Farm mechanization & Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Intensification
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Farm mechanization & Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Intensification

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Farm mechanization & Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Intensification Farm mechanization & Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Intensification Presentation Transcript

  • Frédéric Baudron, Bruno Gérard, John Blackwell, Rajiv Pradhan, Siobhan Kelly, Moti Jaleta, Saidi Mkomwa, Pascal Kaumbutho, Wilfried Mariki, Girma Moges, Raymond Nazare Farm Power & Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Intensification
  • The Need for Resource Use Efficiency in SSA
  • Emphasis on Seeds, Nutrients & Water
  • Farm Power: the Forgotten Resource?
  • 0 40 80 120 160 Densityoftractors (numberper100km2) India Kenya Tanzania Zimbabwe Declining Farm Power in SSA 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Densityofcattle andbuffaloes (headsperha) 0 2 4 6 8 10 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Populationdensity (numberofpersons perhaofarableland)
  • Labour Constraints & Drudgery 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 EstimatedHIV/AIDSprevalence ofadultsaged15-49(%) Kenya Tanzania Zimbabwe 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Female-headedhouseholds(%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 Urbanization(%annualgrowth)
  • Addressing the Issue of Declining Farm Power Decreasing power demand: Conservation Aggriculture Increasing power supply: Mechanization
  • Power demand 4WT, 2WT Animal traction Manual systems e.g. Western Kenya e.g. Ethiopia, Zi mbabwe e.g. India, Bangl adeshDesirable space CA systems Conventionnaly-tilled systems Powersupply
  • Mechanizing CA in SIMLESA Lack of appropriate implements is a major barrier to the adoption of CA (Hobbs, 2007; Giller et al., 2009; Johansen et al., 2012) ???
  • CA-2WTs Synergies The suppression of inversion tillage reduces power requirements by 50%, allowing for the use of smaller and cheaper sources of power
  • CA with a 2WT
  • Other Operations for Profitability
  • Importance of Transport (from FAO, 2009)
  • Gender Implications
  • A New Look at Mechanization: the Case of Bangladesh  80% of land preparation is mechanized  1988: removal of duties, sale taxes, standardization restriction  350,000 2WTs (vs. 15,000 4WTs)  Rural entrepreneurs  Only 1 in 30 farmers owned a tractor  Equity: even the poorest access 2WTs services Importer Retailer 2WT owner Contract farmer Farmer Mechanic Driver Spare parts’ provider Diesel and oil provider 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1988 1989 1990 1992 1994 1998 2003 Numberof2WTsin Bangladesh(thousands)
  • Social and Economic Impacts (after Adam et al., 2003) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 2WT owners Hired drivers Mechanics Diesel shops Spare parts shops 1990 2003 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Rice and wheat milling Rice parboiling Oil seeds crushing mill Small Medium Large 2WT owners 2WT users
  • The Business Model Approach  Utilizing private sector service providers to support market systems  Services (e.g. information, training, output aggregation, access to dealers and traders) embedded in the price of the product  The case of the treadle pump (1.5 million units distributed in Bangladesh)  Linkage to output market (increase of purchasing power)  Promotion (branding),  Capacity-building of private service providers (manufacturers, installers).
  • 2WTs & ancillary equipment Smallholder farmers Direct seeding / Transporting / Threshing/ Shelling Services SUPPLY DEMAND SUPPORTING FUNCTIONS Finance Information Promotion Knowledge & Skills Coordination Government policy / subsidy REGULATORY FUNCTIONS Regulations on machinary imports Informal rules / norms Standards
  • Importer Manufacturer Ethiopia Agricultural Equipment & Technical Service Share Company Agricultural Equipment & Technical Service Share Company; Amio Engineering PVT Kenya Sheik Ali Traders Ndume Tanzania Highland Estate Intermech Engineering; Nandra Zimbabwe Fiver Motors (PVT) Grownet Stengthening, not Creating, Market for 2WT-based services
  • On-farm evaluation of best bet technologies On-station component technology trials ① Mechanics & workshops Credits & insurance institutions ② Marketsandpolicyoptions ③ Best bet 2WT- based technologies Refined 2WT- based technologies Importers & manufacturers Service providers Smallholders Knowledge Platform ④ Experience from Africa, South Asia & Australia Mentoring Platform
  • Projected Adoption Pathway 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0 5 10 Projectednumberofrural entrepreneurs Year 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 5 10 Projectednumberoffarmhouseholds benefiting(thousand) Year From 2WT-based CA From 2WT-based threshing, shelling and transporting
  • Conclusion: Why Should it Work This Time?  Supporting infrastructure (e.g. repair services, replacement parts, fuel and lubricants) has developed  Agriculture is SSA has become more commercially-oriented  Past focus on 4WTs: inappropriate for small and fragmented fields, and too costly for African smallholders  Past public sector focus: inefficient and uneconomic government-run tractor hire schemes 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Motorcyclesregisteredin Kenya(thousand) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 2003 2005 2007 2009 Borrowersfrom commercialbanks(per thousandadults) Kenya Tanzania 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 Valueofagriculture (currentUSD) Ethiopia Kenya Tanzania
  • Thank you!