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Long-Term Perspectives: From Housing First to Ending Homelessness
Long-Term Perspectives: From Housing First to Ending Homelessness
Long-Term Perspectives: From Housing First to Ending Homelessness
Long-Term Perspectives: From Housing First to Ending Homelessness
Long-Term Perspectives: From Housing First to Ending Homelessness
Long-Term Perspectives: From Housing First to Ending Homelessness
Long-Term Perspectives: From Housing First to Ending Homelessness
Long-Term Perspectives: From Housing First to Ending Homelessness
Long-Term Perspectives: From Housing First to Ending Homelessness
Long-Term Perspectives: From Housing First to Ending Homelessness
Long-Term Perspectives: From Housing First to Ending Homelessness
Long-Term Perspectives: From Housing First to Ending Homelessness
Long-Term Perspectives: From Housing First to Ending Homelessness
Long-Term Perspectives: From Housing First to Ending Homelessness
Long-Term Perspectives: From Housing First to Ending Homelessness
Long-Term Perspectives: From Housing First to Ending Homelessness
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Long-Term Perspectives: From Housing First to Ending Homelessness

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Presentation given by Juha Kaakinen, Finnish Programme to End Long-term Homelessness at the FEANTSA/French Permanent Representation to the EU seminar, 'Housing First: A Key Element of European …

Presentation given by Juha Kaakinen, Finnish Programme to End Long-term Homelessness at the FEANTSA/French Permanent Representation to the EU seminar, 'Housing First: A Key Element of European Homelessness Strategies', 23rd March 2012.

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  • 1. P A A V O pitkäaikaisasunnottomuuden vähentämisohjelma 2008-2011Long term perspectives:From Housing First to Ending HomelessnessBruxelles23.03.2012Juha Kaakinen Programme leaderThe Finnish National Programme to reducelong-term homelessness
  • 2. The national programme for the reduction of long-term homelessness in Finland 2008–2011: Targets Need to address long-term homelessness, which had not diminished along the general decreasing of homelessness 1. New targets – putting long-term homelessness down to half by 2011 and ending it by 2015 2. Conversion of all shelters and dormitory-type hostels into supported housing 3. Reinforcing Housing first – approach as a mainstream organizing principle for housing and support services for homeless people The overall funding of the programme exceeded €160 million of which the state provided €130 million ( € 60 grants for investments, €60 loans for investments and €10,3 for salary costs), municipalities €10,3 million and RAY (Finland’s Slot Machine Association) €20,5 million The state’s allocated funding has covered 50 % of the salary costs of additional staff required to produce support services. 205 new support workers have been employed through this funding. P A A V Opitkäaikaisasunnottomuuden
  • 3. The reduction of long-term homelessness 2008–2011 in Finland Quantitative targets: 1250 new dwellings, supported housing units or care places in ten major cities 2010: 494 new dwellings in use 2011: 581 new dwellings in use 2012: 622 under planning and construction will be in use Total: 1697 new dwellings These new dwellings are mostly in single house units (the largest one has 125 independent flats) There are also several hundreds of dwellings in scattered housing both in municipal social housing and dwellings acquired from private housing sector All new units function according to Housing First –principle P A A V Opitkäaikaisasunnottomuuden
  • 4. Single homeless and long-term homeless 2008-2011all single homelesslong term homeless
  • 5. Homelessness in Finland Wide definition of homelessness 2011: 7572 single homeless people of which * 2730 long-term homeless * 5235 living temporarily with friends and relatives * 1595 women * 1387 young < 25 years * 1020 immigrants Definition of long-term homelessness: A person whose homelessness has become prolonged and chronic, or is threatening to become chronic (over 1 year of homelessness or repeatedly homeless during the last three years) due to social and health problems P A A V Opitkäaikaisasunnottomuuden
  • 6. Why we want to get rid of hostels and shelters? Hostels and shelters have a long history in Finland After the second world war there were hostels in bomb-shelters From 1950 to 1990 hostels were mainly run by private companies The biggest hostels had over 500 bed-places The oldest hostel in Helsinki run by Salvation Army (236 bed-places) Closed its door in February 2011 It will be renovated into supported housing unit with 80 independent flats Living in a hostel or shelter is always a temporary solution, but nobody knows for how long You have no privacy You have only very limited professional help in your problems Hostels sustain a culture of irresponsibility: Problems in hostels are resolved in a very straightforward manner: If you end up in trouble either you are thrown out or you leave on your own and also leave the problems behind, unsolved Hostels create ”a culture of silence” P A A V Opitkäaikaisasunnottomuuden
  • 7. SUPPLY OF SHELTERS AND SUPPORTED HOUSING, HELSINKI 1970-2011 Supported Supported Independent Shelters/ flats/places group homes/ flats places places 1970 3665 1975 3036 1980 2351 1985 99 28 65 2121 1990 423 194 382 1403 1995 409 199 1223 884 2000 374 203 1667 906 2005 335 178 2130 659 2008 374 178 2033 558 2009 223 180 2210 518 2010 245 180 2274 511 2011 560 180 2296 144 08.02.13 7
  • 8. Housing First in Finland: Principles and Solutions « Name on the door » : a basic human need for privacy, a place of one’s own, a home: A rental contract of one’s own (not second-hand contract or temporary social contract) A permanent housing allows other problems to be solved: Non-drinking is not a requirement for permanent housing Separation of housing and services, Individually tailored services based on an assesment of needs The solutions for homelessness cannot be temporary Conventional shelters and dormitory-type hostels are not anymore adequate responses to homelessness: Hostels will be converted into supported housing units P A A V Opitkäaikaisasunnottomuuden
  • 9. Housing First in Finland: Principles and Solutions Finnish model is a combination of: Pathways Housing First -Some individual projects Communal Housing First -main focus during 2008-2011, 39 units of supported - housing (16 – 125 individual dwellings in single house units) -Intensive support for the most vulnerable group of long-term homeless people -Replacing dormitory type hostels and shelters Housing First ”light” services -scattered housing -individual flats from the municipal social housing or flats acquired from the private market (Y-Foundation) P A A V Opitkäaikaisasunnottomuuden
  • 10. Housing First in Finland: Experiences Results so far in Housing first are significantly better than in the traditional Staircase –model (revolving door –syndrome), but elements of staircase model survive Both scattered housing and single house units (communal housing first) are needed: More intensive support is not working in scattered housing It is not self-evident which type of housing gives better results in terms of social integration PathwaysHF may work very well as a small-scale approach When implementing Housing First on a programme level with a limited time-span you have to combine different approaches The importance of health services for homeless people Housing is not treatment: Also non-drinking units are needed There is a need for a new kind of treatment at home for people with drinking problems P A A V Opitkäaikaisasunnottomuuden
  • 11. Ending Long-term homelessness: Lessons we have learned for The New Programme 2012-2015 The crucial role of prevention: Results from housing advisory services have been encouraging In Helsinki 2010-2011 14 housing advisors managed to stop 148 eviction processes and negotiaited 3682 payment contracts for rental debts Prevention of youth homelessness: tailored counseling and support for youth in risk groups, the risk of unemployment Homeless ex-prisoners: making plans for housing and support arrangements already when in prison P A A V Opitkäaikaisasunnottomuuden
  • 12. Ending Long-term homelessness: Lessons we have learned for The New Programme 2012-2015 A very thin line separates long-term homeless people from other homeless people A risk of social injustice: Do I have to become a long-term homeless to get quality services? Three corner-stones for ending homelessness: •Targeted measures for eliminating long-term homelessness •More systematic prevention •Reducing the risk of long-term homelessness P A A V Opitkäaikaisasunnottomuuden
  • 13. Ending Long-term homelessness: New Programme 2012-2015 Same basic principles 10 main cities 1250 new dwellings of which at least 50 % in scattered housing A national project for developing support services for youth Preventing homelessness among youth: 600 new dwellings Systematic use of social housing for long-term homeless people Abolishing shelters nationwide Structural changes in institutional care for substance abusers Quality improvement in housing for persons recovering from psychiatric problems More systematic prevention: Legal status for housing advisors (social workers mainly) state grants for municipalities for expanding housing advising P A A V O Extending housing advasing also to private landlordspitkäaikaisasunnottomuuden
  • 14. Ending homelessness It is a question of ethics: Housing first treats formerly homeless persons as normal citizens rather than as clients or patients It is a question of economy: The survey carried out in a Tampere supported housing unit shows that housing with intensified support halves the use of social and health care services compared to service-use during homelessness. This equates, to 14 000 euros of savings per resident/year The total annual savings for 15 residents in the unit in question amounted to 220 000 euros/ The greatest savings were gained from the decreased use of institutional care and special health care This housing unit has 22 independent flats and 5 support workers It is a question of customer choice: Many homeless people prefer Communal Housing First, because they fear isolation and loneliness in scattered housing P A A V Opitkäaikaisasunnottomuuden
  • 15. Need for empirical evidence:Follow-up and evaluation of the Reduction ProgrammeSystematic follow-up of success-rate in municipalities andIn all unitsSubjectice well-being of clients :All programme cities and all units includedA questionnaire and an interview done yearlyBased on:Biswar-Diener R, Diener E. Making the best of a bad situation: SatisfactionIn the slums of Calcutta.www.intentionalhappiness.com/articles/July-2009/Calcutta1.pdfA pilot survey already done in the housing services of Helsinki DiaconeseInstuteResearch carried out by Prof. Juho Saari, University of Eastern Finland
  • 16. Ending homelessness It is a question of human value and meaningfulness in life: After housing has been solved there arises a hunger for meaningful daily activities The importance of work or work-related activities for self-esteem « No one has yet failed in the future » James Richardson P A A V Opitkäaikaisasunnottomuuden

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