Life on the Margins of the Housing Market

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Presentation given by Boróka Fehér and Péter Gyõri, BMSZKI, Hungary at a FEANTSA Research Conference on "Understanding Homelessness and Housing Exclusion in the New European Context", Budapest, …

Presentation given by Boróka Fehér and Péter Gyõri, BMSZKI, Hungary at a FEANTSA Research Conference on "Understanding Homelessness and Housing Exclusion in the New European Context", Budapest, Hungary, 2010

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  • Introduction FEANTSA Information from FEANTSA’s members Specific look at some countries (not IE and UK)

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  • 1. Insert your logo here Life on the Margins of the Housing Market GYŐRI, Pé ter and FEHÉ R, Boró ka BMSZKI (www.bmszki.hu) Budapest Methodological Centre of Social Policy and Its Services Budapest, Hungary European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN THE ENHR NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 2. Life on the Margins of the Housing Market Conceptual Operational Category Generic DefinitionWhat is homelessness? Category ROOFLESS 1 People Living Rough 1.1 Rough Sleeping (no access to 24-ETHOS 2006 hour accommodation) / No abode 2 People staying in a night 2.1 Overnight shelter shelter HOUSELESS 3 People in accommodation for 3.1 Homeless hostel the homeless 3.2 Temporary Accommodation 4 People in Women’s Shelter 4.1 W omen’s shelter accommodation 5 People in accommodation for 5.1 Temporary accommodation / immigrants reception centres (asylum) 5.2 Migrant workers accommodation 6 People due to be released from 6.1 Penal institutions institutions 6.2 Medical institutions 7 People receiving support (due 7.1 Residential care for homeless to homelessness) 7.2 people 7.3 Supported accommodation 7.4 Transitional accommodation with support Accommodation with support INSECURE 8 People living in insecure 8.1 Temporarily with family/friends accommodation 8.2 No legal (sub)tenancy 8.3 Illegal occupation of building 8.4 Illegal occupation of land 9 People living under threat of 9.1 Legal orders enforced (rented) eviction 9.2 Re-possession orders (owned) 10 People living under threat of 10. Police recorded incident of s violence 1 domestic violence INADEQUATE 11 People living in temporary / 11. Mobile home / caravan non-standard structures 1 Non-standard building 11. Temporary structure 2 11. 3 12 People living in unfit housing 12. Unfit for habitation (under national 1 legislation; occupied) 13 People living in extreme 13. Highest national norm of overcrowding 1 overcrowding European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 3. Life on the Margins of the Housing MarketWhat is homelessness? Hungarian definitionSocial Law of 1993 Article 6 and Sections II and III of this Act a person not possessing a registered abode is homeless except for those whose registered abode is the homeless shelter. Articles 7, 78, 84 and 89 of this Act people who spend their nights in public areas or in premises not built for residential purposes are homeless European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 4. Life on the Margins of the Housing Market Homeless people within the meaning of the Hungarian Social Act 1 People living rough 1.1 Public spaces or external space 2 People living in emergency 2.1 Night shelter accommodation 3 People living in accommodation for 3.1 Homeless hostel the homeless 3.2 Temporary accommodation 3.3 Transitional supported accommodation 4 People living in Women’s shelter 4.1 Women’s shelter accommodation 7 People receiving long-term 7.1 Residential care for older (housing) support (due to their homeless people being homeless) 11 People living in temporary/non- 11.1 Mobile homes conventional structures 11.2 Non-conventional building 11.3 Temporary structures 12 P 12.1 Occupied dwellings unfit for habitation European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 5. Life on the Margins of the Housing Market Conceptual Operational Category Generic DefinitionWhat is homelessness? Category ROOFLESS 1 People Living Rough 1.1 Rough Sleeping (no access to 24-ETHOS in Hungarian perspective hour accommodation) / No abode(according to the second definition) 2 People staying in a night 2.1 Overnight shelter shelter HOUSELESS 3 People in accommodation for 3.1 Homeless hostel the homeless 3.2 Temporary Accommodation 4 People in Women’s Shelter 4.1 W omen’s shelter accommodation 5 People in accommodation for 5.1 Temporary accommodation / immigrants reception centres (asylum) 5.2 Migrant w orkers accommodation 6 People due to be released from 6.1 Penal institutions institutions 6.2 Medical institutions 7 People receiving support (due 7.1 Residential care for homeless to homelessness) people 7.2 Supported accommodation 7.3 Transitional accommodation with 7.4 support Accommodation with support INSECURE 8 People living in insecure 8.1 Temporarily with family/friends accommodation No legal (sub)tenancy 8.2 Illegal occupation of building 8.3 Illegal occupation of land 8.4 9 People living under threat of 9.1 Legal orders enforced (rented) eviction 9.2 Re-possession orders (owned) 10 People living under threat of 10.1 Police recorded incidents of violence domestic violence INADEQUATE 11 People living in temporary / 11.1 Mobile home / caravan non-standard structures 11.2 Non-standard building 11.3 Temporary st ructure 12 People living in unfit housing 12.1 Unfit for habitation (under national legislation; occupied) 13 People living in extreme 13.1 Highest national norm of overcrowding overcrowding European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 6. Life on the Margins of the Housing Market Who are we thinking about? International Home-less people definition of homelessness People without flat Homeless Effective homeless definition before people 1945 in Hungary Rough sleepers Recent homeless definition in Hungary European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 7. Data Collection To understand the scope and depth of the problem... Who should collect data?  state? (should we count at all?)  service-providers? How? Whom? Where?  researchers? European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 8. Data collection: Hungary 1 Since 1999 annual survey in Budapest services (mostly hostels and shelters): February 3rd working group (service provider initiative) In 2005 headcount as well Since 2005, other service-providers in other cities joined What is it good for? ● Comparison of (concrete) service users from year-to-year – helps to plan the running of the service ● Comparison of services We can find answers to concrete questions, and be surprised We can compare data with other groups of the population We can lobby for policy change based on evidence European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 9. Data collection: Hungary 2Surprises● ¾ of the homeless move between various forms of accommodation, ¼stable on the street or in the service – the role of services can be to minimize the time spent between flats● 60% have some kind of a work income – it is growing – the working poor● 20-25% are from Roma background (3x as much as national average)● Health: growth in people with serious health problems, over 60 population not so different from rest of Hun population of that age group – importance of access to health care European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 10. Data collection: Hungary 3Comparisons● 2002 – health issues● 2007 – drug use (international)● 2007 – What do people think of Budapest? - similar questions regarding attitudes towards the homeless● 2009-2010 employment, financeshttp://www.bmszki.hu/english European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 11. Life on the Margins of the Housing MarketFindings of three research projects:1. National census of 20012. February 3rd annual survey (national)3. In-depth look at life of rough sleepers (Budapest and Debrecen) European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 12. National Census 2001 1 People without homes on the basis of the census data [1] Total number of people not living in housing units 260,653 persons Of this: persons living in other inhabited housing units[2] 12,267 persons People living in institutional households [3] 248,386 persons of which: in social institutions providing temporary accommodation 5,851 persons •of which: in homeless accommodation 3,934 persons •in workers’ hostels, mobile structures (barracks), accommodation for employees, etc. 10 ,000 pers. •in stations admitting refugees 1,697 persons •in healthcare children’s homes, hospitals 3,657 persons •in infant and children’s homes, corrective institutions, establishments for homeless children 128,000 persons in social homes, hospices, etc. 62,000 persons •in detention facilities 17,000 persons •in military accommodation 13,000 persons[1] The housing and life situations described in the summary may overlap each other.[2] Other inhabited housing unit: Those non-housing units (shops, offices, workshops, warehouses, laundries, garages, press houses, etc.)that are used by at least one person for residing without any conversion, as well as temporary, mobile and other facilities (caravans, barges,railway cars, caves, huts, booths, wagons, bus bodies, circus cars, etc.).[3] Institutional households is the group of those living in institutions, and there are provided with community accommodation or accommodationand services, and at the theoretical time of the census they actually stayed at the place of registration, lived there permanently, the persons registeredat the given addresses could be regularly contacted, and the most frequently spent their nights there, went to work or study from there. The place ofthe census can be the registered (permanent) address of the person concerned, the registered (temporary) place of residence, and even non-registered address. European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 13. National Census 2001 2 3,723,509 Total number of inhabited apartments apartments 341,144 Total number of uninhabited apartments apartments 3,862,702 Total number of households households 9,944,832 Total number of people living in households persons European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 14. National Census 2001 3 Dwellers of apartments People living in uncertain legal statuses [1] privately owned rented apartment 99,445 apartments 106,833 households renting privately owned apartment households Members of households renting privately owned apartment 243,581 persons persons using households under any service title 77,846 persons households under the legal title of sub-lease or bed lease 20,648 households member of a household under the legal title of sub-lease 30,607 persons member of a household under the legal title of bed lease 571 persons 26,790 apartment under s. c. “other” legal title apartments 34,271 household under s. c. “other” legal title households[1] The uncertain legal statusofis household true for people living in privately owned, rented apartments, and some of those using Member a obviously under any „other” legal title[2] 57,217 personsapartments on favour, which mean actual housing uncertainties.[2] Other legal title: not owned, rented or received on service. E.g. the use of the entire apartment without paying any rental fee, the so-called dweller on favour (sofa surfer), or unauthorized dweller in the given apartment. European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 15. People living under the minimum housing circumstances six or more people live in a single-room apartment 6,697 persons two or more families or households live in a single apartment of which: the apartment has two rooms at the maximum 91,160 apartments living in such apartments 394,424 persons family household with an ancestor[1] 192,212 households living in a household of any “other” composition[2] 103,279 persons apartment in a socially inappropriate environment[3] 5,759 apartments apartment with walls from loam, wood or other materials 699,082 apartments living in apartment with walls from loam, wood or other materials 1,730,578 persons of which: apartments without proper foundations 189,941 apartments living in such apartments 462,664 persons water supply from outside the building plot 95,782 persons toilet outside the apartment 113,477 persons no bathroom or shower 806,962 persons no bathroom and kitchen 89,667 persons no bathroom and premises for cooking 58,110 persons (in other words living in emergency or other apartments) no heating facilities 11,756 persons[1] Multi-generation families cannot obviously be regarded as automatically excluded.[2] Household of other composition: where only such persons live who do not form a family, such as a) co-dwelling relatives forming a family (e.g.sisters and brother, single father or mother living only with the married and/or formerly married child, single grandparent living together with a grandchild ofany family status), b) households of not related persons (e.g. friends), c) households consisting of relatives not forming a family and co-dwelling persons notbeing relatives (e.g. brother and sister with friends).[3] Socially inappropriate residential zone: the residential zones of residential buildings of deteriorated conditions, temporarily built sites, shacks, European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010Gipsy streets, cave houses and similar units. UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 16. National Census 2001 5 living in single-room apartments without conveniences 243,235 persons “living“ in apartments of 19 sq m at the maximum 337,754 persons apartments with partial or without conveniences, emergency and other 674,803 apartments apartments of which: single-room 189,405 apartments living in apartments with partial or without conveniences, emergency 1,662,515 persons and other apartments of which: living in single-room 377,714 persons European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 17. National Census 2001 6 10–12% of all the apartments are of substandard quality, without or just partly equipped with conveniences, or emergency apartments. In addition, more than 100 thousand people live at segregated colonies that are hardly suitable for housing. Furthermore, serious structural problems are faced: housing estates, old and deteriorating districts, housing units in depopulating villages with disadvantageous infrastructure, or block-type enclosures being hardly suitable for housing call for different solutions. European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 18. National Census 2001 7 The affordability of housing costs represents serious problems for low-income groups, which is not solely associated with low incomes (unemployment, individual disadvantaged situations), but the differing costs of the various housing units (e.g. large costs carried by apartments in housing estates with district heating). In more than 20% of Hungarian households, the proportion of housing costs exceeds 30% of the volume of incomes. In 2003, cc. 500 thousand households had arrears threatening the security of housing, while only 180–200 thousand households received housing support. European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 19. National Census 2001 8 The proportion of lease apartments owned by local governments dropped from 22% to 4% due to the privatization of apartments in the 1990s and the conditions of support–taxation–incentives, while the proportion of privately owned lease apartments was cc. 4%. (Meaning that the proportion of privately owned apartments is outstandingly large within the European Union, i.e. 92%.) Thus, the traditional housing base of social housing policy narrowed (lease apartments of local governments), and on the other hand there emerged no comprehensive system to guarantee the security of housing, and manage social and housing policy elements in a standard manner. European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 20. February 3rd Annual Survey 1 • Since 1999 In cooperation with the • survey Menhely Foundation • 03 February and the Oliver Twist • annually Foundation In 1999, 2,539 homeless people responded to the questions, 67 among them rough sleepers. 2009, 7,270 homeless people (2,913 rough sleepers) In 2010, we reached 8,075 homeless individuals (3,090 rough sleepers) European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 21. February 3rd Annual Survey 2 „ Where did you sleep on February 3rd one year ago?” Egy évvel korábban (teljes, fő) One year ago (individuals) 4500 4000 3500 egyéb lakás other 3000 hajléktalanszállás homeless 2500 serv. intézmény 2000 önálló lakás institution 1500 közterület own 1000 apartment 500 outdoors 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 22. February 3rd Annual Survey 3 „Where did you sleep on February 3rd one year ago?” Egy évvel korábban (szállók, % ) Shelters/hostels (%)1009080 other egyéb lakás7060 homeless hajléktalanszállás50 serv. intézmény40 institution önálló lakás30 közterület own20 apartment Egy évvel korábban (közterület, % )10 outdoors Rough sleepers (%) 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 23. February 3rd Annual Survey 4 „Where did you spend the 52 weeks of last year?”an average person spent 29 weeks in homeless services 23% 8 weeks on streets 65 % 7 weeks in normal housing 70% Not at all 4 weeks in hospital 76% 1 week in prison 96% European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 24. February 3rd Annual Survey 5 „Where did you sleep one year ago?” Egyéb Együtt Saját 9% lakás Más• other 9% Közterül. 5% lakhatás 20% 18%• rough sleeping 20% • own housing 5%• shelter 25% • other housing (usually Átmeneti sofa surfing) 18% Éjjeli szálló menhely 23% • homeless hostel 23% 25% European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 25. February 3rd Annual Survey 6 „Where did you sleep one year ago?” (according to sleeping place this year) Most éjjeli menhelyen Now sleeping in shelter Now sleeping in hostel Egyéb Most átmeneti szállón Saját Egyéb Saját 5% lakás Más Közterül. 5% lakás Közterül. 5% lakhatás 5% Más Éjjeli 4% 9% 18% lakhatás menhely 14% 10% Átmeneti szálló 8% Éjjeli Átmeneti menhely szálló Now sleeping rough Most közterületen 55% 62% Egyéb Saját• saját lakás = own housing 14% lakás 12%• más lakhatás = other housing (ususofa surfing) Más lakhatás• átmeneti szálló = hostel 21%• éjjeli menhely = shelter Átmeneti• közterület = rough sleeping szálló Éjjeli Közterül. 5%• egyéb = other 46% menhely 2% European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 26. February 3rd Annual Survey 7 „Where will you live one year from now?” Last year Együtt Saját Egyéb Együtt Next year 9% lakás Egyéb Saját 5% Más 21% lakásban Közterül. lakhatás 14% 20% 18% MásKözterül. lakhatás 10% 21% Átmeneti Éjjeli Átmeneti Éjjeli szállómenhely szálló menhely 23% 15% 19% 25% • saját lakás = own housing • más lakhatás = other housing (usu sofa surfing) • átmeneti szálló = hostel • éjjeli menhely = shelter • közterület = rough sleeping • egyéb = other European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 27. February 3rd Annual Survey 8 „Where will you live one year from now?” (according to sleeping place this year) Now sleeping inszállón Átmeneti hostel Saját Now sleeping in shelter Éjjeli menhelyen • saját lakás = own housing Saját lakásban Egyéb EgyébKözterület 12% lakásban • más lakhatás = other housing (usu 25% 16% en 15% sofa surfing) 1% • átmeneti szálló = hostel Közterül. Más 1% lakhatás Más • éjjeli menhely = shelter 16% lakhatás Éjjeli Éjjeli • közterület = rough sleeping menhely 23%menhely 2% Átmeneti • egyéb = other 36% Átmeneti szálló szálló 40% 13% Közterületen Now sleeping rough Saját Egyéb lakásban 14% 12% Más lakhatás 21% Átmeneti Közterül. szálló Éjjeli 5% 46% menhely 2% European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 28. February 3rd Annual Survey 9 Intentions and optimism?WRIGHT, BRADLEY R. (1998): Behavioral Intentions and Opportunities Among Homeless Individuals: A Reinterpretation of the Theory of Reasoned Action. IN: Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 61, No. 4 (dec.) 271-286. European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 29. In-Depth Study of Rough Sleepers 1 Why have you become homeless? (N=155) Research leaders: Péter Győri + Péter Breitner + Zoltán Gurály Pers. % Family problems 35 22,6 161 individuals in two cities (Budapest and Debrecen) Divorce (ex-spouse stayed in shared 32 20,6 housing) Structured interviews Was forced to leave housing 17 11,0 More detailed description of previous Could not keep paying rent 10 6,5 housing situation Was evicted 15 9,7 Although focus more one life history Sold own housing 11 7,0 and current lifestyle Housing had been provided by 3 1,9 workplace, became unemployed 27,1 Released from state care/prison/hospital 15 9,7 European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 30. In-Depth Study of Rough Sleepers 2„What was your last housing like (before you becamehomeless)?” (N=155)  7 % never had own housing (whether  35% lived in a one-room apartment owned or rented) (15% National Census)  25 % was staying where growing up  13% lived in a one-room apartment (mostly with family) before turning 18.  50% owned or rented own housing  People tended to move down the housing ladder as approaching homelessness  They did not start from very high, either European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 31. The „modell” of social protection – before 1989 Threat of loosing livelyhood and home Puffer1 Puffer2 „sublet or bed-let” „workers’ hostels” Puffer3 Puffer4 „prison” „informal nets„ Puffers prevent becoming homeless, no contact with social services European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 32. Continuity: those living on the margins may shift to the edges, and then backChange: who shifts from living on the margins to the edges of the margins home-less people People without flat Effective homeless p. Rough sleepers European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 33. The „modell” of social protection – after 1989 Threat of loosing livelyhood and home Homeless services Those who have lost livelyhood and home Attempt to catch people falling, with use of social services European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT
  • 34. Life on the Margins of the Housing Market Thank you for your attention. feher.boroka@bmszki.hu gyori_peter@yahoo.com European Research Conference, Budapest, 17th September 2010 UNDERSTANDING HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION IN ENHR THE NEW EUROPEAN CONTEXT