Housing Policies: BetterTargeting Those Most in Need        Christophe André      Economics Department             OECD   ...
Outline of the presentation   General economic background   Housing and welfare systems   Homelessness: trends and poli...
General economic background                  Trends in most OECD countries   Rising costs and shortages of housing   Ris...
Housing cost overburden rate, 2009 (% of population)                  European Research Conference          Access to Hous...
Income inequality       Gini coefficients of income inequality, mid-1980s and late 2000s0.50                           Inc...
OECD output growth and unemployment        GDP growth over the past 5 years (annualised)         Unemployment rate  9.0  8...
General government financial balance                                                                  Per cent of GDP (201...
Welfare systems and social housing                   Stylised facts   Nordic model: extended welfare and flexibility –   ...
Tenure structure across countries                                   Per cent of dwelling stock               Owner        ...
Types of social housing systems                Based on eligibility and allocation criteria                          Broad...
Public spending on housing   Tax reliefs: tend to be regressive   Grants for social housing: generally declining   Hous...
Homelessness: Trends   Difficult to measure. But seems to be    rising in many countries   The recession and budget cuts...
Homelessness: Policy orientations   People with no special needs:     Welfare safety net     Support for housing (allow...
Homelessness and social housing   Disconnect between homelessness policies    and social housing: path dependency,    “po...
Conclusions: how to target the most in need?   System approach to housing policies: is    more social housing needed or a...
Thank you !        European Research ConferenceAccess to Housing for Homeless People in Europe          York, 21st Septemb...
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Housing Policies: Better Targeting Those Most in Need

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A presentation given by Christophe André at a FEANTSA Research Conference on "Access to Housing for Homeless People in Europe", York, September 2012

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Housing Policies: Better Targeting Those Most in Need

  1. 1. Housing Policies: BetterTargeting Those Most in Need Christophe André Economics Department OECD European Research Conference Access to Housing for Homeless People in Europe York, 21st September 2012
  2. 2. Outline of the presentation General economic background Housing and welfare systems Homelessness: trends and policy orientations Conclusions: how to target those most in need? European Research Conference Access to Housing for Homeless People in Europe York, 21st September 2012
  3. 3. General economic background Trends in most OECD countries Rising costs and shortages of housing Rising income inequality and poverty Deepest recession since the 1930s Fiscal crisis European Research Conference Access to Housing for Homeless People in Europe York, 21st September 2012
  4. 4. Housing cost overburden rate, 2009 (% of population) European Research Conference Access to Housing for Homeless People in Europe York, 21st September 2012
  5. 5. Income inequality Gini coefficients of income inequality, mid-1980s and late 2000s0.50 Increasing inequality0.45 Countries where inequality widened0.40 Little change0.35 in inequality0.300.25 Decreasing0.20 inequality0.15 Source: OECD, Divided We Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising (2011). European Research Conference Access to Housing for Homeless People in Europe York, 21st September 2012
  6. 6. OECD output growth and unemployment GDP growth over the past 5 years (annualised) Unemployment rate 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 European Research Conference Access to Housing for Homeless People in Europe York, 21st September 2012
  7. 7. General government financial balance Per cent of GDP (2011)201510 5 0 -5-10-15 SWE PRT AUT POL AUS NLD ISR EST CAN DEU NOR HUN GBR GRC KOR JPN SVK FIN CZE MEX CHE IRL SVN USA NZL LUX FRA ESP DNK ISL BEL ITA European Research Conference Access to Housing for Homeless People in Europe York, 21st September 2012
  8. 8. Welfare systems and social housing Stylised facts Nordic model: extended welfare and flexibility – Universal social housing Continental Europe: significant welfare but less flexible and universal – Diverse levels and organisation of social housing English speaking countries: safety net approach – residual social housing Transition economies: privatisation of housing at different speeds (e.g. cze,pol / est,svk) European Research Conference Access to Housing for Homeless People in Europe York, 21st September 2012
  9. 9. Tenure structure across countries Per cent of dwelling stock Owner Private rental Public rental Co-operative Others %100908070605040302010 0 Source: Andrews, Caldera Sánchez and Johansson, “Housing Markets and Structural Policies in OECD countries”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 836. European Research Conference Access to Housing for Homeless People in Europe York, 21st September 2012
  10. 10. Types of social housing systems Based on eligibility and allocation criteria Broad-based system Targeted system Size: Percentage of social housing in the Income limits: Income limits: total dwelling stock No income limit: Waiting Waiting list with some Needs/priority based list combination of priority allocation groups Estonia Australia Korea Italy Mexico Portugal0-5% Luxembourg Norway Hungary Slovak Republic Greece Switzerland Slovenia United States Belgium Canada6-10% New Zealand Germany Ireland Israel Czech Republic Poland Finland11-20% Sweden Spain France United Kingdom DenmarkMore than 20% Austria NetherlandsSource: OECD Housing Market questionnaire. European Research Conference Access to Housing for Homeless People in Europe York, 21st September 2012
  11. 11. Public spending on housing Tax reliefs: tend to be regressive Grants for social housing: generally declining Housing allowances: under pressure Public finances increasingly tight -> need for more focus European Research Conference Access to Housing for Homeless People in Europe York, 21st September 2012
  12. 12. Homelessness: Trends Difficult to measure. But seems to be rising in many countries The recession and budget cuts are likely to make things worse Main causes for homelessness:  Relationship breakdown and eviction  Personal vulnerabilities (addictions, mental health problems…) European Research Conference Access to Housing for Homeless People in Europe York, 21st September 2012
  13. 13. Homelessness: Policy orientations People with no special needs:  Welfare safety net  Support for housing (allowances, social housing)  Forbearance (mortgage/rent arrears)/Prevention People with special needs  Housing First (rather than Staircase models)  Additional social services  Coordination with landlords European Research Conference Access to Housing for Homeless People in Europe York, 21st September 2012
  14. 14. Homelessness and social housing Disconnect between homelessness policies and social housing: path dependency, “policy silos”, stigma, financial risk… Social housing for people with special needs?  Difficult for them to access market housing  Could face hardship in private rental  Coordination with social services European Research Conference Access to Housing for Homeless People in Europe York, 21st September 2012
  15. 15. Conclusions: how to target the most in need? System approach to housing policies: is more social housing needed or are the problems elsewhere? Allocation of social housing is key For people with special needs: need for better coordination with social and health services European Research Conference Access to Housing for Homeless People in Europe York, 21st September 2012
  16. 16. Thank you ! European Research ConferenceAccess to Housing for Homeless People in Europe York, 21st September 2012

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