40. ReviewReview Compared to the energy contained in theCompared to the energy contained in the plants eaten by cows, the amount of energyplants eaten by cows, the amount of energy available to the organisms that eat the cows isavailable to the organisms that eat the cows is less, since cowsless, since cows 1.1. reproduce rapidly and pass on most of the energy toreproduce rapidly and pass on most of the energy to their offspringtheir offspring 2.2. convert solar energy to foodconvert solar energy to food 3.3. store all their energy in milkstore all their energy in milk 4.4. use energy for their own metabolismuse energy for their own metabolism
  41. 41. ReviewReview In an ecosystem, the more livingIn an ecosystem, the more living requirements that two different speciesrequirements that two different species have in common, the more intense will behave in common, the more intense will be their…their… 1.1.ecological successionecological succession 2.2.competitioncompetition 3.3.energy requirementsenergy requirements 4.4.adaptationadaptation
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