Pres münnich

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Pres münnich

  1. 1. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy MBT: CONSEQUENCES ON CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF LANDFILLS Kai Münnich Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Department of Waste and Resource ManagementORGANIZADO POR: CON LA COLABORACIÓN DE:
  2. 2. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyCommon practice of waste disposal…. © Now Public
  3. 3. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyMBT disposal on landfills…Practice of waste disposal in future…. !?
  4. 4. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyFresh waste MBT material Why MBT? Reduction of - risks by emissions during landfill operation - time necessary for aftercare - effort for aftercare Changes in construction and operation? < 60 mm < 25 mm
  5. 5. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyQuality of MBT waste in Germany:- Criteria in annex 3 of Landfill Ordinance (2009).  low concentrations in leachate - Stability parameter: - respiration rate: ≤ 5 mg/g (DS) or - digestion rate: ≤ 20 l/kg (DS) - TOCEluate : ≤ 300 mg/l  low concentrations of organics in leachate  low gas emissions - Utilisation parameter: - Upper calorific value: ≤ 6000 kJ/kg (DS) or - TOCsolid: ≤ 18 M. % (DS)  material size < 40 – 60 mm
  6. 6. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyWaste disposal: no requirements in view of physical parameters but: maximal emplacement density should be achieved  less settlement  less leachate  higher mechanical stability  longer lifespan until end of backfillingHow to determine waste density? - measurement of landfill surface (e.g. GPS) but, settlement of old waste layers and subsoil is enclosed - sampling on landfill area problems in sampling - proctortests maximal size < 60 mm static test  dynamic compaction on landfill  differences?
  7. 7. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Results from proctortests: 90 Bidlingmaier et al (1999) Kühle-Weidemeier (2004) 80 Rettenberger (2005) Entenmann/Wendt (2007) Heyer et al (2008) Entenmann (2009) LWI (anaerob-aerob) 70 LWI (aerob)Water content [w-% DS] 60 50 40 30 Fresh Waste 0.5 – 1.0 MBT material 0.8 – 1.5 20 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 1,1 1,2 1,3 Proctordensity [t/m3 DS]
  8. 8. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Proctorcurve and material size 1,20 MH <60 1,10 WHV <60 NH <60 Bu < 60 1,00Dry density [t/m3] 0,90 0,80 0,70 0,60 0,50 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Water content [w-% WS]
  9. 9. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economySlope stability: Reason: plastics are able to take up 40 tensile forces  „grouted anchor“ for the slope 56 3.0 1.0 18 sgs engineersMBT: - screening to <60 mm  reduction of reinforcing material (fibres) from >25 M.-% to < 5 M.-%  Tensile strength??
  10. 10. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economySurface settlement: Calculation based on the physical properties of the waste is not possible at the moment  Total settlement: MBT Fresh waste primary settlement (load): 15 - 20 35 – 50 % secondary settlement (creep, biol. processes) : < 5 15 - 30 %  after total filling settlement is completed in large part  as a result of the homogeneity of MBT material large differences in settlement are not to be expected  Consequences for construction and operation:  final surface sealing system can be installed earlier  time and effort for monitoring in the closing and aftercare phase are reduced distinctly
  11. 11. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyHydraulic properties:Parameters important for the movement of water and the generation ofleachate at the base of the landfill body:  Infiltration-rate F and  saturated hydraulic conductivity k F>k! German recommendation: MBT-material: k = 1*10-6 – 1*10-9 m/s Fresh waste: k = 1*10-3 – 1*10-6 m/s  Low permeabilities? - Surface runoff possible  less leachate at the landfill base - Pore water pressure?  slope stability? - higher evaporation rate  less leachate
  12. 12. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyk-values from laboratory tests 1E-04 < 60 mm Fresh waste < 40 mm < 30 mm Saturated hydr. conductivity [m/s] 1E-05 1E-06 1E-07 MBT 1E-08 1E-09 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 1,1 1,2 Dry density [t/m³]
  13. 13. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyLandfill operation - emplacement technology Engines: For distribution: bulldozer/tracked loaders For compaction: compactor? pad foot roller and vibrating smooth roller
  14. 14. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyDesign of the emplacement surface: Why ? To avoid impoundment of surface water  soaking of the surface  impassability of the area
  15. 15. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyDesign of the emplacement surface: Covering with foils? Problems: Generation of condense respectively impounded water underneath the foil  trafficability ? © Rettenberger  slipping of the foil ? Slope of the surface ( 5 %) daily rolling with smooth roller  catchment and treatment of surface runoff!
  16. 16. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyEmissions from MBT landfills: Leachate volume Leachate at the basis + surface runoff = ~ 65 % of precipitation Leachate at the basis : surface runoff = 55 : 45 %
  17. 17. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Emissions from MBT landfills: Leachate  quality 3000 F1 Basis F1 Surface new waste layer- Leachate and surface runoff must be collected- Dilution effects esp. on concentrations in surface runoff 2000- A purification of both streams might be necessary COD [mg/l]- Increase in concentrations after emplacement of new waste layers- Concentrations much lower than in fresh wastes, typical for landfills in the stable methane phase- Biostability is already high (BOD5/COD = 0,02 – 0,15) 1000 0 Apr/ 10 Mai/ 10 Jul/ 10 Aug/ 10 Okt/ 10 Dez/ 10 Jan/ 11 Mrz/ 11 Mai/ 11 Jun/ 11
  18. 18. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyEmissions from MBT landfills: Gas By MBT the gas potential is reduced of about 80 – 90 % to 10 – 45 Nm3/Mg DS The gas flux is expected to be low: low permeability of the MBT material low temperatures in the MBT landfill  Active degassing does not make sense in technical and economical view  Passive system, e.g. methane oxidation layer Methane oxidation potential: Soil layer: 2,5 – 12 l CH4/m2*h > Methane flux from MBT Compost substrate: 12 – 30 l CH4/m2*h H2O CO2 O2 Recultivation- and methane oxidation layer CH4 CH4 CH4
  19. 19. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyChanges in construction and operation of MBT landfills in comparisonto „traditional“ landfillsModificationWater household • lower volume of leachate at the base • lower concentrations in leachate • collection treatment of runoffStability • higher density • low settlement • flat slopesGas • no active degassing and gas treatmentOperation • changes in engines for disposal and compaction • less infrastructure • longer lifespan • less staffAftercare • less monitoring • shorter duration
  20. 20. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economySummary: Physical behaviour of MBT output material has to be tested before disposal The construction (slope, engines etc.) and the operation (covering, drainage etc.) have to be adapted to the specific local conditions Leachate from the base has still to be treated, but the volumes and concentrations are definitely lower Surface runoff has to be collected and possibly be treated The low volumes of gas can be collected and treated by passive systems Time and effort during operation phase is increased, during the aftercare phase clearly reduced The better the intensity of treatment (or the degree of stabilization) the smaller the effort necessary after closure of the landfill
  21. 21. Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Thank you for your attention !Dr.-Ing. K. Münnichk.muennich@tu-bs.de

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