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# Fall Protection, Gtech

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### Fall Protection, Gtech

1. 1. Fall Protection for Construction A Survival Guide Georgia Tech
2. 2. Statistics • Falls are the number one cause of fatalities in the construction industry. • 150-200 workers are killed each year and more than 100,000 injured as a result of falls. • Overall (including general industry) falls are the number two biggest cause of fatalities in the U.S. (motor vehicle accidents are number one).
3. 3. Statistics • Falls 33% • Struck By 18% • Electrical 17% • Caught In 18%
4. 4. Statistics • 40% of the fatalities were from heights over 40 feet • Most falls occur on scaffolds or roofs • 25% of fall fatalities were from heights of 11-20 feet • 25% of fall fatalities were from heights of 20-30 feet
5. 5. Most Frequently Cited Unprotected sides & edges - Fall protection 1468 501(b)(1) Fall hazards training program 609 503(a)(1) Standard - 1926. Fall protection - Residential construction 6’ m or ore 552 501(b)(13) Fall protection - Roofing w on low ork -slope roofs 367 501(b)(10) Fall protection - Steep roofs 231 501(b)(11)
6. 6. Physics of a Fall • A body in motion (free fall) can cover vast distances in a short period of time. Consider this: – A body in free fall can travel 4 ft in 0.5 seconds – A body in free fall can travel 16 ft. in 1 second – A body in free fall can travel 64 ft. in 2 seconds
7. 7. Application of Regulations • Subpart M (1926.500) applies to fall protection during construction activities. • There are a few exceptions from this rule for the following activities: – Inspection – Investigation – Assessing conditions prior to or after the work is performed
8. 8. Application of Regulations • Other existing standards for fall protection are discussed in different standards (subpart M would not cover the following items): – Scaffolds (subpart L) – Cranes (subpart N) – Steel Erection (subpart R) – Stairs and Ladders (subpart X) – Power Transmission (Subpart V)
9. 9. Contents of Subpart M • 500: Scope, • Appendices Application and – A: Roof widths definitions – B: Guardrail systems • 501: Duty to have fall – C: Fall arrest systems protection – D: Positioning device • 502: Fall protection systems systems – E: Fall Protection Plan • 503: Training Requirements
10. 10. Duty to Have Fall Protection 1926.501 • Fall protection is required when one or more employees have exposure to falls of six feet or greater to the lower level. • Surfaces must be inspected before the work begins. • Employees are only permitted to be on surfaces that are strong enough to support them.
11. 11. Duty to have Fall Protection • The following areas – Unprotected sides and require fall protection edges when employees are – Above dangerous equipment (any height) exposed to falls (six feet – Overhand brick laying or greater): – Steep or low slope roofs – Leading edges – Walking surfaces – Ramps/runways – Form work and reinforcing – Residential construction steel – Hoist areas – Excavations, wells, pits – Wall and floor openings – Precast concrete
12. 12. Duty to have Fall Protection Low Slope Roofs • Low slope roofs • Low slope roofs (50 (under 50 feet in feet width or greater): width): – Fall protection systems – Fall protection systems (safety nets, or guardrails, PFAS) or – Safety monitor (with combination of elements required in – Warning lines and this subpart) safety monitor or – Warning lines and guardrails or PFAS
13. 13. Protection from Falling Objects 1926.501(c) • Protection from falling objects is a requirement. • Employee working in an area where there is a danger of falling objects must wear a hard hat. • Employer must take steps to protect employees from hazards (establish barricades or build canopies).
14. 14. Types of Fall Protection • Passive are protective systems that do not involve the actions of employees. • Active includes systems and components that require manipulation by employees to make them effective in providing protection.
15. 15. Examples of Fall Protection • Passive system • Active systems include: components (personal – Guardrails fall arrest system- – Safety nets PFAS) include: – Covers – Anchorage points – Fences – Lanyard – Barricades – Snap hooks – Life lines – Body harness
16. 16. Active Systems • Designed to operate in free fall situations. • Must be connected to other systems/components or activated to provide protection. • Active systems are designed to protect employees from the following items: – Falls – Forces that can cause injury
17. 17. Guardrails 1926.502(b) • Guardrails are the • Must have top rail, most common form of mid rail, posts and toe fall protection. board • May be made of wood, • System must be strong pipe, structural steel, enough to support 200 or wire rope. pounds of force – Flags must be provided applied to the top rail on wire rope to • Steel or plastic bands increase visibility are not acceptable
18. 18. Guardrails-Design Criteria 1926.502(b) • The top rail must be elevated above the surface 39-45 inches and must be free of jagged edges. • The mid rail must be located between the top rail and the walking surface. • Posts must be spaced no greater than 8 feet. • Toe boards must be made of a solid material with no openings greater than one inch and be 3.5 inches high. • Chains or movable rails must be used near hoists.
19. 19. Safety Net Systems 1926.502(c) • Placed beneath the working surface (not to exceed 30 feet) to catch personnel or falling material. • Must be placed as close to the hazard as possible. • Equipment must be drop tested and certified. • Must be inspected weekly and after impact. • Openings can not exceed six inches. • Defective equipment can not be used. • Safety nets must extend outward from the outer most projection of the work surfaces.
20. 20. PFAS 1926.502(d) • PFAS shall not be tied to a guardrail system or hoists • All components of a fall arrest system must be inspected before each use and after impact. • Action must be taken promptly to rescue fallen employees.
21. 21. PFAS 1926.502(d) • When stopping a fall, a PFAS must: – Limit the arresting force to 1800 pounds. – Be rigid so that an employee can not fall more than 6 feet of contact a lower level. – Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet. – Strength to withstand 2X potential impact of employee falling 6 ft. or permitted fall distance.
22. 22. Inspecting Equipment 1926.502(d) • Equipment must be • The following items inspected before each must be inspected: use for: – Tears or other wear – Degradation due to – Deformed eyelets, D ultraviolet light rings or other parts – Any other condition – Labels/placards that is not normal – Dirt, grease, and oil
23. 23. PFAS (Harness) 1926.502(d) • Harness systems consist of either nylon or polyester and the best system will encompass the entire body (full body harness). • Body belts can not be used for fall protection. • A full body harness will evenly distribute weight across the waist, pelvis, and thighs.
24. 24. PFAS (Lanyard) 1926.502(d) • Lanyards connect the harness to the anchorage point. • Must have a minimum breaking strength of 5000 pounds. • Should be attached to a D ring between the shoulder blades above the employee. • There are several types of lanyards that include: synthetic webbing, synthetic rope and shock absorbing.
25. 25. Types of Lanyards • Self retracting – Eliminates excess slack in the lanyard (cable, rope, or web) • Shock absorbing – Device slows and eventually stops decent and absorbs the forces (i.e.: rip stitch controlled tearing) • Synthetic rope – Absorbs some of the force by stretching • Synthetic webbing – Strong but not flexible (absorbs little force)
26. 26. PFAS (life Lines) 1926.502(d) • Life lines consist of flexible material connected at one or both ends to an anchorage point. • There are two types of life lines: – Vertical:hangs vertically (5000 pound minimum breaking strength) – Horizontal: connects at both points to stretch horizontally (serves as connection point for other components of PFAS-total system must have safety factor of two).
27. 27. PFAS (Snap hooks) 1926.502(d) • Used to connect lanyards to D rings on a body harness. • D rings must be compatible. Must be connected to harness or anchorage point only. • Snap hooks must have 5,000 tensile strength and be proof tested to 3600 pounds. • When using snap hooks: – Use only one snap hook per D ring to prevent rollout – All snap hooks must have a locking mechanism
28. 28. PFAS (Anchorage Points) 1926.502(d) • The anchorage point is most effective when it is above the employee’s head. Located as to not allow an employee fall more than 6 feet. • All anchorage points must be a solid immovable object that is capable of supporting 5000 pounds. • Must not be used to support anything else.
29. 29. Positioning Device Systems 1926.502(e) • Allows employee to be supported from a vertical surface (i.e.: wall or telephone pole). • Must be inspected before each use for defects. • Must be rigid for no more than a 2 foot free fall. • Not a fall arrest system! • The anchorage point must be capable of withstanding twice the potential impact of an employee’s fall or 3000 pounds, whichever is greater.
30. 30. Warning Line System 1926.502(f) • Rope, wire, or chains are used to warn employees of an unprotected edge. • Used mainly on roofs , where PFAS- impractical. • Established not less than six feet from the edge. • Materials must have sufficient strength and complete structure must withstand 16 pound tipping force.
31. 31. Controlled Access Zones (CAZ) 1926.502(g) • Only qualified personnel involved in the operation are allowed to enter the zone. • Ropes, wires, or chains are used to designate the area. • Must be erected not less than six feet nor more than twenty five feet away from edge. • Shall be connected on each side to wall.
32. 32. Controlled Access Zones (CAZ) 1926.502(g) • CAZ must be defined by a control line (strength of 200 pounds) erected 10-15 feet from the edge • Lines must be flagged at six foot intervals.
33. 33. Safety Monitoring System 1926.502(h) • Uses a monitor (competent person) to patrol the area and warn employees of the dangers. • All safety monitors must comply with the following criteria: – Be on the same level the work is being performed – Be close enough to orally communicate – Have no other assigned duties
34. 34. Safety Monitoring System 1926.502(h) • Employees must comply with all instructions from the monitor. • The full attention of the monitor must focus on protecting the employees. • It is recommended that you have a written plan for using the safety monitoring system to address: – Identification of the monitor – Roles of employees in a monitoring system – Training for using the monitoring system.
35. 35. Covers 1926.502(i) • Used to protect personnel from falling through holes in walking surfaces. • Covers must be secured in place and the word “Hole” must be written on the cover. • Covers must have sufficient strength to support: – Twice the weight to be imposed upon it for pedestrians – Twice the largest axle weight of vehicle traffic
36. 36. Falling Objects 1926.502(j) • Employers are required to protect their employees from falling objects. • Some methods that might have to be used (when necessary) consist of: – Installation of toe boards (at least 3.5 inches wide) – Building barricade and restricting entrance – Installation of screens
37. 37. Fall Protection Plan 1926.502(k) • Fall protection plans are allowed for the following operations: – Residential construction – Leading edge construction – Precast concrete erection • The plan should be strictly enforced. • The employer must demonstrate that it is impractical to use fall protection before a fall protection plan can be used as an alternative.
38. 38. Fall Protection Plan 1926.502(k) • Plan must be developed by qualified person and made specific for each site (also must be up to date). • Only as qualified person can make changes to a plan. • A copy of the plan must be maintained at the site.
39. 39. Elements of a Fall Protection Plan • Statement of Policy • Accident Investigation • Fall Protection • Changes to the Plan Systems to be Used • Implementation of Plan • Enforcement
40. 40. Training 1926.503 • All employees exposed to fall hazards must receive training by a competent person that addresses: – The nature of fall hazards in the work area – Procedures for erecting, maintaining, disassembling and inspecting fall arrest equipment – Use and operation of fall arrest equipment
41. 41. Training 1926.503 • Training elements: – Role of employee in a safety monitoring system (when used) – Limitations on the use of mechanical equipment for low slope roofs – Role of employees in fall protection plans – Standards contained in 1926.500-503 – Procedure for handling and storage of equipment
42. 42. Training 1926.503 • Fall protection training must be certified by the employer through a written record. • The latest training certificate must be maintained. • Retraining is required when: – There are changes in the work place – Changes in the type of fall protection used – There are inadequacies in employee’s skills