The Challenge We Face Minimal separation and rapid pace. High-speed operations with little margin for error. Complex environment. Low visibility in poor weather. Combination of Factors Minimizes Safety Margin
The Challenge We Face High-speed operations with little margin for error Minimal separation and rapid pace Complex environment Low visibility in poor weather Combination of Factors Minimizes Safety Margin
System Overview To illustrate the point- JFK- 1068 airport operations per day ORD- 2410 airport operations per day LAX- 1615 airport operations per day ATL- 2644 airport operations per day Numbers taken at random from a week in March, 2011
System Overview The U.S. air transportation system contains- Over 20,000 landing facilities Over 5,000 public use airports 562 airports certificated by the FAA Discussions of system capacity cannot be limited to the en route and terminal environment.
Increasing Capacity It means more than improving efficiency and expanding our infrastructure- It means making our current environment as safe as possible; It means looking for opportunities to improve safety while increasing our capacity; It means viewing the airport environment as a critical part of the overall air traffic system.
Airfield Design and Configuration The basic runway and taxiway configurations at many US airports were constructed prior to the modern jet age. Since that time, the volume, speed, and complexity of air traffic have all grown, contributing to the risk of runway incursions.
Airfield Design and Configuration What can be done? Avoid layouts that include complex intersections; Avoid layouts that include closely spaced parallel runways; Avoid layouts that require aircraft and vehicles to cross runways;
Airfield Design and Configuration What can be done? Avoid layouts that require aircraft taxiing for takeoff to cross the active runway at an intermediate point to reach the approach end of the active runway; Avoid layouts that will result in aircraft taxiing or back taxiing on runways.
Addressing Flight Crew Performance to Eliminate Pilot Deviations
Addressing Flight Crew Issues Problem: Pilots fail to hold short after acknowledging hold short instructions. Install a hold position sign on the right side of the taxiway; Paint a hold position sign on the pavement surface; Install runway guard light. Solutions:
Addressing Flight Crew Issues Problem: Pilots fail to turn as instructed or make a wrong turn. Use a 12-inch-wide centerline outlined in black to delineate the preferred route; Paint direction and/or location signs on the pavement surface Provide charting materials that help identify “hot spots.” Solutions:
Addressing Flight Crew Issues Problem: Pilots land on the parallel taxiway rather that the runways. Install Runway End Identifier Lights at the end of the runway; Construct an asphalt blast pad with yellow chevrons at the beginning of the runway; Install approach light systems for the runway. Solutions:
Addressing Vehicle and Pedestrian Impact on Runway Incursions
Addressing Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations Airport rules and regulations pertaining to vehicle operations; Areas where they are authorized to drive; Location of perimeter roads; Boundaries of movement and non-movement area; Airport layout, including the designation of runways and taxiways. Driver training:
Addressing Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations Meaning of airfield signage and markings; Proper radio phraseology, procedures, and frequencies; Meaning of light gun signals; Traffic patterns associated with each runway; Right of way rules; Accident/incident reporting requirements. Driver training:
Addressing Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations Initial and recurrent driver training is required by the FAA as part of the airport certification program; The FAA reviews and audits training programs to ensure the content meets regulatory requirements; Airports are subject to civil penalty if training is not completed and accurate records are not kept. Driver training:
Finding Technical Solutions to Reducing Runway Incursions
Airport Markings Enhanced Taxiway Centerline http://www.faa.gov/airports_airtraffic/airports/airport_safety/signs_marking/ The enhanced taxiway centerline marking begins 150 feet prior to holding position markings and must be installed at all holding positions for runways on the entire airport.
Runway Status Lights (RWSL) RWSL to be installed at 22 ASDE-X airports Takeoff Hold Lights (THLs) Runway Entrance Lights (RELs)
Alternating Yellow and Green Old Standard New Standard RWSL – Runway Entrance Lights (RELs)
Alternating Yellow and Green Old Standard New Standard RWSL – Take-Off Hold Lights (THLs)
Runway Incursion Reduction Goal By 2013, reduce runway incursions by 10%
EMAS Installations Baton Rouge Metropolitan Airport, LA Roanoke Regional Airport, WV Little Rock Airport, AR Greater Binghamton Airport, NY Photos Courtesy of ESCO
Successful EMAS Capture EMAS capture of a Falcon 900 at Greenville Downtown Airport, SC July 17, 2006
In conclusion Lessons we’ve applied in the US: The performance of the airport system is every bit as important to capacity as radar and air traffic services; The more performance we try to “wring” out of our system, the smaller the safety margins become; Achieving the desired level of safety is possible, but it requires a multidisciplinary approach and a commitment from both regulator and user.
For questions, contact- Mike Brown [email_address] Thank you for your time