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2013 respiratory system pdf

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  • 1. The Respiratory System
  • 2. Function of the Respiratory System •  To provide a constant supply of oxygen (O2) to keep your body cells functioning •  To remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body cells
  • 3. Structure of the Respiratory System are the Organs •  Nose •  Mouth •  Nasal cavity •  Pharynx •  Epiglottis •  Larynx •  Trachea •  Bronchus (bronchi) •  Bronchioles •  Alveoli •  Pleura •  Diaphragm Lungs
  • 4. http://www.bbc.co.uk Nasal Cavity Nose Mouth Bronchus Bronchiole Alveolus Diaphragm Throat (pharynx) Windpipe (Trachea) Left Lung Ribs
  • 5. Mouth & Nose •  Brings air (O2) into the body •  Carbon Dioxide leaves the body through the mouth and nose •  Nasal hairs in nostrils filter and trap dust. •  Air is not filtered as much when it enters in through your mouth.
  • 6. Nasal cavity •  Warms & moistens air •  Glands that produce sticky mucus line the nasal cavity – traps dust, pollen, and other materials that were not trapped by nasal hairs – cilia sweep mucus and trapped material to the back of the throat where it can be swallowed
  • 7. Pharynx (Throat) •  Tube-like passageway used by food, liquid, and air •  At the lower end of the pharynx is a flap of tissue called the epiglottis – covers the trachea during swallowing so that food does not enter the lungs epiglottis
  • 8. Larynx •  “Voice box” •  The airway to which two pairs of horizontal folds of tissue, called vocal cords, are attached
  • 9. Trachea (Windpipe) •  Air-conducting tube •  Connects the larynx with the bronchi •  Lined with mucous membranes and cilia •  Contains strong cartilage rings which hold the trachea open. Without these rings your trachea might close off and air would not be able to get to and from your lungs.
  • 10. Bronchi •  Two short tubes that branch off the lower end of the trachea •  Carry air into the lungs. •  Singular - bronchus
  • 11. Bronchioles •  bronchi tubes split up, like tree branches, and get smaller and smaller inside your lungs. •  The tiny branches of air tubes in the lungs are bronchioles •  Connect bronchi to alveoli
  • 12. Alveoli •  Tiny, thin-walled, grapelike clusters at the end of each bronchiole •  Surrounded by capillaries •  Where carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange take place •  Singular - alveolus
  • 13. Bronchi and Alveoli Picture
  • 14. http://mhln.com
  • 15. Pleura •  Membrane lining the lungs and chest cavity
  • 16. Diaphragm •  Muscle wall between the chest and the abdomen that the body uses for breathing •  Lungs expand and contract in response to changes in pressure inside the chest cavity. •  The diaphragm flattens to cause the chest to expand and air is pulled into the lungs. •  When the diaphragm relaxes, the chest collapses and the air in the lungs is forced out.
  • 17. Diagram of Diaphram
  • 18. Respiratory System Animation
  • 19. Inhalation •  Breathing in •  Body gets oxygen from the air •  Rib muscles contract to pull ribs up and out •  Diaphragm muscle contracts to pull down the lungs •  Tissue expands to force (pull) in air.
  • 20. Exhalation •  Breathing out •  Get rid of carbon dioxide •  Rib muscles relax •  Diaphragm muscle relaxes •  Tissue returns to resting position and forces (pushes) air out
  • 21. Breathing and Respiration are NOT the same thing!
  • 22. Breathing • Moving air in and out of the lungs
  • 23. Respiration •  Chemical reaction that releases energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 à 6CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy
  • 24. Relationship to Digestive System •  Cellular respiration requires glucose and oxygen to release energy to the body •  C6H12O6 + 6O2 à 6CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy •  Oxygen is provided by the respiratory system •  Glucose is provided by the digestive system •  (glucose is made during photosynthesis)
  • 25. Relationship to Nervous System •  The respiratory system is under control of the involuntary and voluntary nervous system. —We don’t think about breathing. —The autonomic nervous system controls breathing in response to the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.
  • 26. Relationship to Nervous System •  The respiratory system is under control of the involuntary and voluntary nervous system. —We don’t think about breathing. —The autonomic nervous system controls breathing in response to the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.
  • 27. Relationship to Nervous System —Humans can decide to hold their breath. —The respiratory system is then controlled by the somatic nervous system. —If you pass out from holding your breath, your autonomic nervous system will take over and return the blood gasses to normal.
  • 28. Respiratory Information Each lung is about the size of a football. The lungs fill the area from the collarbone to the bottom of the ribs. Lungs are the only organ in the body light enough to float. There are 300-500 million alveoli having a total surface area or about 75 m2 in adults (about the size of three living rooms).
  • 29. Respiratory Information •  If all the capillaries that surround the alveoli were unwound and laid end to end they would extend about 620 miles. •  At rest, the body takes in and breathes out about 10 liters of air each minute. •  The right lung is slightly larger than the left. •  The highest recorded "sneeze speed" is 165 km per hour.
  • 30. Respiratory Information •  The surface area of the lungs is roughly the same size as a tennis court. •  We lose half a liter of water a day through breathing. This is the water vapor we see when we breathe onto glass. •  A person at rest usually breathes between 12 and 15 times a minute. •  The breathing rate is faster in children and women than in men.