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Pres reinnova nick cawthorne v2
 

Pres reinnova nick cawthorne v2

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    Pres reinnova nick cawthorne v2 Pres reinnova nick cawthorne v2 Presentation Transcript

    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Comparing the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Performance of Residual Waste Treatment Solutions Nick Cawthorne Golder Associates (UK) LtdORGANIZADO POR: CON LA COLABORACIÓN DE:
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Background• EU Landfill Directive (Article 5 Landfill Diversion Targets)• Objective to reduce environmental impact of landfill (particularly global warming) and increase recycling and recovery;• Mechanisms: landfill bans, separate collection, recycling targets and landfill tax;• These mechanisms encourage residual waste diversion but dont optimise alternative solution;• Alternative waste solution will have very different impacts associated with waste treatment and very different benefits associated with energy and materials recovery;• Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) considers overall environmental performance of waste solution options.
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Objective of this LCA StudyCompare Life Cycle environmental performance of differentresidual waste treatment solutions.In consideration of:• Treatment and Transport impacts;• Residues disposal;• Materials recovery benefit;• Energy recovery benefit.
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Life Cycle Assessment Model• Waste Resource Assessment Tool for the Environment (WRATE) is the LCA tool used in UK for waste management applications;• Background database contains standard LCI data from ecoinvent centre Switzerland and detailed process data for many waste treatment options;• Results available for different impact assessments including global warming potential and resource depletion;• Developed by Golder Associates and ERM for Environment Agency in UK.
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy WRATE Modelling• Seven scenarios for the management of residual waste.• Assumptions and Limitations – Waste composition data - Typical UK Residual Waste; – 250,000 tonnes waste; – Vehicles are ‘waste collection vehicles’ or ‘Intermodal Road Transport’ travelling 25 km, road type split is 80% urban/20% rural; – The electricity mix selected is year 2011, UK; – All landfills - HDPE composite liner and HDPE cap; – Waste treatment uses existing processes in WRATE for each treatment type.
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Scenarios Modelled• Scenario 1 - Waste to Energy (Power);• Scenario 2 - Mechanical Biological Treatment (RDF);• Scenario 3 - Materials Recycling Facility, MRF (Recycling and RDF);• Scenario 4 - Mechanical Biological Treatment (Stabilisation);• Scenario 5 - Mechanical Biological Treatment (Recycling and Anerobic Digestion);• Scenario 6 - Waste to Energy (Combined Heat and Power, CHP); and• Scenario 7 - Landfill.Note: Scenarios 2, 3 RDF to cement kiln; Scenarios 2, 3, 5 waste residues to off site WtE; Scenario 5 AD Digestate landfilled as stabilite.
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyMaterials RecyclingFacility (MRF)
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyMechanicalBiologicalTreatment Plant
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyWaste to Energy plant(WtE)
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyRefuse Derived Fuel(RDF)Cement kiln
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Scenario WasteResources Conference(Power) Waste to 1: Waste to (power) to Energy Energy Non-ferrous Aluminium Ferrous Ferrous OTHER Residual Waste Commercial Incinerators IBA IBA Recycling vehicles Power To Landfill LandfillDate 11/05/2011
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Scenario 5 - MBT (Anerobic Digestion) Waste to Resources Conference MBT (AD) Paper and card Paper Dense Plastic Plastics Plastics-1 Flat Plastic Glass Glass-1 Non-Ferrous Aluminium Ferrous Ferrous Non-FerrousResidual Waste To MBT MBT and AD Ferrous OTHER Incinerators IBA Recycling Power IBA Landfill Stabilite to Landfill To Landfill
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Material Recovery Rates Scenario Number Paper & Plastic Dense Glass Ferrous Non RDF IBA and Treatment Card Film Plastic (tonnes) (tonnes) Ferrous (tonnes) (tonnes) Solution (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes) (tonnes)1 WtE (Power) 7,566 1,150 54,9562 MBT (RDF) 6,734 1,769 110,277 28,552 MRF3 (Recycling, 5,497 11,269 8,384 2,243 17,964 39,303 RDF) MBT4 3,723 7,258 1,986 18,988 (Stabilisation)5 MBT (AD) 41,324 1,984 2,977 5,580 8,339 2,070 4,9256 WtE (CHP) 7,566 1,150 54,9567 Landfill
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Results – Global Warming Potential: Multiple Impact Assessments Treatment and Collection Intermediate Facilities Recovery Transportation Recycling LandfillEuropean Person EquivalentScenario: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Results – Global Warming Potential (Combined)Kg CO2 Eq. Scenario: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Best Performing Solutions - Global Warming Potential1. Scenario 3 – Materials Recycling Facility, MRF (Recycling and RDF);2. Scenario 6 – Waste to Energy (Combined Heat and Power, CHP)3. Scenario 1 – Waste to Energy (Power)4. Scenario 2 – Mechanical Biological Treatment (RDF)5. Scenario 5 – Mechanical Biological Treatment (Anerobic Digestion)6. Scenario 4 – Mechanical Biological Treatment (Stabilisation)7. Scenario 7 – Landfill.Note: Results very different if MBT/MRF residues to landfill not WtE
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Explanation of ResultsScenario 3 – Materials Recycling Facility, MRF (Recycling and RDF)• Recycling of dense plastic, ferrous metal and glass;• Non recycled waste to energy recovery, RDF to cement kiln and residues WtE;• No waste to landfill. More carbon benefit is achieved by recycling a given amount of plastic or paper than can be achieved by combusting for energy recovery in a WtE plant or in a cement kiln as RDF.Scenario 6 WtE (CHP), Scenario 1 – WtE (Power) and Scenario 2 – MBT (RDF)• Less Recycling (metal recycling only);• Non recycled waste to energy recovery, RDF and WtE;• No waste to landfill.
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Explanation of ResultsScenario 5 – MBT (AD) and Scenario 4 – MBT (Stabilisation)• Recycling plastic, paper/card, metals and glass;• Low energy recovery (AD only) net of energy consumption for treatment;• Significant landfill disposal.Scenario 7 (landfill)• All waste landfilled;• No material or energy recovery, other than via landfill gas utilisation.
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Observations• Best performing solutions include a high degree of recycling and energy recovery of all other waste;• Plastic, paper/card and glass can only be recycled before combustion;• Recovery rates of metals, particularly non ferrous metal, is likely to be higher prior to combustion than recovery from bottom ash;• Carbon benefit is particularly sensitive to non ferrous metal recovery;• Any solution which includes significant landfilling of stabilised waste will perform less well;• Any solution which includes landfilling of residue fractions will perform less well.
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Conclusions• The carbon (global warming potential) performance of residual waste treatment solutions is enhanced where the maximum amount of materials are recycled followed by combustion of all residues for energy recovery (RDF or WtE);• More carbon is recovered by material recycling than by energy recovery of the same waste;• Comment: Financial incentives typically focused more on energy recovery than material recycling;• Landfilling of stabilised waste or residues greatly reduces the performance of the solution.
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Conclusions• MBT/MRF and WtE typically seen as two fundamentally separate approaches;• Optimisation of MBT/MRF requires WtE of residues (possibly at separate facility);• Optimisation of WtE requires recycling of materials in advance (MRF before WtE);• Optimisation converges the two approaches towards a single solution;• Maximum material recycling followed by Energy recovery and zero landfill;• Energy recovery by RDF or WtE.
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyMuchas GraciasNick Cawthornencawthorne@golder.com