0
Frédéric Baudron, Bruno Gérard, John Blackwell, Rajiv Pradhan,
Siobhan Kelly, Moti Jaleta, Saidi Mkomwa, Pascal Kaumbutho,...
The Need for Resource Use
Efficiency in SSA
Emphasis on Seeds, Nutrients
& Water
Farm Power: the Forgotten
Resource?
0
40
80
120
160
Densityoftractors
(numberper100km2)
India
Kenya
Tanzania
Zimbabwe
Declining Farm Power in SSA
0
0.5
1
1.5
...
Labour Constraints & Drudgery
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
EstimatedHIV/AIDSprevalence
ofadultsaged15-49(%)...
Addressing the Issue of
Declining Farm Power
Decreasing power demand:
Conservation Aggriculture
Increasing power supply:
M...
Power
demand
4WT,
2WT
Animal
traction
Manual
systems
e.g.
Western
Kenya
e.g.
Ethiopia, Zi
mbabwe
e.g.
India, Bangl
adeshDe...
Mechanizing CA in SIMLESA
Lack of appropriate implements is a major barrier to the
adoption of CA (Hobbs, 2007; Giller et ...
CA-2WTs Synergies
The suppression of inversion tillage reduces power
requirements by 50%, allowing for the use of smaller ...
CA with a 2WT
Other Operations for Profitability
Importance of Transport
(from FAO, 2009)
Gender Implications
A New Look at Mechanization:
the Case of Bangladesh
 80% of land preparation is
mechanized
 1988: removal of duties, sal...
Social and Economic Impacts
(after Adam et al., 2003)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
2WT
owners
Hired
drivers
Mechanics Diesel
shops
...
The Business Model Approach
 Utilizing private sector service
providers to support market
systems
 Services (e.g.
inform...
2WTs &
ancillary
equipment
Smallholder
farmers
Direct seeding /
Transporting /
Threshing/
Shelling
Services
SUPPLY DEMAND
...
Importer Manufacturer
Ethiopia
Agricultural Equipment &
Technical Service Share
Company
Agricultural Equipment &
Technical...
On-farm
evaluation of best
bet technologies
On-station
component
technology trials
①
Mechanics
&
workshops
Credits &
insur...
Projected Adoption Pathway
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
0 5 10
Projectednumberofrural
entrepreneurs
Year
0
50
...
Conclusion: Why Should it Work
This Time?
 Supporting infrastructure (e.g.
repair services, replacement
parts, fuel and l...
Thank you!
Farm mechanization & Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Intensification
Farm mechanization & Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Intensification
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Farm mechanization & Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Intensification

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Transcript of "Farm mechanization & Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Intensification"

  1. 1. Frédéric Baudron, Bruno Gérard, John Blackwell, Rajiv Pradhan, Siobhan Kelly, Moti Jaleta, Saidi Mkomwa, Pascal Kaumbutho, Wilfried Mariki, Girma Moges, Raymond Nazare Farm Power & Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Intensification
  2. 2. The Need for Resource Use Efficiency in SSA
  3. 3. Emphasis on Seeds, Nutrients & Water
  4. 4. Farm Power: the Forgotten Resource?
  5. 5. 0 40 80 120 160 Densityoftractors (numberper100km2) India Kenya Tanzania Zimbabwe Declining Farm Power in SSA 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Densityofcattle andbuffaloes (headsperha) 0 2 4 6 8 10 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Populationdensity (numberofpersons perhaofarableland)
  6. 6. Labour Constraints & Drudgery 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 EstimatedHIV/AIDSprevalence ofadultsaged15-49(%) Kenya Tanzania Zimbabwe 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Female-headedhouseholds(%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 Urbanization(%annualgrowth)
  7. 7. Addressing the Issue of Declining Farm Power Decreasing power demand: Conservation Aggriculture Increasing power supply: Mechanization
  8. 8. Power demand 4WT, 2WT Animal traction Manual systems e.g. Western Kenya e.g. Ethiopia, Zi mbabwe e.g. India, Bangl adeshDesirable space CA systems Conventionnaly-tilled systems Powersupply
  9. 9. Mechanizing CA in SIMLESA Lack of appropriate implements is a major barrier to the adoption of CA (Hobbs, 2007; Giller et al., 2009; Johansen et al., 2012) ???
  10. 10. CA-2WTs Synergies The suppression of inversion tillage reduces power requirements by 50%, allowing for the use of smaller and cheaper sources of power
  11. 11. CA with a 2WT
  12. 12. Other Operations for Profitability
  13. 13. Importance of Transport (from FAO, 2009)
  14. 14. Gender Implications
  15. 15. A New Look at Mechanization: the Case of Bangladesh  80% of land preparation is mechanized  1988: removal of duties, sale taxes, standardization restriction  350,000 2WTs (vs. 15,000 4WTs)  Rural entrepreneurs  Only 1 in 30 farmers owned a tractor  Equity: even the poorest access 2WTs services Importer Retailer 2WT owner Contract farmer Farmer Mechanic Driver Spare parts’ provider Diesel and oil provider 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1988 1989 1990 1992 1994 1998 2003 Numberof2WTsin Bangladesh(thousands)
  16. 16. Social and Economic Impacts (after Adam et al., 2003) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 2WT owners Hired drivers Mechanics Diesel shops Spare parts shops 1990 2003 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Rice and wheat milling Rice parboiling Oil seeds crushing mill Small Medium Large 2WT owners 2WT users
  17. 17. The Business Model Approach  Utilizing private sector service providers to support market systems  Services (e.g. information, training, output aggregation, access to dealers and traders) embedded in the price of the product  The case of the treadle pump (1.5 million units distributed in Bangladesh)  Linkage to output market (increase of purchasing power)  Promotion (branding),  Capacity-building of private service providers (manufacturers, installers).
  18. 18. 2WTs & ancillary equipment Smallholder farmers Direct seeding / Transporting / Threshing/ Shelling Services SUPPLY DEMAND SUPPORTING FUNCTIONS Finance Information Promotion Knowledge & Skills Coordination Government policy / subsidy REGULATORY FUNCTIONS Regulations on machinary imports Informal rules / norms Standards
  19. 19. Importer Manufacturer Ethiopia Agricultural Equipment & Technical Service Share Company Agricultural Equipment & Technical Service Share Company; Amio Engineering PVT Kenya Sheik Ali Traders Ndume Tanzania Highland Estate Intermech Engineering; Nandra Zimbabwe Fiver Motors (PVT) Grownet Stengthening, not Creating, Market for 2WT-based services
  20. 20. On-farm evaluation of best bet technologies On-station component technology trials ① Mechanics & workshops Credits & insurance institutions ② Marketsandpolicyoptions ③ Best bet 2WT- based technologies Refined 2WT- based technologies Importers & manufacturers Service providers Smallholders Knowledge Platform ④ Experience from Africa, South Asia & Australia Mentoring Platform
  21. 21. Projected Adoption Pathway 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0 5 10 Projectednumberofrural entrepreneurs Year 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 5 10 Projectednumberoffarmhouseholds benefiting(thousand) Year From 2WT-based CA From 2WT-based threshing, shelling and transporting
  22. 22. Conclusion: Why Should it Work This Time?  Supporting infrastructure (e.g. repair services, replacement parts, fuel and lubricants) has developed  Agriculture is SSA has become more commercially-oriented  Past focus on 4WTs: inappropriate for small and fragmented fields, and too costly for African smallholders  Past public sector focus: inefficient and uneconomic government-run tractor hire schemes 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Motorcyclesregisteredin Kenya(thousand) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 2003 2005 2007 2009 Borrowersfrom commercialbanks(per thousandadults) Kenya Tanzania 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 Valueofagriculture (currentUSD) Ethiopia Kenya Tanzania
  23. 23. Thank you!
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