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Pres münnich
 

Pres münnich

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    Pres münnich Pres münnich Presentation Transcript

    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy MBT: CONSEQUENCES ON CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF LANDFILLS Kai Münnich Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Department of Waste and Resource ManagementORGANIZADO POR: CON LA COLABORACIÓN DE:
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyCommon practice of waste disposal…. © Now Public
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyMBT disposal on landfills…Practice of waste disposal in future…. !?
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyFresh waste MBT material Why MBT? Reduction of - risks by emissions during landfill operation - time necessary for aftercare - effort for aftercare Changes in construction and operation? < 60 mm < 25 mm
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyQuality of MBT waste in Germany:- Criteria in annex 3 of Landfill Ordinance (2009).  low concentrations in leachate - Stability parameter: - respiration rate: ≤ 5 mg/g (DS) or - digestion rate: ≤ 20 l/kg (DS) - TOCEluate : ≤ 300 mg/l  low concentrations of organics in leachate  low gas emissions - Utilisation parameter: - Upper calorific value: ≤ 6000 kJ/kg (DS) or - TOCsolid: ≤ 18 M. % (DS)  material size < 40 – 60 mm
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyWaste disposal: no requirements in view of physical parameters but: maximal emplacement density should be achieved  less settlement  less leachate  higher mechanical stability  longer lifespan until end of backfillingHow to determine waste density? - measurement of landfill surface (e.g. GPS) but, settlement of old waste layers and subsoil is enclosed - sampling on landfill area problems in sampling - proctortests maximal size < 60 mm static test  dynamic compaction on landfill  differences?
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Results from proctortests: 90 Bidlingmaier et al (1999) Kühle-Weidemeier (2004) 80 Rettenberger (2005) Entenmann/Wendt (2007) Heyer et al (2008) Entenmann (2009) LWI (anaerob-aerob) 70 LWI (aerob)Water content [w-% DS] 60 50 40 30 Fresh Waste 0.5 – 1.0 MBT material 0.8 – 1.5 20 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 1,1 1,2 1,3 Proctordensity [t/m3 DS]
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Proctorcurve and material size 1,20 MH <60 1,10 WHV <60 NH <60 Bu < 60 1,00Dry density [t/m3] 0,90 0,80 0,70 0,60 0,50 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Water content [w-% WS]
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economySlope stability: Reason: plastics are able to take up 40 tensile forces  „grouted anchor“ for the slope 56 3.0 1.0 18 sgs engineersMBT: - screening to <60 mm  reduction of reinforcing material (fibres) from >25 M.-% to < 5 M.-%  Tensile strength??
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economySurface settlement: Calculation based on the physical properties of the waste is not possible at the moment  Total settlement: MBT Fresh waste primary settlement (load): 15 - 20 35 – 50 % secondary settlement (creep, biol. processes) : < 5 15 - 30 %  after total filling settlement is completed in large part  as a result of the homogeneity of MBT material large differences in settlement are not to be expected  Consequences for construction and operation:  final surface sealing system can be installed earlier  time and effort for monitoring in the closing and aftercare phase are reduced distinctly
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyHydraulic properties:Parameters important for the movement of water and the generation ofleachate at the base of the landfill body:  Infiltration-rate F and  saturated hydraulic conductivity k F>k! German recommendation: MBT-material: k = 1*10-6 – 1*10-9 m/s Fresh waste: k = 1*10-3 – 1*10-6 m/s  Low permeabilities? - Surface runoff possible  less leachate at the landfill base - Pore water pressure?  slope stability? - higher evaporation rate  less leachate
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyk-values from laboratory tests 1E-04 < 60 mm Fresh waste < 40 mm < 30 mm Saturated hydr. conductivity [m/s] 1E-05 1E-06 1E-07 MBT 1E-08 1E-09 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 1,1 1,2 Dry density [t/m³]
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyLandfill operation - emplacement technology Engines: For distribution: bulldozer/tracked loaders For compaction: compactor? pad foot roller and vibrating smooth roller
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyDesign of the emplacement surface: Why ? To avoid impoundment of surface water  soaking of the surface  impassability of the area
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyDesign of the emplacement surface: Covering with foils? Problems: Generation of condense respectively impounded water underneath the foil  trafficability ? © Rettenberger  slipping of the foil ? Slope of the surface ( 5 %) daily rolling with smooth roller  catchment and treatment of surface runoff!
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyEmissions from MBT landfills: Leachate volume Leachate at the basis + surface runoff = ~ 65 % of precipitation Leachate at the basis : surface runoff = 55 : 45 %
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Emissions from MBT landfills: Leachate  quality 3000 F1 Basis F1 Surface new waste layer- Leachate and surface runoff must be collected- Dilution effects esp. on concentrations in surface runoff 2000- A purification of both streams might be necessary COD [mg/l]- Increase in concentrations after emplacement of new waste layers- Concentrations much lower than in fresh wastes, typical for landfills in the stable methane phase- Biostability is already high (BOD5/COD = 0,02 – 0,15) 1000 0 Apr/ 10 Mai/ 10 Jul/ 10 Aug/ 10 Okt/ 10 Dez/ 10 Jan/ 11 Mrz/ 11 Mai/ 11 Jun/ 11
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyEmissions from MBT landfills: Gas By MBT the gas potential is reduced of about 80 – 90 % to 10 – 45 Nm3/Mg DS The gas flux is expected to be low: low permeability of the MBT material low temperatures in the MBT landfill  Active degassing does not make sense in technical and economical view  Passive system, e.g. methane oxidation layer Methane oxidation potential: Soil layer: 2,5 – 12 l CH4/m2*h > Methane flux from MBT Compost substrate: 12 – 30 l CH4/m2*h H2O CO2 O2 Recultivation- and methane oxidation layer CH4 CH4 CH4
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economyChanges in construction and operation of MBT landfills in comparisonto „traditional“ landfillsModificationWater household • lower volume of leachate at the base • lower concentrations in leachate • collection treatment of runoffStability • higher density • low settlement • flat slopesGas • no active degassing and gas treatmentOperation • changes in engines for disposal and compaction • less infrastructure • longer lifespan • less staffAftercare • less monitoring • shorter duration
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economySummary: Physical behaviour of MBT output material has to be tested before disposal The construction (slope, engines etc.) and the operation (covering, drainage etc.) have to be adapted to the specific local conditions Leachate from the base has still to be treated, but the volumes and concentrations are definitely lower Surface runoff has to be collected and possibly be treated The low volumes of gas can be collected and treated by passive systems Time and effort during operation phase is increased, during the aftercare phase clearly reduced The better the intensity of treatment (or the degree of stabilization) the smaller the effort necessary after closure of the landfill
    • Los retos en la gestión de residuos urbanos en una economía globalizada Els reptes en la gestió de residus urbans en una economia globalitzada Challenges in waste management in a globalized economy Thank you for your attention !Dr.-Ing. K. Münnichk.muennich@tu-bs.de