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The Mediterranean model: homelessimmigrants, informal housing, illegal        immigration in Italy Antonio Tosi Politecnic...
Outline1. The importance of informal housing2. The frame3. Living in informal settlements4. Three questions starting from ...
1.1. The importance of informal housingImmigrants in informal housing arrangements: an importantand representative form of...
1.2. Informal settlements: a substantial andgrowing phenomenon Tuscany: 1,700 persons living in these settlements in 2010...
2.1. The background   The Mediterranean model     – a substantial proportion of undocumented immigrants, a large size    ...
2.2. The informal at the centre of exclusionprocesses and immigrant strategies The key role of legal status in determinin...
3.1. Living in informal settlements.A heterogeneous population Around 90% immigrants and Roma populations A high presenc...
3.2. Living in informal settlements.Mainly but not exclusively newcomers andundocumented migrants Milan 2000 – 2004: arou...
3.3. Living in informal settlements.Persons with resources, persons who workThe majority of the inhabitants of informal se...
3.4. Living in informal settlements.Long stay in homelessnessAn immigrant population which:   may remain in a condition o...
3.5. Two different homelessness careers Two different paths in homelessness, two different functions ofinformal settlemen...
3.6. The responsibility of policiesThe homelessness of immigrants involves different policies:   The fact that homelessne...
4.1.1. The place of informal settlements inthe representation of homelessness: arethe inhabitants of informal settlementsh...
The inhabitants of informal settlements inItaly: separate identifications, incompatiblerepresentations Traditionally, per...
The ETHOS typology and informalsettlements: shortcoming of the conceptualmodel? ETHOS does not classify the inhabitants o...
4.1.2. The place of immigrants and gypsiesin the social construction of homelessness:aren’t these immigrants homeless?   ...
4. 2.1. Illegality, security and urban order:the overpowering impact of regulatorypolicies Irregular legal status is the ...
4.2.2. Regulatory policies in Italy: securityand urban order a negative ideological-political situation (xenophobicattitu...
4.2.3. Security policies at work The irregular immigrants    Regular immigrants vs. irregular immigrants: the rhetorical...
4.3.1. Living undocumented in theimmigration societyA long time spent as homeless and as an irregular immigrant,long term ...
4.3.2. A new scenario for relations betweenimmigrants and their host society   A new scenario: a society in which:      ...
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The Mediterranean Model: Homeless Immigrants and Informal Housing in Italy

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Presentation given by Antonio Tosi, Italy, at a FEANTSA Research Conference on "Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe", Pisa, Italy, 2011

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  • Introduction FEANTSA Information from FEANTSA’s members Specific look at some countries (not IE and UK)
  • Transcript of "The Mediterranean Model: Homeless Immigrants and Informal Housing in Italy"

    1. 1. The Mediterranean model: homelessimmigrants, informal housing, illegal immigration in Italy Antonio Tosi Politecnico di Milano Interdisciplinary Center Sciences EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE for peace’ Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe Pisa, 16th September 2011
    2. 2. Outline1. The importance of informal housing2. The frame3. Living in informal settlements4. Three questions starting from informal settlements EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    3. 3. 1.1. The importance of informal housingImmigrants in informal housing arrangements: an importantand representative form of homelessness  informal housing arrangements: numerous and significant of the conditions of inclusion for immigrants in Italy  better than the roofless, the inhabitants of informal settlements throw light on the dynamics of immigrant homelessnessLiving in informal settlements: an extreme form ofhomelessness  a challenge for homelessness classification systems EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    4. 4. 1.2. Informal settlements: a substantial andgrowing phenomenon Tuscany: 1,700 persons living in these settlements in 2010. Atleast 2,000 individuals in the last 2 years. 52 municipalitiesinvolved Milan: inhabitants of informal settlements estimated (2002-2008) at between 2,000 and 4,000 persons Informal settlements house the majority of adults with no home(the literally homeless) - Milan (2003-2008): 60% of the homeless live in shanty towns or abandoned buildingsInformal settlements house the vast majority of foreigners withno home (the literally homeless) - Milan: around 70% of homeless foreigners in these settlements EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    5. 5. 2.1. The background The Mediterranean model – a substantial proportion of undocumented immigrants, a large size of the informal sector in the national economy – the Mediterranean welfare regime – the immigration policies (access to citizenship rights and the conditions required to stay in a country) Widespread housing hardship among immigrants Structural limitations to inclusion – the area of marginal housing: substantial and stable – the polarisation of housing conditions: a system which systematically excludes a part of the immigrant population EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    6. 6. 2.2. The informal at the centre of exclusionprocesses and immigrant strategies The key role of legal status in determining the homelessness ofimmigrants The combination between irregular legal status, work in theinformal sector of the economy and accommodation in theinformal housing sector The involvement of many immigrants in informal housing – informal housing: the intervention of community networks and reciprocal arrangements in providing a place to live; accommodation in unregulated segments of marginal housing markets – a wide range of forms of homelessness other than rooflessness EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    7. 7. 3.1. Living in informal settlements.A heterogeneous population Around 90% immigrants and Roma populations A high presence of newcomers, including:  immigrants from Eastern Europe and Roma from Romania  asylum seekers and refugees But also immigrants who have been in Italy for years  undocumented migrants  marginalised immigrants (difficulties of insertion) And also groups of Italian homeless EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    8. 8. 3.2. Living in informal settlements.Mainly but not exclusively newcomers andundocumented migrants Milan 2000 – 2004: around 70% of immigrants living in these areashave been in Italy for a year or less  But a substantial proportion of immigrants from Morocco and Albania have been here for over three years: over 20% Milan 2000-2006: over 70% of irregular immigrants had been in Italyfor less than three years, over 30% for less than one year  But the length of time has increased progressively: between 2003 and 2008 the percentage in the country for less than a year fell from 53 to 25%, the percentage for four years or longer increased from 10 to 30% The majority of the inhabitants are in situations of irregularity  Nevertheless persons with documents are also found. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    9. 9. 3.3. Living in informal settlements.Persons with resources, persons who workThe majority of the inhabitants of informal settlements have a joband an income Milan 2008: around 80% were in employment, of these, 60% worked in the informal economy Milan 2006: the employment rate after three years of stay in Italy was 77%: higher than that for both the Italian population (58%) and the Lombard population (67%) EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    10. 10. 3.4. Living in informal settlements.Long stay in homelessnessAn immigrant population which:  may remain in a condition of homelessness for a long time (Milan: average length of time spent in shanty towns of 8-10 years)  and at the same time has a profile which would imply a relatively easy progression towards inclusion: well equipped with personal and motivational resources; good participation in the labour market, etc. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    11. 11. 3.5. Two different homelessness careers Two different paths in homelessness, two different functions ofinformal settlements  homelessness as a first stage in the inclusion process. Life in an informal settlement: a short period, left behind (fairly) quickly  homelessness as a condition that can be prolonged or occur again. Obstacles to inclusion: mainly the impossibility of acquiring regular status. Living in informal settlements prolonged indefinitely. The long-term temporary homeless: a common figure amonghomeless immigrants EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    12. 12. 3.6. The responsibility of policiesThe homelessness of immigrants involves different policies:  The fact that homelessness and informal housing affects people who have been here for years, people with income and also regular immigrants indicates the limitations of welfare and housing policies and the system for the acceptance of immigrants  The fact that undocumented immigrants suffer severely from homelessness and informal housing indicates the fundamental role played by regulatory policies (management of legal status and irregularity) EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    13. 13. 4.1.1. The place of informal settlements inthe representation of homelessness: arethe inhabitants of informal settlementshomeless?The majority of those living in informal settlementsexperience dramatic conditions of housing deprivation.Nevertheless there is strong resistance to classifying themas “literally homeless”. Often they are not even consideredas homeless persons, but persons in conditions of “housingexclusion” EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    14. 14. The inhabitants of informal settlements inItaly: separate identifications, incompatiblerepresentations Traditionally, persons who live in informal settlementshave not been considered as people of no abode (personesenza dimora): the emblematic figure for homelessness inthis country The reason: these settlements are inhabited byimmigrants and gypsies, foreigners and gypsies do notcorrespond to the image of the no abode  informal settlements have been out of estimates of no abode  the size of homelessness: severely underestimated EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    15. 15. The ETHOS typology and informalsettlements: shortcoming of the conceptualmodel? ETHOS does not classify the inhabitants of thesesettlements as homeless persons, but as people living ininsecure accommodation and/or people living intemporary/inadequate accommodation – both beingcategories of “housing exclusion” At issue:  the rationale for the threshold between homelessness and housing exclusion  the internal consistency of the model EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    16. 16. 4.1.2. The place of immigrants and gypsiesin the social construction of homelessness:aren’t these immigrants homeless? Immigrants and Roma: a substantial proportion of the homeless population in Italy. Despite this, they are on the margins of representations of homelessness: the homeless is still the local “no abode” The lack of recognition and the separation  reflect the current organisation of services and policies  help to legitimise of policies for the “no abode”  represent the relative exclusion of homeless immigrants from welfare opportunities, and a tendency to shift the balance of policies from recognition of the citizenship rights to priority given to control and regulatory measures EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    17. 17. 4. 2.1. Illegality, security and urban order:the overpowering impact of regulatorypolicies Irregular legal status is the most important single factor inthe determination of homelessness Regulatory policies play an overwhelming role indetermining the immigration question and the immigrantcondition  Regulatory policies: the policies that regulate the condition for entry and staying in the country and policies for controlling immigrants and Roma in the community EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    18. 18. 4.2.2. Regulatory policies in Italy: securityand urban order a negative ideological-political situation (xenophobicattitudes, crime and security rhetoric) widely supported bylocal administrations and central government two emblematic figures: the “irregular immigrant” and thegypsy. Both function as scapegoats, within a logic ofincreased security and an idea of urban order EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    19. 19. 4.2.3. Security policies at work The irregular immigrants  Regular immigrants vs. irregular immigrants: the rhetorical device to legitimise the security approach to immigration  More stringent conditions for access to and residence in the country; criminalisation of undocumented immigrants The Gypsies  The stake: the regularity of the settlement, the control over their presence in the community:  Local policy: dismantling authorized nomad camps and driving inhabitants out of town; eviction of persons living in informal settlements  The rise and fall of the Città sottili project in Pisa EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    20. 20. 4.3.1. Living undocumented in theimmigration societyA long time spent as homeless and as an irregular immigrant,long term exclusion from acceptable housing arrangements, fromofficial recognition and from citizenship rights. Two definingframeworks:  a “growing polarisation” between “residents with full rights of citizenship and a marginalised class of aliens compelled to work on the periphery, within a shadow economy”, “confined to menial jobs and relegated to the worst housing” [Daly 1996]. Undocumented migrants are part of this “marginalised class of aliens”.  undocumented migrants have the possibility for permanent inclusion (no matter how unfairly and not infrequently in violation of human rights) in European labour markets and societies. Numerous mechanisms (especially those offered by the informal economy) allow a large irregular population to live and work in the community in the absence of an official identity [Sciortino 2011]. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    21. 21. 4.3.2. A new scenario for relations betweenimmigrants and their host society A new scenario: a society in which:  illegal immigration is a long term structural phenomenon  illegal immigration has assumed growing importance and the divide between regular and irregular has become deeper  it has become difficult to address irregularity positively The long-term temporary homeless immigrant: the key tointerpreting the relationship between immigrants and theirhost societies. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
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