Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Italian and Foreign Born Homeless in a Metropolitan Area: Challenges and Opportunities. Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy

253

Published on

Presentation given by Michela Braga, Mirella Cerniglia, Massimo de Albertis, Italy, at a FEANTSA Research Conference on "Migration, Homelessness and Demographic Change in Europe", Pisa, Italy, 2011

Presentation given by Michela Braga, Mirella Cerniglia, Massimo de Albertis, Italy, at a FEANTSA Research Conference on "Migration, Homelessness and Demographic Change in Europe", Pisa, Italy, 2011

Published in: News & Politics, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
253
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Introduction FEANTSA Information from FEANTSA’s members Specific look at some countries (not IE and UK)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Italian and Foreign born Homeless in a metropolitan area: Challenges and Opportunities Evidence from an Original Data Collection in Italy. Michela Braga, Università Bocconi Milano Mirella Cerniglia, Massimo De Albertis Servizio Adulti in Difficoltà – Comune di Torino Interdisciplinary Center Sciences EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE for peace’ Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe Pisa, 16th September 2011
    • 2. MOTIVATION Information on the number and characteristics of the homeless is necessary for program planning  Quantitative and qualitative data are necessary to quantify economic resources to reduce homelessness and to prevent it with policies Baseline survey for further studies => program evaluation Cross countries analysis: gap between Italian and international research  In US, systematic data collection year by year starting from the early 80’s  In Europe some attempts have been made in the last years  Only one previous research in Italy  Economic research on this topic is very scarse EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 3. MAIN CONTRIBUTION Quantitative and qualitative data collection:  First Census of homeless in Turin => count and localization  Data collection to understand not only the number of homeless and the concentration, but also to capture characteristics => questionnaire Are homeless different according to their nationality? If yes in which dimension? EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 4. THE NETWORK OF TURIN The network of services and interventions against the acute marginality in Turin is due to a strengthened partnership during the last years between the social services of the Municipality and:• the Charity Work (christian and secular organisations) with its centuries-old and widespread presence throughout the city area;• the Health Services (Mental Health, Addiction Service, Emergency Medical Service) with whom went in experimental projects in favor of homeless. In this context, the Servizio Adulti in Difficoltà of the Municipality of Turin:• plans, projects interventions in favour of homeless throughout the whole city area;• arranges individual social including paths concerning the target users;• runs and coordinates services in favour of homeless through the private social sector. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 5. MUNICIPALITY OF TURIN Services runned through the private social sector   Proximity services and first care centers with easy and direct access:  Health care service  Shelters  Street day time service (from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m.)  Street night time service (from 8 p.m. to 1 a.m.) Second level housing services to accede through individual project worked out by Social Services EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 6. THE SHELTERS OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF TURIN The presence of immigrants 2001 – 2010 Share of immigrants in shelters of the Municipality of Turin 50% 45% 40% 47% 43% 35% 30% 35% 25% 29% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% anno 2001 anno 2004 anno 2007 anno 2010The graph considers only those who have used the night shelter for a period of at least seven nights.In 2010, 1324 persons used the shelters of the Municipality for one night at least; 54% were immigrants. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 7. METHODOLOGY: data collectionPoint in time survey using the S - Night approach (Shelter and Street Night): January18th 2010  All individuals that in the reference night sleep in TARGET  places not meant for human habitation = street homeless;  emergency shelters = sheltered homeless;  45 small census blocks COUNT  Reduce risk of double count (3/4 hours for each block)  Simultaneous full census of the whole city  Localization and detection of observable characteristics  Costs: monetary, human, time vs Benefits: accuracy, limit under estimates INTERVIEW  Try to interview as many possible homeless  Trade off between accuracy of the data collection and loss of observations EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 8. THE POPULATION   Street Shelters Total N. of homeless counted (2010) 288 477 765 percentage 38% 62% 100% N. of homeless sampled (2010) 288 477 765 Found 222 477 699 Interviewed 83 315 398 Refused 12 18 30 Not found 66 66 Who where sleeping 12 12 Not interviewed due to time constraint 20 144 164 % found 77% 100% 91% % interviewed 29% 66% 52% % Refused 4% 4% 4% % not found 23% 9% % Who where sleeping 4% 2% % Not interviewed due to time constraint 7% 30% 21% EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCEHomelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 9. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCEHomelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 10. SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Adults in the central part of their life (average age 39.9) => failures in individual life projects (lack/loss job, family relationships, divorces..) Differently from the general population, the homeless are mainly men (80% vs. 48%) and immigrant (61% vs 5.8%) Geographical origin in line with general population (21% Maghreb, 15% Romania, 8% Somalia, 5% north Africa) Low level of education => almost primary education, 6.5% without formal education Street Shelters Total % Males 95.18 76.19 80.15 % Immigrants 77.11 57.14 61.31 Average age 39.6 40.13 40.02 Average years of education 8.92 8.51 8.59 N. of years as homeless 4.79 3.77 3.97 EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 11. LEVEL OF EDUCATION Education distribution is in line with the one found in the general population Higher proportion of people with no education As in the general population, on average, immigrants are more educated than native born (9.1 vs 7.8) but it is not a cohort effect since age structure is almost the same across the two groups   Total Street Shelters Italian Immigrant No formal education 6.1 7.6 5.8 2.0 8.8 Primary 17.9 13.9 18.9 23.7 14.2 Lower secondary 43.2 35.4 45.2 57.9 33.9 Professional (max 3 years) 11.5 17.7 9.9 8.6 13.4 Upper secondary 15.4 21.5 13.8 6.6 20.9 Tertiary 5.6 3.8 6.1 1.3 8.4 Not answered 0.3  0.3  0.4 EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 12. REASONS FOR HOMELESSNESS Different paths lead to homelessness natives and foreign born  Essential step of individual migration project (limited language proficiency, scarce knowledge of the bureaucracy and the law, difficulties to entry in the labor and housing markets)  psychological/mental disorders or drug/alcohol abuse not essential => crucial role of housing and migration policies, welfare regimes and labour market institutions to weak or reinforce the thin line between urban poverty and homelessness EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 13. PAST and FUTURE EXPECTATIONS "How long did you expect to stay on the street when you first arrived?" "How much longer do you expect to sleep on the street?" => upwards revision of expectations as the time elapses   All sample Street Shelter Italian Immigrant Past expectations when starting homeless life Less than 1 month 26.6 26.32 27.16 21.77 29.69 1 - 3 months 14.89 15.31 14.2 10.2 17.9 3 - 6 months 2.66 2.39 3.09 5.44 0.87 6-12 months 6.38 3.83 9.88 10.2 3.93 More than 1 year 6.91 7.66 6.17 10.2 4.8 Forever 2.93 4.31 1.23 6.8 0.44 Dont know 39.63 40.19 38.27 35.37 42.36 Current expectations when starting homeless life Less than 1 month 13.83 19.72 12.46 14.29 13.54 1 - 3 months 16.22 18.31 15.74 12.93 18.34 3 - 6 months 8.51 1.41 10.16 7.48 9.17 6-12 months 10.37 2.82 12.13 10.88 10.04 More than 1 year 4.79 1.41 5.57 9.52 1.75 Forever 3.46 7.04 2.62 6.12 1.75 Dont know 42.82 49.3 41.31 38.78 45.41 EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 14. PAST and FUTURE EXPECTATIONS Past expectations are different form the sum of the number of months from their first time on the street until the date of the survey and future expectations => homeless duration not have been forecasted correctly. Only for 32 percent of the sample the initial forecast was correct and this percentage is higher for italian than immigrants (36 % vs 30%) => homelessness is a totally unexpected shock and individuals are completely unprepared to face it. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 15. LABOUR MARKET BEHAVIOUR Small fraction of working individuals, with a very low wage => extremely lower than the poverty line threshold in Italy and insufficient to afford everyday life expenditures High fraction of irregular workers Significant exclusion from the labour market   All sample Italian Immigrant Currently working 15.56 21.57 11.72 No contract 40.98 30.3 53.57 Dependent worker 4.92 3.03 7.14 Freelance 3.28 6.06 Cococo 3.28 3.03 3.57 Temporary contract 14.75 15.15 14.29 Permanent contract 8.2 6.06 10.71 Borsa lavoro / training/stage 24.59 36.36 10.71 Monthly wage - € 395 360.5 435.9 Start the job after becoming homeless 47.46 51.61 42.86 EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 16. INCOME 56% have at least one source of income (47% of italians and 68% of immigrants) . Monthly income is 375€: higher for italians (414 vs 339) Low take up rate to social assistance programs and welfare state Monthly average income from welfare 357 €, higher for italian => not lower than the poverty line threshold in Italy (246.5€ for a two person household) but not sufficient to afford everyday expenditures Take up rate decreases when excluding pension Informal sources of income are relevant (friends, relatives, charity, illegal activities)   All sample  Italian Immigrant Income from welfare system 20.85 35.06 11.89 Monthly amount - € 357 373 327 Income from welfare system - specific for homeless 18.84 30.52 11.48 Monthly amount - € 344 357 322 Income sorces different from job and welfare system 20.1 22.08 18.85 Monthly amount - € 180 106 235 EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 17. DURATION OF INDIVIDUAL HOMELESS SPELL Dependent variable = N. of months from the first night as homeless (1) In - kind help -3.794 [7.050] Female -20.264*** [6.947] Age 4.500*** [1.473] Age sq, -0.054*** [0.018] Italian 29.848*** [8.767] Years of education -1.724*** [0.644] Currently employed 1.726 [8.192] Welfare benefits 23.284** [9.914] Money from other sources 20.300** [9.475] Shelter -19.190** [9.462] Observations 330 R-squared 0.186 Robust standard errors in brackets EUROPEAN ** p<0.05, * p<0.1 CONFERENCE *** p<0.01, RESEARCH Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 18. EMPLOYMENT PROBABILITY Dependent variable = 1 currently employed (1)     Duration (in months) 0.000 [0.000] In - kind help -0.130*** [0.042] Female 0.143** [0.065] Age 0.011 [0.009] Age sq, -0.000 [0.000] Italian 0.127** [0.055] Years of education -0.000 [0.005] Welfare benefits 0.046 [0.058] Money from other sources -0.072* [0.039] Shelter -0.106* [0.062] Loan -0.094** [0.042] Lend -0.080* [0.042] Observations EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE 330 Pseudo R-squared 0.12Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Robust standard errors in brackets Europe
    • 19. CONCLUSION Homeless population similar in many dimensions to the Italian general population Variables affecting homeless duration spell and homeless peoples labor market behavior are in line with the underlying theory EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe

    ×