Source: WHO World Map Gallery at http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/Files/Maps/ phe_Global_water_2010.png,
Images courtesy of clip art
Image courtesy of Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Earth (http://www.earthrangers.com/wildwire/take-action/filtered-water-please/)
Image courtesy clip art
Pause after students have read this slide. Facilitate a discussion about physical properties. If students are already sitting with their team members, allow about five minutes for them to begin discussing this topic to come up with a preliminary list of properties that are considered important.
Image courtesy clip art
Exp design water notes 2014
The Importance ofThe Importance of
Science and ResearchScience and Research
The Importance of ScienceThe Importance of Science
There have been many scientists that have
made contributions to science that have
changed our lives:
Nicholas Copernicus = The Sun is at the center of our
Sir Isaac Newton = Laws of motion and more
Marie Curie = Created a theory of radioactivity
Louis Pasteur = Bacteria is killed by heat and
Rosalind Franklin = Discovered the structure of DNA
If Science was notIf Science was not
• We would still think that the world was flat.
• The light bulb wouldn’t have been invented.
• We wouldn’t have landed on the Moon.
• We wouldn’t have the cure for many diseases.
• We wouldn’t have cell phones or computers.
• We wouldn’t have tires, engines, heating and
cooling for homes, or electricity.
If Science was not Around,If Science was not Around,
What Else Would We notWhat Else Would We not
Think about how research and science have
affected your life. List five objects or ideas
that are now available in our life-time that
(Please do not include television, computers, or cell
phones- think beyond these obvious choices.)
Scientific Method – StartScientific Method – Start
with an Ideawith an Idea
• Scientists start with an idea that can be
researched to learn more about the topic.
• Scientists then develop their findings into a
problem for experimentation.
• Your assignment:
Topic: Water Filtration
Research water filtration.
Acquire enough information to develop a
problem for experimental research.
Create a hypothesis based on your research.
Design an experiment to test your hypothesis.
• Keep an accurate list of all materials
and equipment used. Include:
▫ Correct name of materials and
▫ Quantity, volume, and size of
materials and equipment
• You will be following some steps as you
work on your experimental design.
• All of the steps are not completed in
order- sometimes, you’ll need to cycle
back to an earlier step.
• You will write your own procedures
specific to your experiment.
• Be thorough and exact!
•Collect data in your lab notebook.
•A data table is an organized way
to record information about your
•Graphs are generated from the
information in your data table.
• Tell about what you learned.
• Did your experiment go the way you
thought it would? Was your hypothesis
supported? Why or why not?
• What would you do differently next
time? Were there errors in your
• What impact could your findings have
•You will complete a lab
report to share your
results with others.
•Take good notes as you
Why does it
Water FiltrationWater Filtration
• Are you concerned about the quality
of the water coming out of your
• Do you ever really think about water
• According to the Environmental
Protection Agency, more than 90% of
the water supply in the United States
is safe to drink.
• This is not the case in many countries around the world.
• South America, Central America, India, Africa, and parts of
Asia all have a large percent of their population with no
access to appropriate water.
• The map below shows the percentage of population with
access to safe water by country. (Data from 2010)
• What might cause
water to be unsafe to
• Are there some
countries that are
more susceptible to
pollution than others?
• How do you think a filter works?
• On a very basic level, the process of
filtration involves the flow of water
through a granular bed of sand, or
another suitable media, at a low speed.
• The media retains most solid matter
while permitting the water to pass.
• The permeability of the material
determines how quickly or efficiently the
water will pass. Permeability is the
capability of a porous rock or sediment
to permit the flow of fluids through its
• More porous materials have the ability
to retain greater quantities of sediment
due to their ability to hold water.
What does a water
• Water’s viscosity allows it to
pass quickly through the
medium, removing solid
particles from the solutions you
will make in class.
• Percolation is usually repeated
through several layers to
reduce the number of total
suspended solids - TSS.
• Water that is filtered several
times will be less turbid than
water filtered only once,
although you may need a
microscope to see the particles.
What does a water
• TDS –Total dissolved solids
refers to the total amount of
all inorganic and organic
substances – including
minerals, salts, metals,
cations or anions – that are
dispersed within a volume
• Purified water has been
mechanically filtered or
processed to be cleaned for
• The filters you will design
and use in class will not
make the water potable.
What does a water
• What are some ways you
can think of?
• Which of these uses would
require the water to have
gone through some type of
• Which use do you think
requires the highest level of
• Human consumption
• Washing clothes or
• In a garden
• Washing a car
• For industrial use
• For medical use
Why do we need
to filter water?
Think about ways
water is used on a
• Reflect for a
moment on what
you have learned
• Which of the
are important to
• Physical properties
include, but are not
color, size, shape,
mass, odor, melting
point, boiling point,
solubility, polarity, and
What are the physical properties
of a material that would make it
useful as a filter?
• Your team will be working cooperatively,
collaborating to design and test a water filtration
• You will use your knowledge of science and math
with your creativity to design a water filtration
system that can clean contaminated water by
removing particulate matter and color. It also needs
to filter the water in a reasonable
amount of time (efficiently).