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Housing First in Northern Europe: What is Needed for Cities and their Stakeholders to Put their Money where their Mouth is, also for 'Complex Groups’?
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Housing First in Northern Europe: What is Needed for Cities and their Stakeholders to Put their Money where their Mouth is, also for 'Complex Groups’?

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  • 1. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 What is Needed for Cities and their Stakeholders to Put Their Money Where Their Mouth Is? Nienke Boesveldt External PhD and Policy Manager n.f.boesveldt@vu.nl Insert your logo here
  • 2. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Forthcomming ThispresentationofVuUniversityAmsterdamcontainsinterimresultsofPhDresearch.Thepresentationprovidesa basisforprofessionaldiscussionaspartoftheresearchprocess.Readersshouldnotethatresultsandinterpretationsin thefinalreportorarticlemaydifferfromthepresentpresentation.Allrightsreserved.Thecontentofthispresentation maybequotedwithoutexplicitpermissionprovidedthatfullcredit,including©-notice,isgiventothesource.
  • 3. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Why can nothing be second?  Aim workshop: explain why housing first is not yet the mainstream provision  By looking at  the local governance constellation  the wickedness of the policy challenge at stake
  • 4. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 My Theoretical Model on Governance
  • 5. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 HF Example of Paradigm Shift  To expand institutionalised services reduces rough sleeping (= goal)  Research showed (e.g Jencks, 1994; Van Doorn, 2002): persons housed independent again experience relapse into homelessness  Recently: more research available on improved successful methodologies (such as HF)  New causal assumptions are possible  Two dominant paradigms now coexist
  • 6. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Research approach  Case studies Copenhagen, Glasgow and Amsterdam  Documentation study and interviews all relevant stakeholders
  • 7. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Finding 1 Strong Images Debating and Contesting Basics of HF  HF paradigm still highly debated and contested  less by Government respondents  more by Care Professionals and Clients
  • 8. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Finding 1 Continued  Policy documentation at times inconsistent  ‘A stay in a temporary housing provision will help to be able to clarify what needs the homeless must have’  Addicts or Group-Unsuitable persons only get access. Complex groups such as youth, women, mentally ill rough sleepers and chaotic substance abusers are excluded in some cases
  • 9. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Strong Images I  Misinterpretation:  ‘having to move out again can be seen as a punishment (client)’  Efficiency:  ‘wanting to save money (over our backs, client)’  Cherry picking:  ‘we might again loose the weakest people (NGO)’
  • 10. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Strong Images II  Hospitalized  ‘they cannot sleep inside, some people need shelters , some cannot live in their own apartment (client)’ (R&W ‘73: old solution cause new problem)  Loneliness  ‘people in COUNTRY don’t care about others mentally ill, they get even more frustrated (client)’  Refusal  ‘People are not prepared to have a house (client)’  Cost effectiveness (specialist -> generalist)  ‘No psychiatrist laying the floor’ (NGO)
  • 11. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Strong Images III Regarding Complex Groups  ‘they're not ready’  ‘they're not able to stay in independent living is because they've got complex unmet need’  ‘you can't repair 15 years of hurt by six months of cognitive behavioural therapy (all: Care)’
  • 12. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Theory  Corporatist governance structure in two cases (Ams, Cph) make these opinions or images possibly strongly influential to counter expertise on HF  Political instead of technical (merit) criteria dominate in this type of administration (Painter and Peters, 2010)
  • 13. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Corporatist  Close linkage between state and society, some official sanctioning of interest groups by government. Particular interest groups are accorded a legitimate role as representatives of their sector. Only a limited number of actors can play the game, and those that do are bound closely with the power of the state (Pierre and Peters, 2000).
  • 14. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Pluralist  Government little involved with interest groups directly, establishes arenas through which groups work out their own political struggles, establishes set of ‘rules to the game’ about how decisions will be made. No group considered dominant, all groups have relative equal chances of winning on any issue. Groups move in and out relatively easily, largely at their own initiative (Pierre and Peters, 2000)
  • 15. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013
  • 16. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Finding 2 Governance support HF too isolated  Funds and Responsibility traditionally in Care and Welfare Dept. instead of Housing Dept.  A case description
  • 17. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013  Local Administration: let us use the co-funds from the national strategy meant to build shelters to construct own permanent housing  Regulations behind the cofounded money prevented this  Almost ½ of the shelter funds has been refunded to the state (whilst the number of rough sleeping in this case increased)  National Strategy aims at Housing First, in two cases the state Ministries of Housing are not involved  leading ministry homelessness strategy also only sees the solution in the shelter system as a result
  • 18. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Result: Muddling through ‘they are increasing the numbers of temporary accommodation, because there is no other option other than that we have to make an offer to people (...) which for me means that people are getting caught up in the homelessness system rather than going straight to where they need to be (NGO)’ ‘There is a five year waiting list for HF, which is targeted specifically at persons that get expelled a lot’ (NGO)
  • 19. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Wickedness (Rittel&Webber,’73)  a problem that is difficult or impossible to solve because of incomplete, contradictory, and changing requirements that are often difficult to recognize  because of complex interdependencies, the effort to solve one aspect of a wicked problem may reveal or create other problems  In this case the policy (e.g. to shelter persons) has become part of the social problem and might even have become the reason for the problem to exist or persist (cf. Beck, 1992).