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«Research services at the Motion Picture, Video and Recorded Sound Division of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA): enhancing access and outreach», Carol Swain
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«Research services at the Motion Picture, Video and Recorded Sound Division of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA): enhancing access and outreach», Carol Swain


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Presentació corresponent a la conferència «Research services at the Motion Picture, Video and Recorded Sound Division of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA): enhancing access and …

Presentació corresponent a la conferència «Research services at the Motion Picture, Video and Recorded Sound Division of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA): enhancing access and outreach», a càrrec de Carol Swain, arxivera de referència a la NARA. La conferència va tenir lloc a la Facultat de Biblioteconomia i Documentació de la Universitat de Barcelona el 15 de novembre de 2011.

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  • 1. Panoramic view of the Barcelona Exposition Spain. 1929Records of the Bureau of Foreign and DomesticCommerce (151-FC-106-67)“Research Services at the Motion Picture, Video and Recorded SoundDivision of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)Enhancing Access and Outreach”Carol SwainNational Archives and Records AdministrationResearch Services-DCMotion Picture, Video and Recorded
  • 2. U.S. National Archives and RecordsAdministration (NARA)  NARA is the independent agency of the United States Government responsible for acquiring, securing, preserving, and making accessible the permanently valuable, noncurrent records generated by, accumulated by or donated to the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Branches of the United States federal government.
  • 3. The documents in our care belong to the citizens of the United States. Accessibility to the documents that record the rights and entitlements of individuals, and the actions of government agencies and officials is a cornerstone of our democracy. Departure Statement of Wong Kim Ark, 11/05/1894ARC Identifier 2641490Record Group 21Item from Record Group 21: Records of District Courts of the United States, 1685 – 2004File Unit: In the matter of Wong Kim Ark for a writ of habeas corpus, 1889 - 1931
  • 4. “Charters of Freedom” •The Declaration of Independence •The Constitution • The Bill of Rights The Constitution of the United States, compiled 09/17/1787 - 09/17/1787 Record Group 11 ARC Identifier: 1667751 MLR Number A-1 1
  • 5. Family History and GenealogyImmigration Records Passenger Arrival Manifest S.S. Carpathia arrived at the Port of New York, April 18, 1912.
  • 6. Photograph of Immigrants Outsidea Building on Ellis IslandARC ID 595650/Local ID 90-G-125-9Record Group 90: Records ofthe Public Health Service, 1794 -1990
  • 7. “Children of Barcelona” March 22, 1950New York Times Photos. Photos Henry RiesRG 306-NT- Box 1020F
  • 8. Records date from the 18th century to the 21st centuryEngrossed Declaration of Independence, 08/02/1776 - Hurricane Katrina] New Orleans, LA, September 19, 2005 -- A08/02/1776 FEMA Urban Search and Rescue dog takes a break by hisNational Archives Identifier:1419123 handlers muddy shoe after searching in neighborhoods impactedRecord Group 360: Records of the Continental and by Hurricane Katrina.Confederation Congresses and the Constitutional National Archives Identifier:5692191Convention, 1765 - 1821 Local Identifier:311-MAD-17633
  • 9. ARC Identifier 522890Local Identifier 86-WWT-85-35Record Group 86, Records of theWomen’s Bureau“Line up of some women welders, including the women’s weldingchampion of Ingalls Shipbuilding Corp., Pascagoula, MS”, 1943
  • 10. Grand Jury TestimonyPresident Richard Nixon 23-24 June, 1975 Richard M. Nixon press conference releasing the transcripts of the White House Tapes., 04/29/1974 ARC Identifier: 194576 (Richard Nixon Library, Yorba Linda, CA)
  • 11. “Democracy Starts Here”
  • 12. NARA-A Brief History M.B. Brady, photographer, ca. 1860 - ca. 1865 ARC Identifier 525437 / Local Identifier 111-B-1229 Item from Record Group 111: Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer, 1860 - 1985
  • 13. NARA-A Brief History
  • 14. NARA-A Brief History A workman stands between the columns during the construction of the National Archives Building in 1934. (64-NAC-207)
  • 15. NARA-A Brief History
  • 16. NARA-A Brief History
  • 17. NARA-A Brief History
  • 18. NARA-A Brief HistoryStorage of IBM record cards at the Federal records center in Alexandria, Virginia, November 1959.
  • 19. Archives I Washington, D.C.
  • 20. Archives II College Park, Maryland
  • 21. NARA also administers 13 PresidentialLibraries and 22 regional archives facilitiesacross the United States.
  • 22. Federal Records Center  17 Federal Records Centers.  Provides storage for both temporary and permanent records of all of the federal government agencies.  Records come from federal ofices around the country and around the world-even from outer space.
  • 23. Scope of Records Our holdings contain over 13 billion items and documents, covering well over 3,000,000 cubic feet. Of course this number grows considerably every year, as we acquire more physical holdings as well as an increasing number of electronic and “born digital” records. Even so, of all documents and materials created in the course of business conducted by the United States Federal government, which of course is considerable, only 1%-3% is so important for legal or historical reasons that they are kept by us forever.
  • 24. What Kind of Records Does NARA Hold?Our records can consist of basically anyform of information captured in a physical,and now, digital form.  Documents  Maps  Artifacts  Drawings  Printed matter  Photographs  Motion picture films  Video recordings  Sound recordings  Electronic records
  • 25. Where Records are StoredLocations in the United States  Large portion of records are housed at Archives I and Archives II in the Washington, D.C. area.  25 % are housed at regional archives, records centers, and Presidential Libraries.  Repositories that, by special agreement with the Archivist of the United States, are affiliated participants in the federal archival network.
  • 26. Records of the United StatesFederal GovernmentThree Branches of Government in U.S. The Executive Branch The Legislative Branch The Judicial Branch.
  • 27. The Executive Branch President, the Vice President, his or her Cabinet officials and advisors. Records of the President and his immediate staff and advisors are held by the Presidential Libraries. All Presidential administrations since President Herbert Hoover have a Presidential Library, which are administered by NARA. Presidential museums, run independently from NARA but often housed on the same grounds, have exhibits relating to Presidential administrations and often host public programs. The Executive Branch also consists of Executive Departments including the Department of State, the Department of Defense, and the Department of Commerce and independent agencies, like NARA.
  • 28. Legislative Branch Consists of the United States Congress- the United States House of Representative and the United States Senate. NARA’s Center for Legislative Archives holds the Legislative Records of committee hearings and House and Senate floor proceedings but the papers of the individual Representatives and Senators are considered private and not public records. The Library of Congress and the Government Printing Office are both part of the Legislative Branch of Government.
  • 29. The Judicial Branch The Judicial Branch consists of the highest court in the land, the US Supreme Court, which decides on constitutional issues. The Judicial Branch also includes Federal District courts and other courts with a Federal focus, which are located throughout the United States and records from these courts are held by the NARA regional archives in which the court cases where heard.
  • 30. Collections and Donated Materials NARA also has donated materials or collections, which have been given to NARA by corporations, such as the Ford Motor Company and Universal Pictures and non- profit groups such as the American Red Cross, and by private citizens. Many of our donated collections consist of photographs, motion pictures, and sound recordings.
  • 31. The Library of Congress and theSmithsonian Institution People often think we basically hold everything, and while we certainly have a lot of material, there are many other institutions that hold material of interest to those researching historical, social and cultural topics. Two significant cultural heritage institutions, with which we are sometimes confused, are also located in Washington, D.C. These are the Library of Congress and the Smithsonian Institution.
  • 32. The Library of Congress The Library of Congress is a legislative library and the major research arm of the U.S. Congress. Serves as the copyright agency of the United States A center for scholarship that collects research materials in many media and in most subjects from throughout the world, and is the worlds largest repository of maps, atlases, printed and recorded music, motion pictures, and television programs. They have a terrific web site, with a number of wonderful digital collections.
  • 33. The Smithsonian Institution The national museum of the United States. A center for research. Sixteen museums and galleries. National Zoo. Research Centers. Archives Center.
  • 34. Question ? What are some of the main differences between conducting research in an archive and a library, and how would you explain that difference to researchers? Because this is the sort of question I get all the time and I would like your help in answering it.
  • 35. Who We Are and What We Do  3,000 employees nationwide:  Archivists  Specialists  Technicians  History  Information Technology  Library Science  Preservation Conservation
  • 36. Archivist of the United States (AOTUS)!/dferriero The current Archivist of the United States, who is appointed by the President, and confirmed by Congress, is David Ferriero, who has been at NARA since 2009. He is the first professional librarian to hold the position.
  • 37. Appraisal, Processing, Description
  • 38. Reference Services
  • 39. Records Management  Record Managers work with Federal agencies to ensure that records are managed properly before, during and after they are sent to NARA.  Ensures compliance with legally mandated records schedules
  • 40. Office of the Federal Register  Archivist considers the recommendations of NARA staff, and seeks and considers the views expressed by originating agencies and the public.  There is a public comment period for proposed records schedules via the Federal Register, the “newspaper” of the U.S. federal government.
  • 41. Conservation and Preservation  Conservationists perform activities which contribute to the prolonged usable life of records in their original format.  Preservation specialists work to prolong the usable life of archival records.  Digitization is an important part of these efforts.
  • 42. Conservation and Preservation
  • 43. Conservation and Preservation
  • 44. Magna Carta Conservation Treatment
  • 45.  Questions?
  • 46. Aims, Missions, Strategic Plan The Strategic Plan of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) 2006-2016, “Preserving the Past to Protect the Future” Our Mission Statement  Our Vision Statement The National Archives and Records  As the nation’s record keeper, it is our Administration serves American vision that all Americans will understand democracy by safeguarding and the vital role records play in a preserving the records of our democracy, and their own personal Government, ensuring that the people stake in the National Archives. Our can discover, use, and learn from this holdings and diverse programs will be documentary heritage. We ensure available to more people than ever continuing access to the essential before through modern technology and documentation of the rights of American dynamic partnerships. The stories of citizens and the actions of their our nation and our people are told in government. We support democracy, the records and artifacts cared for in promote civic education, and facilitate NARA facilities around the country. We historical understanding of our national want all Americans to be inspired to experience. explore the records of their country.
  • 47. Funding NARA is funded through an annual appropriations budget, which is submitted by the President to Congress for approval. Our requested budget for Fiscal Year 2012 in US dollars is $422,501,000 or roughly €298,623,707. Outreach, education, and access activities are supported by a private, non-profit organization, the Foundation for the National Archives.
  • 48. Institutional Documents All of NARA’s reports, plans and budgets and other institutional documents are available on our web page: Information about the Foundation for the National Archives, including Annual Reports, can be found at Library of Congress Annual Report Smithsonian Institution Annual Report
  • 49. Organization of RecordsRecord GroupsGuide to Federal Records
  • 50. Bush Presidential Library
  • 51. Provenance of Records NARA defines as: The organization or individual that created, accumulated, and/or maintained the documentary material in the conduct of business prior to their legal transfer to NARA. Work to maintain original order.
  • 52. Record Group Clusters
  • 53. Spain at NARA- Civilian/Foreign Affairs RG 20-Office of the Special Advisor to the President on Foreign Trade RG 43- International Conferences, Commissions, and Expositions RG 59 - General Records of the Department of State RG 76- Boundary and Claims Commissions and Arbitrations RG 84- Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State RG 229- Office of Inter-American Affairs RG 286-Agency for International Development/RG 469 US. Foreign Assistance Agencies, 1948-1961 RG 306- U.S. Information Agency
  • 54. Spain at NARA- Defense /Related Activities RG 18-Army Air Forces (when they were part of the US Army) RG 19-Bureau of Ships (Navy) /RG 24-Bureau of Naval Personnel RG 80-General Records of the Department of the Navy, 1798-1947 RG 111-Office of the Chief Signal Officer (Army) RG 127-U.S. Marine Corps RG 165-War Department General and Special Staffs (Army) RG 208-Office of War Information RG 226 OSS-Office of Strategic Services / RG 263-Central Intelligence Agency RG 242-National Archives Collection of Foreign Records Seized RG 262-Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service RG 330-Office of the Secretary of Defense RG 342-U.S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations RG 428-General Records of the Department of the Navy RG 497-Africa-Middle East Theater of Operations (World War II)
  • 55. Spain at NARA- Other Sources Legislative Archives Presidential Libraries Donated Material Regional Archives State Archives Municipal Archives City Libraries-Special Collections/Local History Historical Societies
  • 56. Types of Records The “container” for a  24,734 years: record’s intellectual  Time it would take to content (the information it digitize and describe 13 contains). billion records (at the rate This can take many forms: of one minute per Textual Paper record). Photograph PDF File Film Artifacts
  • 57. Textual (primarily paper) Constitute the largest portion of NARAs holdings. Includes: Correspondence Registers Reports Forms Treaties Case files log books. From RG 84 Project Files Pertaining to American Economic Assistance Loans to Spain, 1950-1954
  • 58. Textual DocumentsTreaty with Spain, 08/14/1834ARC Identifier 1656528Item from Record Group 11: General Records of the United States Government, 1778 – 2006 Archives I Reference Section, Textual Archives Services Division, Washington, DC
  • 59. Non-textual RecordsMost non-textual materials are held at Archives II,College Park, Presidential Libraries and Regional Archives Non textual consists of: Artifacts Special Media: Electronic Records Special Media: Cartographic and Architectural Records Special Media: Photographs and Graphic Works Special Media: Motion Pictures, Video, and Recorded Sound
  • 60. Artifacts “Abraham Zapruder Camera” National Archives Identifier: 305171“Naturaliza Muerta, 1915" Diego Rivera Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Exhibits,(Still Life, 1915), - ca. 12/31/1915 compiled 11/30/1963 - 09/24/1964,ARC Identifier 192416 documenting the period ca. 1959 – 1964Artifacts from the National Archives and Records Record Group 272: Records of the PresidentsAdministration. Office of Presidential Libraries. Lyndon B. Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, 1954 - 1965Johnson Library and Museum. (04/01/1985 - )
  • 61. Special Media- Electronic Records  NARA first took custody of electronic records in 1968.  Some date World War II and reflect punch card technology in use since the 1880s.  Most of the electronic records in NARAs holdings have been created since the 1960s and the volume of these records grows much larger every year in the digital and social media age.
  • 62. ERA The Electronic Records Archives (ERA) PREMIS (PREservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies)  NARAs new system that allows Federal agencies to perform critical records management transactions with NARA online.  ERA will be the way Federal agencies send their electronic records to NARA in the future Archives for accessioning or pre-accessioning, and to submit electronic records for storage and preservation.  ERA has begun to use the PREMIS (PREservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies) digital preservation metadata standard, developed by the Library of Congress.
  • 63. Special MediaCartographic and Architectural WorksJohn Russell Pope’s Competition Proposal for a Monument to Abraham Lincoln , 1912ARC Identifier 2581315 / Local Identifier Inventory 16, E367, A-5Item from Record Group 42: Records of the Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks of theNational Capital, 1790 - 1992
  • 64. Drawing of Fan Moved by Mechanism: 11/27/1830 - 11/27/830ARC Identifier 594907 / Local Identifier Restored Patent 6263XItem from Record Group 241: Records of the Patent andTrademark Office, 1836 - 1978
  • 65. Special Media-Photographs and Graphic Works –”Still Pictures”  8 million photographs and graphic images.  1850s to the present.  All types of photographic mediums.  Most located at College Park and Presidential Libraries, but some may be interfiled with textual records.“We Can Do It!” Other Title: Rosie the RiveterARC Identifier 535413 / Local Identifier 179-WP-1563Record Group 179 Records of the War Production Board, 1918 - 1947
  • 66. Looking across lake toward mountains, "Evening, McDonald Lake, Glacier National Park,"Montana., 1933 - 1942 ARC Identifier 519861 / Local Identifier 79-AA-E06Item from Record Group 79: Records of the National Park Service, 1785 - 2006Ansel Adams
  • 67. “Documerica” Documentary photography project by the Environmental Protection Agency in the 1970s. More than 70 photographers. More than 15,000 from this project online in our catalog and on our Flickr page. “Hitchhiker with his dog, Tripper, on U.S. 66, 05/1972” ARC ID 549112 Local ID 412-DA-6626 RG 412 Environmental Protection Agency
  • 68. RG 306 U.S. Information Agency "LActualite A Barcelone..."La foule sur les ramn blas ecoute les nouvelles diffusees par leposte de Radio Catalunya.17/8/1936 HL 120  Record Group 306-NT, from the collection of the United States Information Agency (USIA). I  Donated to the United States Information Agency (USIA) by the Paris Bureau of the New York Times  Covers the time period from roughly 1900-1950.  Those with a stamp by the Times Paris Bureau are considered to be in the public domain, as per the deed of gift.
  • 69. Special Media-Motion Pictures One of the largest collections of non- commercial film in the world. Our collection includes: Over 500,000 cans of film. Over 400,000 audio recordings. Nearly 100,000 videotapes.
  • 70. Archival Set Preservation “P” copy. Reproduction or Intermediate “I” copy-film, video, now 2/4 k digital scan. Reference copy: Umatic, VHS, DVD,film, audio reel, cassette, CD, digital file.
  • 71. Special Media-Motion Pictures, Video andRecorded Sound  Color and black and white film, most 16 or 35mm.  Audio glass disc masters and other “legacy” or “obsolete” formats to digital audio tapes.  Videotapes range from Two-inch quad tapes to Digital Betacam and HD.
  • 72. Film StorageCold and cool storage are effective buffers against acetate decompositionand the resulting "vinegar syndrome". NARA stores black and white acetatepreservation copies at 35 degrees F, 18 C and 35% RH in an offsite,underground facility. NARA stores color film preservation copies onsite atArchives II at 25 degrees F, -4 C and 35% RH.
  • 73. Edisons greatest marvel--The Vitascope Date Created/Published: New York : Metropolitan Print Company, c1896. LC-DIG-ppmsca-05943 (digital file from original print, no. 1a, post-conservation)Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA
  • 74. “Carmencita, Spanish Dance,03/1894”  ARC Identifier 89052  Local Identifier 200.195  Item from Collection ARMAT: Thomas Armat Collection, 1894-ca. 1900.“Carmencita”, 1890William Merritt Chase (American, 1849–1916)Oil on canvasThe Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • 75. Special Media-Motion Pictures, Video andRecorded Sound
  • 76. Surrogate Records  In the Motion Picture Research Room, researchers only access surrogate, or reference copies of the original film, video or audio recording.
  • 77. “The Shoeboxes”
  • 78. Special Media-Motion Pictures, Video andRecorded Sound
  • 79. Finding Aids Catalog Cards Preservation Binders Vertical files/Subject Finding Aids Agency catalogs Production files Reference Reports
  • 80. Special Media-Motion Pictures, Video andRecorded Sound
  • 81. Special Media-Motion Pictures, Video andRecorded Sound
  • 82. Ford Motor Company Film Collection  Consists of about 3,400 films. “Ford Motor Iberica, Barcelona,  Document Ford Motor plant Spain, ca. 1948” activities in the United States and ARC Identifier 93385/ around the world. Local Identifier 200 FC-4256  Popular with researchers because Item from Collection FC: Ford there is also footage depicting Motor Company Collection, ca. scenes of everyday life starting at 1903-1954 the turn of the century through the This Ford Collection clip is late 1940s and early 1950s. preserved as a 35mm silent  Much of the original Ford material duplicate negative at NARA. was shot on nitrate film stock, This clip taken from a Umatic which produced a beautiful image, reference tape but was highly combustible.  Films from the Ford collection were transferred to acetate “safety” stock by the late 1970s.
  • 83. “Atoms for Peace Exhibit in Barcelona”  From the United States Information Agency  ARC Identifier 52034 (USIA).  Local Identifier 306.5820  This is a short film called “Atoms for  Item from Record Group Peace”, which was part of a President 306: Records of the U.S. Eisenhower-era program geared to the Information Agency, sharing of atomic technology for peaceful 1900-2003 purposes.  Part of the program’s outreach and educational efforts were a series of exhibits shown in seven countries. A special exhibit was prepared for the Valencia and Barcelona Trade Fairs.  Little documentation of film itself.
  • 84. How could you describe these items tomake them more accessible?Linked data in the catalog record?Wikipedia?Tagging?Other ideas?
  • 85. Access at NARA-“Opening the Vaults”  Anyone can use the Archives.  You do not have to register to search our catalog.  On site research-must be 14 years of age and present photo identification to obtain a Research Card.  You do not need to present credentials or a letter of recommendation to use the facilities.
  • 86. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)FOIA Reference Guide:  Access restrictions to records would involve those with classification or national security issues, which can be researched through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).
  • 87. Access and Outreach Online
  • 88. En Español
  • 89. Access to Our RecordsArchival Research Catalog (ARC)  More than 7 million items described on at least a collection or series level  Approximately 70% of our holdings. Most NARA records are described at the collection, series or folder level.  Digital items available in ARC.
  • 90. Motion Picture Division Level of Description varies Descriptions on item level with at least a titleVISIT OF PRESIDENT EISENHOWER TO SPAIN Franco: Spain, 1963Torrejon Air Force Base, Madrid, Spain, 12/1959 ARC Identifier 894486 / Local Identifier 263.3015ARC Identifier 83053 / Item from Record Group 263: Records of theLocal Identifier 428-NPC-27922 Central Intelligence Agency, 1894 - 2002Item from Record Group 428: General Recordsof the Department of the Navy, 1941 - 2004
  • 91. Online Public Access (OPA)  Online Public Access, or “OPA” prototype  “Federated” catalog  Pulls together all of our online informational resources into one interface, including our social media pages.  Will eventually replace ARC
  • 92. Social Metadata- “Tags”  Will“citizen archivists” to contribute “social metadata or “tags” to the catalog to enhance description
  • 93. Web site User Experience/ UXSteve Krug “Don’t Make Me Think”  NARA’s Web site and catalog:  Navigation?  Clearness of purpose?  Well organized?  Can a researcher find the information they are looking for?  Instructions/help is easy to find and use?
  • 94. Access Through Public Programs  Public programs at  Archives I  Archives II  Regional Archives  Presidential Libraries and Museums
  • 95. Access Through Public Programs  We also offer classes for the public on how to use our records, and other events such as lectures, panel discussions, book discussions, and film screenings.  Most are free of charge.  Lead by NARA staff- archivists, specialists, technicians and volunteers.
  • 96. Access Through Public Programs  Classes and educational workshops  Seminars  Special Events  Lectures  Films  Book discussions  Professional development training online and in person 
  • 97. NARA 2.0Social Media at NARA  Extend the reach of our records.  Promote transparency and open government.  Encourage engagement among staff and researchers.  “Go to where the users are”.  YouTube channel.  Pages on Flickr Commons.  Twitter , Facebook and iTunes downloads.
  • 98. YouTube Channel
  • 99. Flickr
  • 100. Flickr The Commons
  • 101. Blogs
  • 102. Wikipedia Commons
  • 103. Social Media Which of NARA’s social media tools would you use and why?
  • 104. Who Uses NARA-User Groups  Historians  Scholars  Writers  Biographers  Genealogists  Professional researchers  Employees of federal agencies
  • 105. Who Uses NARA-User Groups in MotionPictures  Filmmakers  Documentarians  Members of the media  Academic researchers  Writers  Professional researchers
  • 106. Who Uses NARA-User Groups  Professional researchers conduct research on an almost daily basis for various clients.  We hold regular meetings with Washington, DC-based researchers in order to hear concerns from them, as well as share information and update them on projects and initiatives.
  • 107. Who Uses NARA-User Groups  Genealogists or family historians use census records to learn peoples names, ages, and who lived where, and when. They check passenger arrival lists from boats that originated in Europe to prove when an immigrant landed in the United States. Genealogists also often look at military service records, as well as land, naturalization, and passport records, photographs and motion pictures.
  • 108. Who Uses NARA-User Groups  Educators frequently use the National Archives to develop primary-source, document-based lesson plans and to help bring history alive for their students.  Many college and doctoral candidate students use the archives for primary source research.
  • 109. Who Uses NARA-User Groups  Tourists and visitors to Washington and the Presidential libraries and museums.  View exhibits.  Attend Public Programs .
  • 110. Copyright and U.S. Government Works  U.S. Copyright Office  Part of the Library of Congress  Information online
  • 111. Definition of a Government Work
  • 112. Questions concerning copyright status are commonlyasked by Motion Picture researchers  Must caution that while a United States government work is in the public domain, an item may contain material under copyright or other intellectual property or proprietary restrictions.  Items acquired by an agency or donated to NARA may contain material under copyright or other intellectual property rights.  We are not lawyers, and cannot provide any legal advice, but we can help point researchers in the right direction to investigate copyright status themselves.
  • 113. Copyright Resources The United States Copyright Office The State of Recorded Sound Preservation in the United States: A National Legacy at Risk in the Digital Age National Recording Preservation Board Library of Congress Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States", by Cornell University. Columbia University Copyright Advisory Office
  • 114. Conservation and Preservation at NARA  Conservation activities at NARA contribute to the prolonged usable life of records in their original format. The Conservation Lab repairs and stabilizes textual records (un-bound papers, bound volumes, and cartographic items) and photographic images and provides custom housings for these records as needed.
  • 115. Preservation Preservation activities encompass the activities which prolong the usable life of archival records. Preservation activities are designed to minimize the physical and chemical deterioration of records and to prevent the loss of informational content.
  • 116. Preservation and Reformatting of Audio VisualRecords Preservation and reformatting activities are especially important with audio visual records, due to the constant evolution of the many technologies used to create, store and access, or playback, these records. Activities include: •Duplicating and high resolution scanning. •Reformatting of audio and video recordings in obsolete formats that cannot be used on currently-available playback equipment. These program activities result in the removal of fragile records from use, while still providing access to their informational content by capturing the information in a new format.
  • 117. Strategy for Digitizing Archival Materials forPublic Access, 2007-2016  Strategy One NARA will gather and make available on the web archival materials that we have already digitized in the course of performing our agency functions, but for one reason or another are not available online.  Strategy Two NARA will establish partnerships with organizations from a variety of sectors (private, public, non-profit, educational, Government) to digitize and make available holdings.  Strategy Three NARA will conduct digitizing projects on its own with materials that are not appropriate for partnerships.  Strategy Four NARA will pursue digitization of archival materials as part of its preservation reformatting approach.  Strategy Five To ensure that users everywhere can access all of our digitized records, we will continue to make our online catalog (currently the Archival Research Catalog, ARC) a hub for discovering NARAs digital images.
  • 118. Digitization Services Branch  Four reformatting labs plus a development team:  Photographic Imaging, Microfilm and Textual Preservation Lab.  Audio Preservation Lab.  Video Preservation Lab.  Motion Picture Preservation Lab.
  • 119. Digitization ServicesProducts and Services
  • 120. Federal Agencies Digitization GuidelinesInitiative (FADGI)
  • 121. National Digital Information Infrastructure andPreservation Program (NDIIPP)
  • 122. Reformatting of Audio Visual Materials
  • 123. Types of Decay-Film Mechanical Deformation in size and shape-shrinkage, cracks and tears, buckle, emulsion fogging Chemical Dye fading, silvering out Vinegar Syndrome Biological Mold, insects, animals
  • 124. Digital ReformattingSAMMA Project-Standard DefinitionVideotapes  Video is an at risk format,  Project Summary: since there have been so  Migrate reference many formats introduced collection of approximately over the years. 10,000 Umatic videotapes  Technology used to play to create digital files which them is increasingly more we can use to create difficult to maintain. reference DVDs as well as  Magnetic videotape, like upload digital copies to film and other mediums, their associated will degrade over time. descriptive catalog records.  Also reformatting Universal reference collection to DVD.
  • 125. Digital ReformattingSAMMA Project-Standard Definition Videotapes
  • 126. Digital ReformattingSAMMA Project-Standard DefinitionVideotapesThe machine being used to ingest and migrate these records is aSAMMA robotic system, which is also being used by the Library ofCongress Packard Audio Visual Conservation Center to reformat andpreserve their collection of Umatic videotapes.SAMMA captures uncompressed AVI files, which can be used toreformat for use on the web (we are currently using Windows Media(wmv.) files for this purpose.
  • 127. Digital ReformattingSAMMA Project-Standard DefinitionVideotapes EVACUATION OF REFUGEES DURING ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT, TEHERAN, IRAN, WHEELUS AB, LYBIA, MORON AB, SPAIN, 06/08/1967 - 06/11/1967 ARC Identifier 70628 / Local Identifier 342-USAF-43559 Item from Record Group 342: Records of U.S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations, 1900
  • 128. Challenges and Opportunities of DigitalTechnology for Audio Visual PreservationSome Challenges: Data storage and the Infrastructure needed to deliver files. Copyright. Volume of records. Digital Technologies are not yet the best method for “preserving” film. NARA still values film stocks as a carriers of information and as a long –term preservation format. Digital obsolescence. High resolution digital capture is slow. Film telecine is expensive.
  • 129. Challenges and Opportunities of DigitalTechnology for Audio Visual PreservationSome Opportunities Digital files allow us to reuse, remix and “mash up” the materials on multiple platforms. Researcher demand for digital transfers and access to digital files is increasing. Digital technology is a useful tool in “restoring” film. Digital intermediates and access copies minimize the risks associated with handling film elements. Unknown future of film stock; access to digital technologies may be more reliable in the future
  • 130. Additional Resources AMIA – Association of Moving Image Archivists Association of Recorded Sound Collections The Film Foundation Foundation of the American Institute for Conservation FIAF – International Federation of Film Archives The Home Film Preservation Guide Independent Media Arts Preservation National Film Preservation Board National Film Preservation Foundation
  • 131. Training of Archivists and Librarians atNARA and in the U.S. Background/degree in history of Library Science. NARA Archival and Specialist Development Programs. Professional Development Programs. Professional Membership organizations.
  • 132. Library and Information Science (LIS) Education Many archivists now have LIS degrees. LIS programs are Masters programs. Programs generally 12 courses/36 credits. Schools should be accredited by the American Library Association (ALA).
  • 133. "ALADirectory of Accredited Programs”American Library Association
  • 134. Professional Organizations The Society for American Archivists (SAA) Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA) Association for Recorded Sound Collections (ARSC) American Library Association (ALA) Special Libraries Association (SLA)
  • 135. MSLIS / MFA Digital Arts
  • 136. Project Chart-Digitizing Brooklyn History  Pratt LIS students work with the Brooklyn Museum, the Brooklyn Public Library and the Brooklyn Historical Society to digitize historical photographic collections of Brooklyn, New York.
  • 137. Digital Humanities LibrarianJohn Cotton Dana Library, Rutgers University Libraries(Academic Library) RESPONSIBILITIES: The Digital Humanities Librarian will provide support to faculty and  QUALIFICATIONS: Required: ALA-accredited students through the integration of digital Master’s degree in Library and Information resources, methodologies, technologies, and Science. Degree in a humanities discipline, or analytical tools with traditional resources and strong humanities reference experience. approaches to research and instruction in the Knowledge of the research and instructional humanities. needs of humanities faculty. Experience in an academic library environment, including The Digital Humanities Librarian will. Will also work reference and public services. Knowledge of with the other Dana librarians to advise teaching metadata schema (MARC, MODS, METS, EAD, faculty on the creation and curation of digital TEI, or Dublin Core) and library applications objects in a variety of image, audio, and video of emerging technologies. Good formats, fostering collaboration between communication and interpersonal skills. Skill scholars, technologists, and information in collaboration and teamwork in an academic specialists and will offer leadership in environment. Strong service orientation and identifying, understanding, evaluating, and understanding of user needs implementing emerging technologies based on their pedagogical, presentation, and research uses in the fields of visual and performing arts as well as writing and journalism and shepherd digital projects involving Dana and the Institute of Jazz Studies collections from inception to completion.
  • 138. Librarian II – Digital Information and Reports Liaison(Public Library) Bring your librarian skills and technical  Washington County Cooperative Library knowledge to this exciting position as Services , Hillsboro, OR a Librarian II – Digital Information and  (Public Library) Reports Liaison for the Washington County Cooperative Library Services. You will work with the technical services related aspects of the integrated library system (ILS) including activities ranging from those traditionally associated with technical services such as acquisitions, serials, cataloging and authority control to metadata creation with an emphasis on new formats, electronic resources and digital objects. Successful candidates will possess a Masters level education in Library Science from an accredited American Library Association program and a minimum of two years of recent and professional level library technical service experience.
  • 139. Digital Media Librarian / Archivist(Private Company)Splice Here, Minneapolis, MN Qualifications: This position will focus on the input, College degree in Library organization, archiving and retrieval of digit Science/Information Science, Computer Primary Responsibilities: Science or Information Technology is • Create and maintain a Client Media Asset required. Must be extremely organized and Management System. detail oriented and have the knowledge and • Ingest and process all media for input into ability to perform in all of the basic database the system. management skills of database • Clean Metadata and maintain data entry administration, web connectivity, physical standards to insure a stable, consistent and structure, overall architecture, and database secure database environment. analysis. Knowledge of CatDV and Prestor • Traffic media to and from client locations as software preferred. Customer service well as to and from client libraries. experience a plus. • Assist clients with exporting and transferring media from the MAM system. To apply, please send a resume to • Design storage strategies around backup and note Digital Media and recovery. Librarian in the subject line of your • Identify and initiate resolutions to user problems and concerns associated with email. No phone calls or drop-ins database server equipment (hardware and please. software). al media assets.
  • 140. Questions/comments? A few questions for you now: Please tell me a bit about your training? What is expected of you in the professional world? What types of opportunities or jobs will you pursue when you graduate?
  • 141. Contact InformationNATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATIONCarol Swain, Reference ArchivistResearch Services-DCMotion Pictures, Video and Recorded Sound DivisionT: 301.837.2920F: 301.837.3520Carol.Swain@nara.gov8601 Adelphi Road, Room 3360College Park, MD 20740-6001