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Social Action Models and Homeless Support Service Mapping for Some Major European Train Stations
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Social Action Models and Homeless Support Service Mapping for Some Major European Train Stations

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Presentation given by Carlo Carminucci, Italy, at a FEANTSA Research Conference on "Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe", Pisa, Italy, 2011

Presentation given by Carlo Carminucci, Italy, at a FEANTSA Research Conference on "Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe", Pisa, Italy, 2011

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  • Introduction FEANTSA Information from FEANTSA’s members Specific look at some countries (not IE and UK)
  • Introduction FEANTSA Information from FEANTSA’s members Specific look at some countries (not IE and UK)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Social Action Models AndHomeless Support Service Mapping For Some Major European Train Stations Carlo Carminucci, Isfort Interdisciplinary Center Sciences EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE for peace’ Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe Pisa, 16th September 2011
    • 2. Contents The HOPE project: an overview The research process and the methodological approach The network of social organizations: a brief description and comparative analysis Emerging common issues EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 3. Contents The HOPE project: an overview The research process and the methodological approach The network of social organizations: a brief description and comparative analysis Emerging common issues EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 4. The global framework (1) The “HOPE in stations” (Homeless People in European train stations) project aims at improving the organization of the service provided to homeless people in and around railway stations. The global objective is to experiment train stations as places for organized services towards homeless people:  by setting up a reference authority in the railway stations of the project, in charge of the coordination between all interventions towards itinerant people in the train stations  by exchanging best practices and comparing different types of organizations among partners  by developing a shared core of knowledge on wandering people;  and ultimately by developing a consensus among the partners about what should be done on the local, national and European level to solve the problems of homeless people EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 5. The global framework (2)The assumptions of the HOPE project to be tested are thefollowing: the difficulties that itinerant people must face imply theintervention of various organizations: publics services (health,employment, housing….), social organizations (NGOs) and railwaycompanies the quality of the collaboration between very diverse stakeholdersin a determined place (here a train station) can be an importantfactor in the capacity of a homeless person to get one solution tohis/her very need therefore, the partners of the project should be of three types: EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change inrailway companies, public authorities and social organizations Europe
    • 6. The global framework (3)Consequently, the partnership of the HOPE project has beenformed by the following subjects: 3 active national project teams (7 active members): France (ANSA- Agence nouvelle des Solidarité s actives, coordinator of the project,SNCF), Belgium (Secretary of State for social integration andpoverty, SNCB-Holding, La Strada) and Italy (Ferrovie dello Stato,Europe Consulting)2 partners with an intermediate status: Germany (Bahnhofsmission)and Luxembourg (CFL)2 associated national project teams: Poland (Polskie KolejePantswò we) and Spain (Fundaciò n de los ferrocarriles espa ň oles) 2 research centres (in charge of the evaluation): Centre for socialinclusion, ZSI (Vienna) and ISFORT (Rome) 1 European representation: FEANTSA EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 7. The global framework (3) A European-level partnership 3 Partner countries 2 Partner countries with an intermediate status 2 associated countries Global duration of the project 2 years (January 2010- December 2011) Public fundings European Commission (mostly), Department for Social Cohesion (France), High Commissioner for active inclusion against poverty (France) , Secretary of state for social integration and poverty (Belgium) EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 8. The social mappingFig. 1 Global Framework of the HOPE in stations Project Socio-political Analys is & Social mapping J . Da m on & IS F OR T (via na tiona l re s e a rc he rs ) Railway Public NGOs companies authorities National project team The reference authority Evaluation of the impact ZS I (v ia n a tiona l re s e a rc he rs )  Source: ANSA EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 9. Contents The HOPE project: an overview The research process and the methodological approach The network of social organizations: a brief description and comparative analysis Emerging common issues EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 10. The objectives of the social mapping  The main objective of the social mapping is to draw a quantitative and qualitative map of the social organisations that provide support and assistance services to the homeless in the railway station or in the area around the station In more general terms, the social mapping should describe, for each station, the profile of a model that can be applied for intervention (assuming that there is one!) in situations involving social exclusion, focussing attention on the homeless and highlighting the strong and weak points of the model in question EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 11. The railway stations involvedThe survey concerned the railway stations in five Europeancapitals partner of the HOPE project: the 3 active partners –France, Italy and Belgium – and the 2 partners with anintermediate status – Germany and Luxembourg.The involved railway stations are the following: Paris, Gare du Nord (including the nearby Gare de l’Est) Rome, Termini Station Brussels, Central Station Berlin, Zoo Station Luxembourg (main Station) EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 12. Rome Termini Station: key figures Located in the city center - I Municipality After the refurbishment of 1999 the RTS increase its role as “city station” Daily attendance of about 600000 people The most important interchange of urban and metropolitan transport The only quantitative data available on the presence of homelessness are those provided by the Help Center through its monthly monitoring report Total average Station Platform March 115 21 April 90 26 May 88 21 June 92 30 July 48 24 August EUROPEAN 40 RESEARCH CONFERENCE 26 Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 13. Paris Gare du Nord (and Gare de l’Est): key figure > 800000 passengers per day, this means that is one of the most important rail junction in the world Homeless at and near the station  Permanent homeless in the station: >20  Homeless that pass regularly through in station : 150-200  Homeless around the station and on the whole in the Xè me arrondissement: 600-800 depending on season EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 14. Brussels Central Station: key figures A central railway station strictly connected to the other railway stations (especially North and South) 140000 passengers per day Homeless presence: a survey carried out by La Strada (nov 2008) N° de zone femme homme Non précisé Enfant <18 SommeNord 4 50 0 54Central 2 16 0 18Midi 12 59 0 71Centre Bourse Brouckère grand place 3 36 1 40Reste Pentagone 2 20 14 2 38En dehors du Pentagone (+Zaventem) 0 16 25 41 23 197 40 2 262 EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 15. Berlin Zoo Station: key figures 120000 passengers per day no longer a national and international railway junction, but the most important urban and regional junction (about 400 railway lines) a station with a strong symbolic value: a meeting place for drug dealing and street prostitution in the 70s and 80s it has been refurbished in the 90s, with an improvement of its security conditions About 400 meals distributed daily in the station for homeless who hang up there EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 16. Luxembourg Station: key figures it’s at the same time the national railway station and and an intenational railway station from 2006 the station was completely refurbished, with a particular extension of the commercial area About 200-250 homeless in the city About 60 homeless around the station EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 17. The research framework1. Description of the “supply side”: social services providers, showing a qualitative and quantitative map of their services and interventions with a specific focus on homeless personsMethods:• Semi-structured face-to-face interviews with service providers• Analysis of available documentation (users’ monitoring, level of the services provided etc)• Evaluations (to be drawn with the agencies’ staff)2. Description of the “demand side” (homeless people), identifying needs of homeless people at the train stationsMethods:• Participant observation• Semi-structured interviews with service providers and other stakeholders• Framework to collect data and information3. Stakeholders analysis (railway company staff, security staff shopkeepers/owners, administrative bodies): focus on relations with social services providers and homeless peopleMethod: semi-structured interviews EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 18. Two relevant methodological points1) The target group (“Homeless”)A person is said to be “homeless” if during the month before the survey he/sheexperienced one of the following situations:sleeping in an emergency or transitional shelter/hostelsleeping in a place not initially intended for living (streets, parks, railways,cellars, squats, etc.)and at the day of the survey is not an owner, occupier or tenant of a private,independent dwelling2) The social organisations (“Core network”)The general criteria adopted to identify the core network of the socialorganisations which are relevant for the purposes of the survey are thefollowing: the organisations that provide “core” services for the homeless and operate directly within the station or have a location inside the station or provide some type of information inside the station EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 19. The research activity performed: a summaryTable 1. Summary of the research activities performed Preparatory activities Research tasks Training and Observations of Social Pre- Stakeholders methodological participants organisations testing interviewed workshop performed surveyedRome X X X 10 6Termini StationParis 15 X (no) (no) 6Gare du Nord (+ 3 “institutional”)Berlin X (no) X 10 -Zoo StationBrussels X (no) (no) 8 7Central StationLuxembourg - (no) (no) 4 -Station1 Total 47 19 EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 20. Contents The HOPE project: an overview The research process and the methodological approach The network of social organizations: a brief description and comparative analysis Emerging common issues EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 21. The distribution of social organizationsby type, financial sources and staff profile(in brackets the number of Paris Brussels Berlin Luxembou Rome (10)organizations investigated) (12) (8) (10) rg (4) Charitable/informalType of 4 0 6 organizationsorganization Non- profit/Institutional 12 6 8 4 4 organizations Organizations 4 7 1 6 1 of religious affiliation Mostly subsidies 7 3 5 1 2Financial Mostly donations 6 1sources Both subsidies and 5 1 2 9 2 donations Only volunteers 2 6 1 Only employees 4 1 6 6 3Staffprofile Both volunteers and 6 3 1 4 1 employees EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 22. The distribution of social organizations by type of services provided * Paris (12) Rome (10) Brussels (8) Berlin (10)Listening and identifying homeless’ needs 9 4 8 10Distribution of meals 6 7 3 7 (+3)Ddistribution of blankets 3 3 5 4 (+4)Distribution of clothes 2 3 4 7 (+3)Temporary shelter to sleep and wash 2 3 2 3 (+6)Permanent night shelter 1 1 (+2) 2 (+7)Canteen 1 1 (+1) 3 2 (+7)Medical assistance and infirmary 2 3 (+1) 6 (+1) 3 (+7)Psychological assistance 3 1 4 10Support/guidance for social inclusion 7 2 (+4) 6 10Support / guidance to get a house 2 1 (+1) 5 (+3) 4 (+6)Support / guidance to get a job 6 1 (+1) 2 (+3) 1 (+2)General legal assistance 3 1 (+2) 1 (+3) 2 (+8)Special services for drug/alcohol addicts/mental illness 1 1 4 (+3) 1 (+9)Special services for specific sub-populations 7 5 3 (+7)Other (access to internbet, phone, post address, safe ? 2 4 5 (+5)deposit, public relations etc) *In brackets if the service is indirect or it’s only orientation EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 23. The “Italian model”: Help Centers NationalNetwork (1) EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 24. The “Italian model”: Help Centers NationalNetwork (2) EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 25. Contents The HOPE project: an overview The research process and the methodological approach The network of social organizations : a brief description and comparative analysis Emerging common issues EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 26. About the beneficiaries of the services… Main new (and old?) needsRelevant trends The housing problem isThe sharp increase in crucialforeigners (andirregular) An increasing need for medical careMore residents whohave suddenly become An increasing need for socialpoor inclusionThe age is lowering The access to the social service for illegalMental health problems immigrants (in Berlin thisare much more frequent problem is very complex) EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 27. Key issues concerning of the social service network (1) The effectiveness of the work of social organizations, 1 as well as the overcoming of the shortage of certain services, depends on citizen welfare system... ….. but also depends on the choice of the organizations themselves, 2 such as the long-term work on the individual person …and depends on the integration with the set of existing services in the city3…and depends on the integration with the set of existing services in the city on the ability to work collaboratively , on doing more training EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 28. Key issues concerning of the social service network (2) Besides, shouldnt miss some attention4 to the political commitment and to the promotion of voluntary work Railway companies are doing much (although not everywhere5 in the same way), but there are still uncertainties about their real intentions; and stakeholders in general appear still little convinced of the validity of the commitment to solidarity in the stations EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe
    • 29. Social Action Models AndHomeless Support Service MappingTHANKS FOR YOU ATTENTION!THANKS FOR YOU ATTENTION! For Some Major European Train Stations Carlo Carminucci, Isfort EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Homelessness, Migration and Demographic Change in Europe