[Metropolia Student Project Seminar 24.5.] Water and Wastewater Treatment
Environmental Assessment Introductory Project Water and Wastewater Treatment Client : Finnish Green Building CouncilStudents- researchers : Liva Bruvere (Latvia) Payman Fathi (Iran) Raju Gautam (Nepal) Lauri Ilmonen (Finland) Helsinki, 2012
Content of Presentation• Objective of the project• House as a system. Perfect example• Water consumption in households• Novel approaches to minimize the production of wastewater• Urban and grey water reuse• Energy and nutrient recovery of domestic waste waters• Conclusions• References
Objective of the Project• To provide client (FIGBC) with novel and extensive research report in the field of water and wastewater systems• Discover new technologies and ways of thinking about water and wastewater sustainability in the urban environment • Review collected information and try to criticize findings by the ……….view of new perspectives. • To immerse ourselves in the professional water management field and present it to an audience
House as a System. Sustainable building example. Photo: proxima.com.ua/otoplenie
ECO Showerdrop water meter• Man-shaped icon displays the volume of water recommended for a shower. Sensor indicating that 35 of water are used will buzzer sounds for five seconds.• Family of four person could save over 220 Euros on water and energy bills per year• There is no ‘hidden science’ in this product• Costs approximately 13-15 Euros Photo: inhabitant.com
AQUS® water reuse system • Easy to install • Saves 22700 liters of fresh water in a normal two-person bathroom • Reused water is filtered and treated • Fresh water is used to supplement fill cycle • Only annual maintenance is required • 2010 Top 10 Green Building Products Award byPhoto: AQUS Sustainable Industries, etc.
Conclusions• A lot of extras and innovations for (more information in report)• Zone where to start reduce use of water is used showers and toilets.• Most of Europe and North America countries have enough water resources.• ‘Water saving’ popularization could make system work better; at first, save drinkable water that is flushed away, live environmentally friendly, and, in addition, save families money.• To ‘be green’ not always cost a lot
Urban water reuse• Very useful in present and future situation of drought in many nations• Report is divided into two parts; 1. Grey water reuse and 2. Rain water harvesting
Grey water reuse• Recycle in centralized way generally• Conventional methods used all over the world most• But lack of sustainability.• Preliminary, primary, secondary including disinfection process included• Can be used as potable water and various other usages• Need of awareness about the use into potable
Rain water harvesting• Easy, efficient and very natural• Process begins with; 1. collection from roofs 2. storage 3. purification 4. disinfection 5. ready to reuse for various purposes• Ph level 6,5-7
A model of domestic reuse of grey waterPhoto: lowenergyhouse.com
Drain water heat recovery (DWHR)• Approximately 350 Billion KWh of energy is sent down the drain annually in the United States alone.• This accounts for 17% of residential site energy used.• Drain water heat recovery (DWHR) three types 1. Storage 2. On-demand 3. Heat pump
DWHR how it worksFlowconfiguration Heat Energy SavingsBalanced ~50%Unbalanced 30-45% Cooperman, A, et al Photo: Van Decker, G
DWHR 32 home pilot in Sneek, NL • Pilot project started in 2006. • 1.0 l/flush vacuum toilet collection, kitchen waste energy utilized, anaerobic treatment (UASB), MAP, OLAND, • Biogas production Photo: Meulman, B
DeSaR concept demonstrated for 32 houses in Sneek Photo: Zeeman, G
Biogas production in Sneek pilot Photo: Meulman, B
Algae biomass harvesting• Dutch Institute of Ecology (NIOO) in Wageningen Photo: DeSaH
Algae production from digested separete collected BW and urine N:P *Algal biomass P Case N gN/p/d (atomic produced (g/p/d) gP/p/d ratio) acoording to P Sneek* 6,2 0,46 29,84 46*CH1,78O0,36N0,12P0,0075 (Duboc et.al., 1999):Redfield ratio N:P of 16:1P is the limiting nutrient Photo: Zeeman, G
Conclusion DWHR and DeSaH• On-site treatment of waste waters more sustainable.• Recovery of biogas ~ 1.0 l/p/d.• DeSaR saves 11-15 m3 drinking water/p/y• Lower cost of piping infrastructure/ waste transport.• DeSaR found more sustainable by LCA [Remy, C].• DWHR saves water heating energy by up to 50%.• DWHR low cost tech for green building program certification(e.g. LEED).• Increased effective hot water capacity (reduce primary size) and/or• Increased life of water heater(s).
Final conclusions• Minimize domestic waste waters production. – Recycling of grey water to toilets (Eg. Aqus). – Aerating fixtures. – Low-flow shower heads. – Increasing environmental awareness (Eg. Shower meter). – Waterless urinals and low flush toilets.• Urban water reuse and rain water harvesting save non-potable/ potable water.• DWHR saves water heating energy by up to 50% and increases hot water capacity. – Saves energy by having less hot water in hot water system.• DeSaR saves 11-15 m3 drinking water/p/y. – Recovery of biogas ~ 1.0 l/p/d. – New DeSaR systems maximize biogas yield with algae biomass harvesting in UASB.
References1. Maryland Department of the Environment Water Supply Program, (2010) http://www.mde.state.md.us/assets/document/resaudit.pdf2. AQUS® commercial information, (2012) http://www.iwantaqus.com/index.html3. RSmart brochure for water savers, (2011) http://issuu.com/resourcesmart/docs/brochure_start_1_/6#dow nload4. John Hinton, water use brochure (2009).5. Cooperman, A., Dieckmann, J., and Brodrick, J. Ph.D. (2011). Drain water heat recovery. ASHRAE Journal, November 2011, pages 58-61.5. Van Decker, G. (2011). Drain Water Heat Recovery: On the Road to Becoming a Mainstream Supplemental Water Heating Technology. RenewABILITY Energy Inc. Presentation.6. http://www.homeenergy.org/show/article/id/7477. http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/water_heatin g/index.cfm/mytopic=13040References
References8. http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/water_heatin g/index.cfm/mytopic=13040References9. Meanderhr Heat Recovery. http://www.meanderhr.com/technical/types-of-dwhr- system/heat9. Zeeman, G., Kujawa-Roeleveld, K., Meulman, B., Hernandez, L. Present sanitation in ‘North’ and ‘South’ presentation.10. Meulman, B. DeSaH presentation.
Acknowledgements• Thanks Finnish Green Building Council for given opportunity to make this project.• Project Report and Presentation can be found in groups account – ‘ Group 4 Water and Wastewater Systems’ or by link:https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=explorer&srcid=0B4oyQT5H6TB0RDIkSvbgz18YDwC• You are welcome to ask questions!