Unit 6- Water and Succession review & answer key

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  • 1. Unit  6:  Test  Review   Organisms  and  the  Environment   (Water  and  Succession)   2013  -­‐  2014  
  • 2. DefiniEons  to  know:   •  AbioEc  -­‐  a  nonliving  condiEon  or  thing  that   influences  or  affects  an  ecosystem.     •  BioEc  -­‐  a  living  thing,  something  that  was   alive  (like  a  plant  or  an  animal)  or  something   that  has  the  poten/al  for  life  (like  a  seed  or  an   egg)  that  influences  or  affects  an  ecosystem.    
  • 3. •  Ecological  Succession  -­‐  the  gradual   replacement  of  one  type  of  ecological   community  by  another  in  the  same  area  over   Eme    
  • 4. •  Primary  Succession  -­‐  the  development  of  plant   and  animal  communiEes  over  Eme  in  an  area   where  no  soil  has  existed  
  • 5. •  Secondary  Succession  -­‐  the  development  of   plant  and  animal  communiEes  over  Eme  in  an   area  where  there  was  a  disturbance  but  the   soil  was  sEll  present  
  • 6. •  Climax  Community  –  an  ecological  community   where  plant  and  animal  populaEons  remain   stable  and  exist  in  balance.  
  • 7. DefiniEons:   •  Environment  –  the  bioEc  and  abioEc   surroundings  or  condiEons  in  which  a  person,   plant  or  animal  lives  or  operates.     •  Habitat  -­‐  the  area  or  environment  where  an   organism  or  ecological  community  normally  lives   or  occurs     •  Microhabitat  –  a  small,  specialized  environment   such  as  a  schoolyard  or  a  clump  of  grass  
  • 8. •  PopulaEon  -­‐  a  group  of  individuals  of  the  same   species  that  live  together  in  the  same  area  at   the  same  Eme     •  Species  -­‐  a  group  of  organisms      that  share  common  aYributes      and  have  the  same  name  
  • 9. •  Surface  Water  –  water  found  on  the  surface  of  the   earth,  such  as  rivers,  streams,  lakes,  creeks,  etc.   •  Groundwater  -­‐  water  found  beneath  the  surface  of   the  earth  (underground)  it    is  supplied  by  run-­‐off.  It   is  the  source  of  water  in  springs  and  wells.    
  • 10. •  Porosity  –  the  measure  of  a  rock’s  ability  to   hold  water     •  Permeability  –  is  a  measure  of  the  ease  with   which  water  can  move  through  a  porous  rock.  
  • 11. •  Sustainability  -­‐  a  method  of  harvesEng  or   using  a  resource  so  that  the  resource  is  not   depleted  or  permanently  damaged.     •  Biodiversity  -­‐  the  interacEon  between  living   and  nonliving  organisms,  how  they  are   different  and  how  they  relate  to  each  other  in   their  natural  habitat    
  • 12. Answer  the  following  ques8ons:   Give 3 examples of pioneer species and identify them for Primary or Secondary Succession •  Primary  Succession  -­‐      Lichens,  bacteria,  mosses     •  Secondary  Succession  -­‐      Weeds,  grasses  and  wildflowers    
  • 13. For primary succession •  order these: •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Rock   Lichens   Bacteria   Moss   Ferns   Grasses,  Weeds    &   Wildflowers   Shrubs  &  sm.  Trees   Pine  trees     Hardwood  trees   Forest  
  • 14. For secondary succession order these: •  Crabgrass   •  Horseweeds   •  (Grasses,  Weeds    &   Wildflowers)   •  Shrubs  &  sm.  Trees   •  Pine  trees     •  Pine  forest   •  Hardwood  trees   •  Hardwood  forest  
  • 15. Answer the following questions: •  What is the goal of ecological succession? Equilibrium The goal of succession is to restore an area to a climax community with much biodiversity. When this occurs, equilibrium or balance is more easily maintained. If an organism is removed from the ecosystem, the other organisms dependent on that organism will have other options for food, and can survive.
  • 16. 2. List the steps in primary succession. After a geologic event, bare rock is exposed to the environment. Stage 1: • Pioneer organisms, such as lichens, are the first to inhabit the area. • Lichens give off acid, which breaks the rock down into soil. Bacteria help to decompose them.
  • 17. Stage 2: • Once a small amount of soil is present, moss may start to grow on in the area. • As moss dies and decays, organic matter is added to soil. • The soil becomes thicker and contains more nutrients.
  • 18. Stage 3: • Ferns begin to grow. As they die they are decomposed and added to the soil. • Weeds, wildflowers and grasses will start to grow when the soil is thick enough. • As grasses and weeds die, they are decomposed and added to the soil.
  • 19. Stage 4: • When soil is thick enough, bushes and small trees will start to grow. • Pine trees are the first type of trees to grow in an area since they require less water and fewer soil nutrients.
  • 20. Stage 5: • When the soil becomes rich enough, deciduous trees start to grow. • Deciduous trees have the ability to grow taller than pine trees. • Leaves fall each year and decompose to add nutrients to the soil. • After a period of time, deciduous trees take over the area since they grow taller and have better ability to get light energy for photosynthesis.
  • 21. Climax Forest - The End of Succession • Eventually a mature temperate deciduous forest forms.
  • 22. 3. List the steps in secondary succession. Occurs in areas where there was a disturbance, soil is exposed to the environment. Steps: • Because soil is present, weeds will first start to grow. Grasses and wildflowers will follow the weeds. • Then shrubs and small trees will begin to grow. • Pine trees and then deciduous trees will grow. • Eventually a climax forest will regrow.
  • 23. Example of Secondary Succession Machu Pichu, ancient city of the Incans, discovered in Peru, 1913 Abandoned for thousands of years, the city was almost completely overgrown and hidden.
  • 24. Excavation of Machu Pichu Photograph by Hiram Bingham Commencing excavations at Ñusta Espana near Puquiura, near the stone platform shown in the last picture
  • 25. Machu Pichu is considered one of the wonders of the ancient world. It is also a tourist destination in Peru!
  • 26. 4. How does biodiversity affect the sustainability of an ecosystem? • The more biodiversity in an ecosystem, the more sustainable it is. • More (Higher) biodiversity = more sustainability • Less (Lower) biodiversity = less sustainability The more biodiverse an ecosystem means there are a greater variety of species and the ecosystem is better able to carry out natural processes in the face of external stress.
  • 27. 5.  What are three negative effects excess (TOO MUCH) fertilizer can have on the environment? Too much fertilizer isn’t helpful! It just runs off in the next rain…. • runs off into the watershed and pollutes the water • aquatic plants like algae will be overstimulated with results like algae bloom • causes respiratory diseases in animals and people who drink contaminated water
  • 28. 6. What are some of the effects on a community if it uses more groundwater than it replaces? Overuse of groundwater can cause wells to dry up. This can lead to expensive and often futile attempts to keep up with the dropping water table by drilling deeper and deeper wells.
  • 29. When too much water is withdrawn from the ground, the land can collapse, a process called subsidence. When groundwater fills spaces in the soil, it supplies part of the internal strength of the ground. When the water is removed, leaving openings filled only with air, the weight of the overlying earth compacts and crushes the spaces. In this photograph of California's San Joaquin Valley, the dates on the pole mark the former heights of the ground. In the span of 50 years, water pumping for irrigation led to nearly 30 feet of subsidence.
  • 30. Removing too much groundwater can leave underground holes, leading to sinkholes http://youtu.be/ZEvCP7TXIEU Sinkhole in Daisetta, TX A sinkhole opened in the middle of a Florida highway, near a residential area in 2004 The sinkhole appeared in downtown Guatemala City, swallowing a three-story building Sinkholes around the world http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9IyIH_3eIi0
  • 31. 7.  List  3  ways  humans  negaEvely  impact      groundwater.  Describe  the  effects.   •  Over  ferElizaEon  of  crops  can  lead  to  runoff   and  seepage  into  groundwater  supplies,   polluEng  the  water   •  LiYer  and  trash  –  pollute  surface  and   groundwater  supplies   •  Overuse  of  ground  water  –  removing  too   much  ground  water  can  lead  to  sink  holes  and   subsidence,  as  well  as  deplete  the  resource  
  • 32. 8.  List  2  ways  an  area  can  be  disrupted  to      the  point  that  secondary  succession  will    occur.   •  Natural  disrupEon   – Fire,  Floods,  Tsunamis,  Tornadoes,  etc.   •  Human  disrupEon   – Building  a  shopping  mall,  house,  road   – Mining   – Farming  
  • 33. 9.  Draw  and  label  the  steps  of  the  water  cycle.