Context and concept: Gender & Sex, Socialization Dr. Sultan Muhammad Razzak Consultant, GNSP UNIT Gender, NGO and Stakeholders Participation Unit (GNSP) Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh Ministry of Health and Family Welfare 14/2 Topkhana Road (5th level), Dhaka 1000.
Situation Framework Milieu Perspective Environment
The word gender comes from the Middle English gendre The use of gender to refer to masculinity and femininity as types is attested throughout the history of Modern English (from about the 14th century).
According to Aristotle, the Greek philosopher Protagoras used the terms "masculine", "feminine", and "neuter" to classify nouns, introducing the concept of grammatical gender.
Gender refers to the differences between men and women. Encyclopædia Britannica notes that gender identity is "an individual's self-conception as being male or female, as distinguished from actual biological sex.
Refers to the social differences & relations between men And women. A person’s gender is learned through socialization and is heavily influenced by the culture of the society concerned.
-is socially constructed and is therefore learned and can Be changed;
-Differs and varies within and across cultures over time;
-results in different roles, responsibilities, opportunities, needs & constraints for women, men, boys & girls
The objective for governments and actors was to promote ‘an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a gender perspective in all policies and programmes. Thus, before decisions are taken, an analysis is made of the efforts on women and men respectively (UN, 1995: 116)
The process through which the individual learns and accepts roles is called socialization. Socialization works by encouraging wanted and discouraging unwanted behavior. These sanctions by agencies of socialization such as the family, schools, and the communication medium make it clear to the child what behavioral norm the child is expected to follow. The examples of the child's parents, siblings and teachers are typically followed. Mostly, accepted behavior is not produced by outright reforming coercion from an accepted social system. In some other cases, various forms of coercion have been used to acquire a desired response or function.