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Estimating the Number of Homeless Sleeping Rough: A Study in 4 Dutch Cities
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Estimating the Number of Homeless Sleeping Rough: A Study in 4 Dutch Cities

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  • 1. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Estimating the number of homeless sleeping rough, a study of 4 cities in the Netherlands Marcel Buster, Public Health Service Amsterdam, The Netherlands In cooperation with: Eva Mandos & Staf van Zeele, Rotterdam-Rijnmond, Renske Gilisen, Den Haag Regien Vleems & Addi van Bergen, Utrecht, Matty de Wit, Natalie Runtuwene, & Mariette Hensen-Baas, Amsterdam Insert your logo here
  • 2. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Public Health Services of 4 cities Amsterdam Utrecht Rotterdam Den Hague
  • 3. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Context: Similar policy on homelessness  Prevention of homelessness..  Offering integrated care to the homeless who:  belong to the public mental health care population  are citizens of the city’s region.  Encouraging re-migration of homeless from other cities, other countries…
  • 4. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Aims..of the study  Describing size and characteristics of the homeless population.  Estimating the number of people that are sleeping rough.
  • 5. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Context: The number of homeless that are sleeping rough is difficult to estimate because:  hidden population  Risk of getting a fine, safety.  dynamic population:  Starting, ending episodes of homelessness  Within an episodes of homelessness: changing type of location…  Migration  longer period of observation  higher number of homeless…
  • 6. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 During periods of frost in wintertime….  Shelters are free of charge and accessible for all homeless.  Homeless ‘sleeping rough’ are actively motivated to use a shelter.  Shelter capacity is adapted to demand.  Research opportunity!
  • 7. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Winter 2010/’11 and 2011/’12
  • 8. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Methods  Registers of night-shelters (both the regular shelters and of the surplus of beds during the frost period)  Interviews with homeless in shelters during 1 or 2 evenings at start of the (first) period of frost.
  • 9. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Number of people using the night shelters during a two months period in winter 393 510 688 1163 345 450 500 937 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Utrecht Den Hague Rotterdam Amsterdam cumulativenumberofpeople(twomonthperiod) Winter 2010/2011 (dec, jan) Winter 2011/2012 (jan, feb) 2010/11: 2754 2011/12: 2232
  • 10. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Average daily number of people admitted during period of frost 141 188 260 413 142 196 248 405 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Utrecht Den Haag Rotterdam Amsterdam averagenumberofpeopleperday,duringfrostperiod 2010/2011 2011/2012 Total number 2010/11: 1001 2011/12: 991 Total interview- sample 2010/11: 629 2011/12: 567
  • 11. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Estimation based on the ratio # Sleeping Rough / # Shelter for Homeless
  • 12. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Formula to estimate the number of people Sleeping rough ? = Estimated (Sample) city total (registered) city total
  • 13. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 How long ago did you “sleep rough”? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% UtrechtDen HaagRotterdamAm sterdam TO TAAL 2010/2011 TO TAAL 2011/2012 Never ≥ 1 year ago ≥ 1 month, < 1 year previous 30 days
  • 14. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Where did you spend the last 30 nights? Differences between cities: 10% 17% 14% 27% 71% 47% 56% 28% 10% 18% 14% 14% 9% 19% 15% 31% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Utrecht Den Hague Rotterdam Amsterdam Sleeping rough Night-shelter Family, friends other
  • 15. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Where did you spend the previous 30 nights? Differences between years: 21% 19% 45% 45% 11% 14% 23% 22% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 2010/11 2011/12 Sleeping rough Night-shelter Family friends Other
  • 16. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 within 4 cities 2011/12 0,96 0,25 0,14 0,36 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,6 Utrecht Den Haag Rotterdam Amsterdam
  • 17. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Results: Absolute numbers 101 105 175 157 15 40 45 150 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Utrecht Den Hague Rotterdam Amsterdam number Total daily average: 538 night shelter beds vs. estimated 250 sleeping rough
  • 18. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Results per 100,000 population ( > 15 yrs) 39,1 25,8 34,4 23,9 31,7 29,4 5,8 9,8 8,8 22,9 15,8 13,7 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 U trecht D en H ague R otterdam A m sterdam A ll2010/2011 A ll2011/2012 number/100,000 # slots nightshelter Sleeping rough
  • 19. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Are the homeless who are sleeping rough, part of the registered citizens of the city? 12% 36% 34% 25% 32% 27% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Utrecht Den Hague Rotterdam Amsterdam Total 2010/2011 Total 2011/12 Yes No, migrants (national or international)
  • 20. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Conclusion / limitations  Simple indicator of the number of homeless sleeping rough for comparison of urban areas.  Limitation: estimated number on an ‘average’ night.  Does the ratio of the nights spend in shelter / sleeping rough, reflects the true ratio….???  Both shelter + sleeping rough ≈ 43 /100,000 population  Sleeping rough varies ≈ 6 – 23 / 100,000 population  Only a minority of those ‘sleeping rough’ is considered as citizen of the city’s region.